International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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Volume 3- Issue 9, September 2014 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Onyechi, Pius C., Obuka Nnaemeka, S.P., Agbo, Cornelius O., Igwegbe, Chinenye A.

Abstract: In this work, a glass fibre reinforced composite laminates was developed for amour body application. Six samples of this composite laminates were formed with thicknesses of 28mm (Sample E), 24mm (Sample D), 20mm (Sample C), 16mm (Sample B), 12mm (Sample A), and 8mm (Sample F). These samples were targeted using two types of life bullets (Ogival and Conical nosed) moving at a velocity of 355m/s. Energy absorption capacity of these composite laminates was determined as a measure of area under the stress-strain curve through the application of the Simpson’s 1/3 rule. Sample E of the GFRP composite gave an optimum absorption energy capacity of 1.956 MJ after ballistic deformation (theoretical) which is greater than the kinetic energies of the conical projectile (456.676 J) and the ogival projectile (348.85 J) obtained from experimental analysis, energy absorption capacities of Samples A-D were also greater then these values. This indicates the ability of the developed composites (Samples A-E) to absorb the projectiles’ kinetic energy without perforation.

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Rahul S. Mehatre, Shailesh M. Dhomney, Devendra K. Sakhre

Abstract: The concept of discrete & numerical discrete element method (DEM) was studied for the effect of particle having circular/noncircular shapes for granular flow through the hoppers in the air media. Coal is here used as a granular material considering circular/non-circular shape and size for the computerized analysis. For this high-end mechanical engineering software was used as CATIA for 3D Modelling, ANSYS ICEM CFD for Meshing & E-DEM for Modelling of particles and Simulation of the whole process to obtain the numerical result data and to find dispersed particle displacement. The study of the effect of particle shape, size, and density on the discharge flow rate of giving airflow.

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Ngbede, S.O., Nwanguma, E.I., Ibekwe, H,N., Onyegbule, U.N., Okpara, S.C., Uwalaka, O.A.

ABSTRACT: Many studies have been carried out to examine the efficacy of botanicals but there is however paucity of information on the costs: benefit of their use compared to conventional insecticides. In this study use crude extracts of Allium sativum, Azadiracta indica, Occimum gratissimum and Moringa olifera leaves were compared with the synthetic insectice cypermethrin against insect pest of watermelon (Citrullus lunatus L) in a split plot fitted into randomize complete block design replicated three times with plot sizes of 3m x 3m. This was evaluated at the experimental farm of National Horticultural Research Institute, Mbato Sub-station, Okigwe, Imo State, Nigeria in 2012 and 2013. The cost of each treatment including material and labour were calculated and the revenue of each derived using the prevailing market yield value of watermelon. The cost: benefit ratios of sprayed treatments were derived by comparing the cost of each plant protection regime against the additional marekt value of the treatment yield above that obtained in the control treatment. The cost of cypermethrin used as plant protectant was lower compared to the cost of using the botanicals due to the high cost of the extractant used. The highest cost: benefit ratio of 1:12.6 and 1:13.2 were obtained for Cypermethrin followed by Allium sativum with a value of 1:11.2 and 1:11.1 in 2012 and 2013 respectively . However botanicals differed in their level of efficacy and cost: benefit but some are comparable to that from conventional insecticide use. The materials are easily sorted out from locally available plant materials and are safer to use.

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Y. Essatara, M. H. Benazzouz, A. Mazdar H. El Sayegh, A. Iken, L. Benslimane, Y. Nouini.

Abstracts: non-invasive Urothelial bladder tumors constitute a group with a common first-line conservative treatment and a high risk of recurrence, which requires systematic monitoring. We undertook this work in a retrospective descriptive study, including 40 patients having been treated in the urology department for A class T1G3 urothelial carcinoma.

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Ruby Raterta, Vincent Louie D. Cabelin, Grecebio Jonathan D. Alejandro

Abstract— This study aims to identify and authenticate selected medicinal plants commercially sold in Manila and assess the most effective DNA barcodes using three chloroplast markers (trnH-psbA, matK, rbcL) and a nuclear marker(ITS). Among the four evaluated markers, trnH-psbA was the most easily amplified followed by matK and ITS. The ITSmarker gave 100% sequencing success rate, followed by trnH-psbA and matK at 82% and 78%, respectively. In the BLAST analysis, matK proved to be the most successful and useful marker for identifying all samples up to the species level. For trnH-psbA, 7 out of 10 medicinal plants were identified to species level. Furthermore, the mean interspecific divergence computed using K2P revealed that matK had only 0.7% (0-1.6%),followed byITS and trnH-psbA with 0.11% (0-2.6%) and 0.16% (0-9.7%). In line with the BLAST result, matK can discriminate one species to another due to the minimal intraspecific divergence. In conclusion, matK and trnH-psbA are potential barcodes for identifying commercially sold medicinal plants where details of plant morphology are insufficient.

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Dr. Ragheed Fatehi Makki

Abstract: In this paper, experimental works is presented to investigate the behavior of reinforced concrete beams retrofitted by ferrocement to increase the strength of beams in both shear and flexure, ten reinforced concrete beams are casted in order to study different parameters such as shear reinforcement (stirrups), different diameters of wire mesh used in rehabilitation, two types of rehabilitation are used first (strengthening) and second (repairing) the beams are initially stressed to a different prefixed percentage of the ultimate load and finally mechanical method is used to fixed the wire mesh of ferrocement (using bolts) to eliminate the debonding of ferrocementand trying to reach the full maximum tensile strength of ferrocement. The experimental results indicated that the rehabilitation technique (strengthening and repairing) of R.C. beams by using ferrocement system is applicable and can increase the ultimate load from (69.8-175% in case of strengthening) and from (50.94-125% in case of repairing), also the test results for strengthening beams showed that the effect of diameter of ferrocement wire mesh (changing from 1.2 to 2.2mm) on the ultimate strength of R.C. beams will have an increase relation from {(95-175% without steel stirrups) and (69.8-126.4% with steel stirrups)}. Also for repairing beams the results state that the effect of diameter of ferrocement wire mesh (changing from 1.2 to 2.2mm) on the ultimate strength of R.C. beams will have an increase relation from {(67.5-125% without steel stirrups) and (50.94-84.9% with steel stirrups)}.

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Nguyen Phu Loc, Huynh Thanh Liem

Abstract: In grade 12 mathematics program in Vietnamese secondary schools, students have an opportunity to learn the concept “integral” and its applications. Thus, it helps them to know the practical significance of mathematics in general and calculus in particular. In addition, they also recognize that mathematics is a unified whole, the subjects of mathematics are consistent and mutually supportive. For example, thanks to integration one can find the formulas for calculating the area and volume of shapes that students have learned in Geometry, and can calculate the area and volume of shapes that it is very hard to find by geometrical tools. With such an importance of integral concept, the question is that: what are students’ restrictions on the application and perception towards concepts “integral” students? This paper presents some results relating to the above two questions.

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Muhammad Qaddafi, Wahid Wahab, Nursiah La Nafie, Paulina Taba

Abstract: The The research for alternative and innovative treatment techniques has focused attention on the use of double imprinted Nickel Cobalt as adsorbent of nickel (Ni2+) and Cobalt (Co2+). The experiments were done as batch processes. Batch kinetics and isotherm studies were carried out under varying experimental conditions of contact time, pH, Ni(II) and Co(II) ion concentration, and IR spectrum. Kinetic experiments revealed that adsorption was rapid and equilibrium was achieved in 180 min with pseudo second order models. The adsorption data fit well with the Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was 76.92 mg/g at pH 5 for Ni(II) and 29.41 mg/g at pH 5 for Co(II). The adsorption of Ni(II) and Co(II) was studied by FTIR spectrophotometry, which suggested that the presence of Ni(II) and Co(II) ions in the double imprinted adsorbent affected the bands corresponding to amine and hydroxyl.

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Jay Edneil C. Olivar, Rochelle Y. Brillantes, Rosario R. Rubite, Grecebio Jonathan D. Alejandro

Abstract: The genus Ficus L. (Moraceae) is known for its diverse morphology and habit as well as economical, ecological, and pharmaceutical importance. In this study, six Philippine Ficus species were utilized to determine the best barcoding loci among cpDNA (rbcL, trnH-psbA) and nrDNA (ITS) markers on the basis of universality, discriminatory power, and resolution of species. Both trnH-psbA and ITS showed 100% PCR success rate and 67% sequencing success, whereas rbcL exhibited 67% PCR success rate but 100% sequencing success. The trnH-psbA marker performed best in terms of discriminatory power, showing the highest variable informative site (71.37%) and the highest mean interspecific distance (48.32% ± 19.89%). ITS ranked next to trnH-psbA since it was able to generate 100% resolution of species and a comparable mean intraspecific distance score with trnH-psbA. Meanwhile, rbcL failed to resolve any species correctly; thus, it has a 0% resolution of species. We initially recommend trnH-psbA and ITS as potential DNA barcodes for molecular authentication of Ficus species.

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Nikhil Nandkumar

Abstract: Get an easy-to-understand, fun-to-learn insight into the fourth state of matter – Plasma, and learn how it is created and how it is different from the other three states. We further look into the principle behind the working of neon lights and Plasma TVs.

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Paul A.P Mamza, Emmanuel C. Ezeh, E.C. Gimba, David Ebuka Arthur.

ABSTRACT: This research work was aimed at comparing the properties of particleboards produced from sawdust with phenol formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde resins. The particleboards were produced using varied quantities of particle size 2mm. 30ml each of the resins which was prepared under same conditions, compression temperature of 1800C, pressure of 10tons, and pressing time of 15 minutes. The properties of the particleboards were tested and compared. The results showed that the particleboards produced with phenol formaldehyde had better properties compared to that of urea formaldehyde. And the property of the particleboards is a function of the percentage composition of the binder (resin) and the filler (sawdust).

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P. P. Chandrasekera, P. B. Hewavithana, S. Rosairo, M. H. M. N. Herath, D. M. R. D. Mirihella

Abstract: Germinal Matrix Haemorrhage (GMH) and Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL) are two common types of brain injuries seen in preterm neonates for which cerebral hypoxia and ischaemia are major contributory factors. The objective of this study was to determine the type and grade of GMH and PVL on cranial ultrasonography to predict the neuro-developmental outcome. This is a descriptive study. Two hundred and sixty four preterm neonates between 28-34 weeks of gestation with risk factors and clinical features of brain injuries admitted to Special Care Baby Unit (SBU), Teaching Hospital Peradeniya from January 2013 to December 2013 were included in the study. Neonates with congenital anomalies, traumatic birth injuries, recurrent hypoglycaemia and bleeding disorders were excluded. Cranial ultrasound scans were done by an experienced Medical Officer, Professor of Radiology and Consultant Radiologist using a dedicated neonatal head probe 4-10 MHz of Logic e portable ultrasound scanner. Measurements of the lesions and ventricles were documented. A series of ultrasound scans were done for all the neonates, within the first three days of life, on day 7 and thereafter once a week until one month of age. Clinical history of seizures, abnormal head growth (microcephaly or hydrocephalus) and developmental milestones were assessed and neurological examination was done monthly for all babies till the age of one year. Monthly ultrasound scans were done for neonates who had GMH and PVL. Informed written consent was obtained from the parents of the neonates. The results were analyzed by using SPSS version 14. GMH was seen in 76(75%) neonates. PVL was seen only in 11(11%) neonates. A combination of GMH and PVL was detected in 10(10%) neonates. All the neonates with Grade IV GMH succumbed. Among the live neonates 2 out of 3 with Grade III GMH had gross motor developmental delay and all the neonates with Grades 2 and 3 PVL had cerebral palsy. Neonates with Grades I and II GMH and Grade 1 PVL did not manifest any neurological defects till one year of age. When considering brain injuries of preterm neonates less severe brain injuries are more likely with Grades I and II GMH and Grade 1 PVL which have a good prognosis while severe brain injuries are more likely with Grades III and IV GMH and Grades 2 and 3 PVL which have poor outcomes such as neonatal deaths, cerebral palsy or gross motor developmental delay.

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Winnie Mandewo, Edward, E Dodge, Auxilia Chideme-Munodawafa, George Mandewo

Abstract: Introduction: World-wide, diabetes mellitus is increasing affecting millions of people and its related complications continue to be of great concern. Hence, the issue of non- adherence to treatment recommendations is featuring as the major problem to achieve optimal control and management of the disease. Non-adherence to diabetes treatment recommendations is usually associated with increases in HbA1c levels, hospitalization rates, disability and overall premature deaths. Background: Mutare Provincial Hospital is a referral and a teaching hospital in Manicaland Province of Zimbabwe. Study Purpose: This study was done to determine the factors associated with non-adherence to treatment recommendations among diabetic patients attending diabetic clinic Mutare Provincial Hospital, Zimbabwe from February-April 2012.Research Design: An unmatched 1:1 Case-Control study was conducted in order to collect data from 104 Cases and 104 Controls. A total of 208 participants and aged between 19 and 98 were recruited to participate in this study. The majority of the participants were females (58 males and 150 Females). Semi-structured questionnaire was employed to collect data from the study participants where face-to face interviews were administered to sixteen key informants. The majority of the participants, 78.3% (n=163) patients were on oral anti-diabetic regimens and 11.5 (n=24) were on insulin alone and10 (n=21) were on both insulin and oral antigens. Findings: The results from this study indicated that the prevalence of non-adherence to medication was 38.9%, diet43.3% and exercise 26%. Factors which were found to be significantly associated with non-adherence to treatment after multivariate analysis were: financial constraints (OR 7.4; 95% CI 3.20-16-93; p<0.001), travelling away from (OR 2.8;95% CI 1.70-24.71; p<0.001), when very ill (OR6.6; 95% CI 1.45-30.50; p=0.014), eating out (OR 4.4; 95% CI 1.81- 11.13; p=0.001, longer duration of diabetes treatment ( more than 10 years OR 3.1 CI 1.70-5.71; p< 0.001), lack of detailed information on how to exercise( OR 2.3; distance from health facility (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.15-5.50; p =0.02) and affordability of drugs (OR 3.7;95% C.I 1.81-7.59; p=0.014). However, receiving support from family (financial, material, emotional or moral OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.20-0.8; p= 0.013), being a member of the Diabetic Association (OR 0.27; 95% CI0.15-0.53; p=0.001) and having attended more than two health education sessions in the past six months (OR 0.40; 95% CI0.17-0.93; p=0.003) appeared to be protective factors against non-adherence to treatment recommendations. Conclusion: Non-adherence to treatment recommendations among diabetic patients is a result of interplay of many, varied and multifaceted factors. Therefore, strategies to improve adherence among patients attending Mutare provincial hospital in Manicaland province requires the collaboration among important stakeholders such health care workers, the patients, care givers and the government. In addition, interventions are needed in order to enhance patient education, improve patients’ self treatment behaviours and facilitate the identification and self-management skills on medication administration, dietary and exercise management. There is also need to widen the network of health care facilities through decentralizing the stocking and dispensing of diabetes drugs to peripheral sites.

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O. I. Sekunowo, O. I. Nwagu

ABSTRACT: The growing concern about excessive wear of most plain carbon steel in applications involving friction continued to receive quality attention. In this study, the wear characteristics of carburized mild steel is carried out with a view to establish the suitability or otherwise of the processing method at combating the menace of wear in engineering components made from mild steel. The study methodology involves pack carburization of specially prepared mild steel specimens under a finely pulverised charcoal environment at 7500C, 8000C, 8500C, 9000C and 9500C. This is followed by tempering at 5000C for 30mins after which the specimens are tested for hardness, wear and flexural properties respectively. The results show significant improvement in all the properties evaluated. Thus, carburisation can be used to enhance the wear resistance of mild steel comparable to that achievable through conventional hardening process.

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Andrew Idoko Haruna, Innocent Uduehi Abhulimen

ABSTRACT: There has been large interest in combining the light weight of aluminium with varied excellent mechanical properties that a metal should poses for various industrial applications. This interest has led to vigorous researches in improving the mechanical properties of aluminium.This paper therefore investigatesthe effect of macro additions of zinc and nickel on the mechanical and microstructural properties of a modified 7xxx aluminium alloy. In this investigation, a corresponding relationship has been established between the microstructure and the properties of aluminium. Using the process of stir casting, Zinc was added to Al2.5Mg7Ni and Al2.5Mg2Ni to cast samples which were later homogenized at 550 oC and tempered (T6). Mechanical properties including, tensile strength, tensile elongation, hardness and fracture strength were investigated. Result shows that cast samples containing 15wt%Zn and 2wt%wtNi exhibited superior tensile strength (128.5MPa) and (0.0419) which is attributed to the presence and even distribution of Mg2Si and NiAl3 intermetallic, in the microstructure of the as-cast material. Solution treatment at 550oC led to a good combination of tensile strength and elongation (111.72MPa and 10%). Increase in Nickel content led to a stabilization of the material structure but did not impart strength and ductility. T6 tempering of solution treated samples did not give any increase in the mechanical properties. Microstructure of cast structure shows the presence of three intermetallic including NiAl3, AlFeSi and Mg2Si in the α-aluminium matrix.

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Md. Rashedul Islam, Kamruddin Nur Maruf

Abstract: Bangladesh is import oriented country. Balance of payment is always negative. But only readymade garments export balance is positive with trading countries especially with European Union. Bangladesh exports more than 50% RMG exportable product to EU market. There is strong correlation between RMG export under EU GSP and total RMG export to the world as well as with total merchandise export to the world. If there is EU-GSP sustained that will positively affect on the GDP. This positive effect also reducing unemployment, setup new industry and raise income level. On the other hand, if EU-GSP removes, it will create obstacle to export RMG products in EU market and negatively affect on GDP. Recently EU expressed concern about the working condition of Bangladesh because of Rana Plaza collapse and Tazrin fashion fire. They provide condition to retain EU-GSP facility. To retain EU-GSP facilities; Bangladesh should Complaint the condition of EU especially for the Garments sector. To retain RMG product demand in EU market, Bangladesh must be used modern technology to produce exportable product and need to find out the new RMG exportable market. Overall, Bangladesh uses the EU-GSP facilities that tremendously affect on the RMG export growth and total export growth.

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Inuwa Bashir, Udiba Udiba, Abdulhamid Hamza, Bello I. Garko, Kabir A. Fagge, Saminu Falalu

Abstract: This work examines the effects of an open dumpsite on the quality of shallow underground water in Gyadi-Gyadi ward of Tarauni Local Government area of Kano State, Nigeria. Analysis of the physical and chemical parameters of raw water from four wells located at various distances (100-500m) from the dumping site shows that the concentrations of nitrate and phosphate in the analyzed water samples were below detectable limits. Whereas, the pH of the ground water is slightly acidic, this could be attributed to acidic leachates from the decomposing waste. However, most of the water parameters tested fall within the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). The overburden of the soil underlying the open dumpsite most likely acts as an impervious protective layer that prevents leachates from the waste materials to enter the underground water.

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Md. Ashraful Islam Khan, Fuad Bin Nasir

Abstract: In petroleum industry, gas blowout is one of the major hazards, causing damage to the reservoir and gas bearing formation, destructing the drilling rig, damaging the environment and so on. Many blowouts had happened in Bangladesh in the past and among them Sylhet-1(1955), Sylhet-4(1962), Moulvibazar-1(1997) and Chattak-2 (2005) gas field’s blowouts were more destructive. Chattak-2 (known as Magurchara) had been affected twice by blowouts. The main target of this paper is to discuss the reasons behind these blowouts, their effects, both in the environmental and petroleum industrial aspects. As the losses are unrecoverable, so we must prevent blowout and in this paper, we recommend some preventive measure to avoid blowouts in the future.

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A.Chagou, A.Rhanim, R.Zanati, A Bardouni, M.Mahfoud, MS Berrada, M,Yaacoubi.

Abstract: A pathologic fracture occurs when a destructive processes cause defects in the bony architecture. It frequently reveals a benign bone tumor. Fractures in benign tumors pose diagnostic problems and thérapeutiques. We have tried through a retrospective inform therapeutic management and diagnostic study. It has been demonstrated that taking into account our results and theoretical considerations, the treatment of tumor ultimately should not be changed completely by the fracture : The choice between conservative treatment, curettage graft resection and reconstruction contention depends on the displacement, the siege of zone bearing or not, the nature of the tumor and local recurrence.

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A.Chagou, A.Rhanim, R.Zanati, A Bardouni, M.Mahfoud, MS Berrada, M,Yaacoubi.

Abstract: Case report: Primitive bone fibro sarcoma is a rare entity; it is only 3-5% of malignant tumours of the bone. We report the case of a 24 years old patient without significant history, having consulted for pain in the left thigh accented night with impaired general condition. Surgical biopsy revealed a low-grade fibro sarcoma of malignancy. The treatment consisted of a trans femoral amputation. The short-term trend (12 months) is good, with no local recurrence and amputation stump clean. Discussion: Primitive bone fibro sarcoma is a rare entity; it is dominant between 40 and 60 years. The femur and tibia are the predilection, Radiographs highlight an image of osteolysis, periosteal reaction is inconstant and invasion of soft tissues is possible. Treatment is mainly surgical; it typically consists of a limb amputation. Several chemotherapy protocols are proposed, but none has shown consistent efficacy, the prognosis remains reserved.

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Kazem Aliabadi, Hadi Soltanifard

Abstract: Regarding population growth, reduction of food resources, issues of water scarcity, droughts, and water and soil pollution, there is no doubt that agriculture in the form of science and by up to date technologies such as GIS and expert systems like fuzzy inference system would be important. In this study, the performance of wheat with attend to soil electrical conductivity, electrical conductivity of the water, and the percentage of calcium carbonate and using a combination of GIS and fuzzy inference system is acceptance and analysis of several parameters simultaneously. If parameters increase, the accuracy will be improved. Inference system estimated the performance using soil EC, water EC, and calcium carbonate in soil as input parameters and also analyzing them. With respect to the results of fuzzy inference system, 76 percent of accuracy for the method of Mamdani and 52 percent of accuracy for the method Sugeno were achieved.

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Abrha Kebede, Gebremedhin Woldewahid

Abstract: A study was conducted in the 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons to determine the effects of nitrogen and plant population on quality and net income of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in northern Ethiopia. The design was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data collected and analyzed included crop quality attributes and partial budget analysis. Application of N fertilizer significantly increased Total Soluble solid (TSS), fruit dry matter percentage (DM %) and fruit diameter. Higher fruit TSS and DM % were obtained at 230 kg N/ha compared to the other treatments. Intermediate N rate application (138 kg/ha) gave the highest values of fruit yield parameters and net return profits compared to the control. Similarly, Plant population had significant influence on fruit d DM % and fruit diameter.

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Hamzah Mohammad A. Al_Qudah, Dr. Abdullah Osman, HamzahEdris M. Al_Qudah

Abstract: This paper aimed to examine the effect of HRM practices towards employee performance in Malaysian Skills Institute (MSI). It investigated the factors that affecton recruitment and selection, compensation toward employee performance in MSI. The study population, which consisted of employees in the MSI, comprised 40 respondents. To achieve the study objectives, the researcher developed and distributed a questionnaire, and collected and analyzed the data using SPSS. An overall analysis was performed based on the descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The results indicated that recruitment and selection and compensation significantly correlated with the employee performance in MSI. The paper provided recommendations for improving recruitment and selection and compensation in MSI.

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Adugna Fita

Abstract: Nowadays, we want to have a good life, which may mean more wealth, more power, more respect and more time for our selves, together with a good health and a good second generation, etc. Indeed, all important political, economical and cultural events have involved multiple criteria in their evolution. Multiobjective optimization deals with the investigation of optimization problems that possess more than one objective function. Usually there is no single solution that optimizes all functions simultaneously, we have solution set that is called nondominated set and elements of this set are usually infinite. It is from this set decision is made by taking elements of nondominated set as alternatives, which is given by analysts. But practically extraction of nondominated solutions and setting fitness function are difficult. This Paper will try to solve problems that the decision maker face in extraction of Pareto optimal solution with continuous variable genetic algorithm and taking objective function as fitness function without modification by considering box constraint and generating initial solution within box constraint and penalty function for constrained one. Solutions will be kept in feasible region during mutation and recombination.

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Md. Shahinul Islam, Md. Golam Saklayen, Md. Ferdous Rahman, Abu Bakar Md. Ismail

Abstract: This thesis paper is mainly focus firstly deposited ITO thin films on glass substrate as good transparent conducting electrode as low resistivity and high optical transmittance. Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrate to be used as transparent conducting electrode.ITO has been deposited by using electron beam evaporation (E-beam) method. The surface morphology of ITO films was investigated by AFM and also studies the electrical and optical properties of these films. The effect of annealing of the ITO was also investigated. It was found that the conductivity of ITO film was proportional to the annealing temperature and time below 600°C. The surface morphology of ITO films for different annealed temperature has been also investigated by AFM and it was found that surface roughness of ITO film increase with annealing temperature.

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Abdul Waris, Daniel

Abstract :The main problem of processed vanilla bean is the poor quality. One of causal factor is the lack of appropriate equipment such as dryer, and fermentation equipment. The purpose of This research is to produce an equipment that able to perform both drying and fermenting the raw vanilla beans directly after harvesting that have a good performance. By using this machine it was expected the quality of Vanilla bean will increased. Results shows that the the equipment functioned properly with slow drying rate, the stable temperature, good quality of the dried bean as well as good performance on drying and fermentation processes that can be performed on precise time alternately and automatically.

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Orugun, Juwon Johnson, Nafiu, Akeem Tunde

Abstract: It is no doubt that Igbo entrepreneurs play vital roles in the growth of the Nigerian economy. Igbo Entrepreneurial activities have been observed to be a backbone for the economy of Nigeria and have facilitated improved standard of living of the people at both rural and urban settings. This study aims at investigating whether the Igbo entrepreneurial activities are the panacea for the Nigerian economic growth and development, and whether the Igbo Trade Apprenticeship System is a rationale behind their business success. The study used both primary and secondary source for gathering reliable and adequate data and information. The primary sources of data include the personal interview and questionnaire administered to the sampled metropolises (Sango-Ota, Ifo, Oshodi and Apapa); and the secondary sources include textbooks, journal and internet. Taro Yamane sampling method was adopted to determine the sample size, and Bowler’s proportional allocation method to distribute questionnaires in these selected metropolises. To analyze the data gathered for this study, descriptive statistical tool, tables and Likert Scale method were used. The study revealed that the Igbo entrepreneurial activities are the panacea for the Nigerian economic growth and development, and that ITAS is a business success factor. It was concluded that the Igbo entrepreneurial activities are the panacea for the Nigerian economic growth and development. The study therefore recommended that Nigerians and the people of other developing countries of the world should emulate the Igbo entrepreneurship culture for economic development purpose.

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T.M. Akpomie, E.O.Ekanem, M.M. Adamu

ABSTRACT: The Concentrations of five dissolved heavy metals, viz; Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu) and Lead (Pb) in Mista-Ali River were determined using the atomic absorption spectrometry. With the aid of Minitab computer software, these concentrations were then modelled intoquadratic-time series model (Y= a + bt – ct2) and a pH and temperature-dependent regression models [Y= β 0 + β 1 pH + β 2 T (⁰C)] for each metal. These models gave insights on the forecast and predictability and the bioaccumulation or reduction of these metals in the river.

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Bakari Ali

Abstract—The study investigates the grain size distribution of Bima sandstone formation exposed around Chekole in North-eastern Nigeria and determines the condition of their deposition. This has been achieved by collecting sediment samples from the exposed outcrops of Bima sandstone formation in various locations across the study area. The granulometric analyses suggest that the texture of the Albian sedimentary formation ranged from gravely to coarse grained sand. Other components include medium and fine grained sands. Statistical parameters indicate that the sorting of these sediments ranged between moderate and poorly-sorted, the skewness values show that over 90% the samples analysed are positively skewed. Kurtosis values ranged from platykurtic to leptokurtic.

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Atif Qamar Malik

Abstract— 5s is a methodical practice for the organization of work place. It is basically a tool of lean manufacturing, practiced to standardize the maintenance of the workplace environment. This perpetuation of the work place enhances the labour efficiency. This paper explores the implementation of the 5s in the surgical instruments industry of Pakistan. The paper will highlight the step by step implementation guideline required for successful exercise of 5s as a part of the daily management practices. The observations are based on the onsite visits and interviews with the experts. The hindrances in adapting the 5s have also been brought to light. The implementation of 5s has been mapped out by lots of researchers, this paper follows the guidelines of those works but modified for the specified industry. The paper is based on the observation of the management practices of the workplace for the manufacturing of simple surgical instruments e.g. surgical scissors, tweezers, forceps etc. The implementation of each practice of 5s has been explained.

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Njoku, Chukwudi G, Okeniyi, Oluwafemi O.

ABSTRACT: This research is on the survey of waste-bins and collection methodology in households of the Federal Capital City (FCC), Abuja, Nigeria. Solid waste management is a continually growing problem at global and local levels. Thousands of lives are lost every year to environmental-related diseases and cities have lost their aesthetic values to solid waste mismanagement; therefore, solid waste management can never be overemphasized.Any meaningful attempt at developing a strategy to manage urban waste in Nigeria must begin with a waste survey, identifying the types of wastes, the various land uses and the availability of waste-bins in the city to enable effective and efficient solid waste collection and management thus the need to survey, assess and estimate the number of households/properties with the proper disposal bins in the city and to examine the collection and disposal methodology of wastes in the city, identifying where there are gaps in order to proffer solution on what needs to be done to foster efficient and effective waste management.The project was carried out in five phases. Reconnaissance survey; the first phase involved a pre-research investigation into the project and the project area. The second phase was carried out to acquire waste-bin attribute data from all the properties in the FCC Phase 1 Districts. Afterward, the data processing phase, where the acquired data, both primary and secondary were processed in a GIS environment using the ArcGIS 10.1 software and the Microsoft Office Excel software.Acquired maps and plans were geo-referenced, digitized and attribute data were inputted into the Database Management System (DBMS) in the acceptable formats. The data analyses phase involved querying the database using multi-criteria Structured Query Languages (SQL) to achieve end results such as percentage charts, tables and maps. These results show the areas where gaps exist in the collection and disposal process, the locations that require extra efforts for waste management due to high households or high activities, areas with indiscriminate dumping amongst other issues. From the findings, the efficiency of waste-bins was determined. The percentage of properties that have access to waste-bins in the city is 59% and as much as 41.% do not have access. Also, the average waste-bin per property for all the land-uses is 1.7 number of waste-bins.Assessing waste-bin availability in the city, Wuse 1 possesses the highest percentage of 20.9 and CBD the least with 6.5% of all the waste-bins in the city. Furthermore, the estimated household population of Wuse 1 is 8 persons per household. This is the highest in the city. Asokoro has the least of 6 persons while the CBD is zerodue to its non-residential nature. Also, considering the proportion of persons per waste-bin, Wuse 1 recorded the highest of 19.2 and Asokoro the lowest with 8.2 persons. The FCC has a proportion of 12.6 persons per waste-bin in general. The result also shows the efficiency of waste-bins in the city. In all the land-uses, 29% of properties in the city have standard waste-bins, 42% have substandard waste-bins while the remaining 29% do not have waste-bins. Furthermore, to buttress the inefficiency in some areas, the report shows areas that have quite alarming number of open dumps within the city, with Wuse 1 District recording the highest figure of 42% of the total indiscriminate dumps. Lastly, the distance and locations to the dumpsites servicing the city were also analyzed. The average distance from the FCC to the Gosa dumpsite is 17.29km and 16.23km to Ajata.However, recommendations were made based on the findings of the project, proposing a proper guide to solid waste management in the city.

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Vinod kumar M V, Prem kumar naik, Prasad B G, Syed Razeequlla

Abstract - Window cleaning makes the building’s architectural glass free from dust and dirt. The traditional way of cleaning office windows cannot be applied to high rise windows with huge sections of glass. Cleaning the windows from outside requires special tools in going up and it’s really unsafe. The Window cleaner proposed is an unmanned device which would be controlled by using a microcontroller. This device would be safer compared to traditional methods of window cleaning in case of high glass structures that increases risk in loss of human life. Structure of the proposed device consists of a triangular frame and uses suction cup based adhesion technique to adhere on the glass surface. The movement of the frame over the glass is done by using special rigging. The frame consists of an automated cleaner which is run by motors and pre-programmed microcontrollers. The automated cleaner moves in vertical direction within the frame using the threaded shaft.

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C.I. Nweze, A. J. Ekpunobi

Abstract: Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) thin films have been successfully deposited on two different substrates using electrodeposition method at different time intervals under direct voltage of 3V. XRD pattern of the films deposited on metallic zinc substrates are indexed to cubic crystal structure at all deposition times. The dominant orientation lies on (111) plane of reflection and also more planes of reflection are formed at high deposition time which shows that polycrystalline films were deposited. XRD pattern of the films deposited on the conducting glass (Indium doped Tin Oxide (ITO)) are indexed to wurzite (hexagonal) crystal structure. Investigation reveals that both the film thickness and the grain size of the deposited ZnSe thin films increase with the deposition time for the films deposited on the two substrates. Electrical analysis of the deposited ZnSe thin films showed that the films deposited on the metallic Zinc substrate has lower electrical resistivity than the films deposited on the ITO and the resistivity increases with the increase in the thickness of the deposited films.

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Christopher Mubeteneh Tankou

Abstract— Organic fertilizers are indispensable for vegetable cultivation in the western highlands of Cameroon. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of Crotalaria grahamiana green manure as a source of organic fertilizer in addition to methods of producing the green manure. The treatments tested consisted of crotalaria green manure obtained from different cropping systems; chicken droppings; mineral fertilizer; combinations of crotalaria green manure and mineral fertilizer; combination of chicken droppings and mineral fertilizer and a control with no fertilizer input. The potato variety used was ‘Spunta’. The results showed that green manure and woody biomass produced through simultaneous intercropping was significantly higher (P<0.05). Treatments with chicken droppings and mineral fertilizers had significantly (P<0.05) higher average crop cover fraction. There was no significant difference (P<0.05) amongst treatments with chicken droppings, combination of crotalaria green manure and mineral fertilizer, crotalaria green manure obtained from the intercropping system and crotalaria obtained from the sole cropping system. The lowest score on crop cover fraction was obtained from plots with no fertilizer input. The highest average fresh tuber weight was obtained from treatments with chicken droppings and mineral fertilizers and those treated solely with chicken droppings (234g and 231g respectively), followed by treatments with crotalaria and mineral fertilizer and crotalaria green manure sole (133.8g and 133.6 g respectively). Results obtained so far show that crotalaria green manure can contribute significantly as an organic fertilizer in potato production.

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Mohammed A. Abdel-Hafiz, Galal A. Hassaan

Abstract— In this paper, a minimax optimization procedure for dynamic vibration pendulum absorbers used with damped primary system is developed. An optimization problem is formulated providing the parameters of a pendulum absorber which can minimize the primary system vibration amplitude and decrease the sensitivity of the primary system response to uncertainties of excitation frequency. Three types of pendulum absorber are investigated: classical pendulum, pendulum-torsional spring and dual pendulum. The benefits of using the different types of pendulum vibration absorber are presented and the main system frequency response is compared leading to a recommendation about the most suitable type to a specific application.

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A.Chagou, A.Rhanim, R.Zanati, A Bardouni, M.Mahfoud, MS Berrada, M,Yaacoubi.

Abstract: The localizations of synovial cysts unrelated to joints are usually occurring on ectopic or synovial metaplasia
Mucoid cysts are due to mucoid degeneration of collagen in paratendinous and periarticular tissues. We report the case of a patient 5O years old, who presented left thoracic tumor. Clinical examination is a superficial mobile tumor. Ultrasound confirmed synovial Cyst. We performed a total excision of the tumor. Histological examination found a tumor cystic with mucoid content and a fibrous wall. The short-term trend (12 months) is good, with no local recurrence.

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Olumide Moses Ogundipe

Abstract— This study investigates the stabilization of granular soil with bitumen. The strength and compaction characteristics of the natural and stabilized granular soil were determined. In the study, 2%, 4% and 6% bitumen content were considered. The results showed that the optimum binder content required in achieving the highest maximum dry density (MDD) and California bearing ratio (CBR) is 4%. It was discovered that when 6% bitumen was used, the MDD and the CBR decreased, although the values obtained were greater than those for unstabilized granular soil. The reduction in the MDD and CBR is probably due to the excess bitumen in the mix which filled the voids, thus resulting in slip and weakening the bond between the aggregates. Also, the relationship between the optimum moisture content and the bitumen content showed that the moisture content in the soil must be considered in the selection of the binder content that will give the best results. Generally, it was found that the properties of the granular soil improved when stabilized with cutback bitumen.

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Jasvinder Singh, Dr. Suram Singh

Abstract— The results of nuclear structure properties like reduced transition probabilities B(E2) and deformation parameter (β) of even-even 108-112Pd isotopes obtained by Cranked Hartree-Bogoliubov (CHB) calculations and Interaction Boson Model (IBM-I) are compared. The comparison is also made with the experimental values.

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Abstract: Steganography differs from cryptography in the sense that where cryptography focuses on keeping the contents of a message secret, steganography focuses on keeping the existence of a message secret. Technologies that are closely related to steganography and watermarking and fingerprinting . High Capacity Image Steganography using Wavelet Transform and Genetic Algorithm. Quantized-frequency Secure Audio Steganography algorithm. Integer Transform based Secure Audio Steganography algorithm.

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T.R. Rajaonarison, A.A. Randriamitantsoa, P.A. Randriamitantsoa

Abstract -The MIMO system (multiple input multiple output)constitutesa solution to increase the capacity and/or to guarantee the quality of a wireless communication. There are many scheme MIMO making it possible to bring diversity of emission with an aim of making the transmissions robust in a difficult environment of propagation. There are two different approaches to bring this diversity: open-loop system and closed-loop system. A WF precoder is a closed-loop system which increases the capacityof the MIMO channel.In addition, the application of the error correcting codes improves the performances of the transmission. We propose in this article to combine the WFprecoder WF with a code LDPC. This new scheme makes it possible to have better a BER/capacity compromise.

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Aniruddha Atre, Prasanna Lalingkar, Amit Rao, Pushkaraj Shingre

Abstract— OpenStack is an open source cloud computing platform which is a joint venture by Rackspace and NASA. OpenStack consists of many projects such as Nova (Compute), Swift (Storage), Glance (VM Images) etc. Swift is used as Object storage. Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) is a new standard defined by Storage Network Industry Associate (SNIA). It focuses on inter-operability among various cloud service providers. Currently all cloud services are not CDMI compliant but companies are working on it. CDMI implementation is available which adds support for the CDMI adaptor specification on OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) project. It is used as the base for this project.Project aims at developing a Software Development Kit (SDK) for a novice user which will use CDMI implementation to achieve ease of use for OpenStack cloud services. This project consists of firstly, a library providing CRUD functionalities for CDMI based object storage and secondly an appropriate Graphical User Interface to provide simplicity. Motivation of this project is to fill the gap for use of CDMI implementation over OpenStack Swift by any novice user by developing a .NET SDK for windows audience. Key features for this project include abstraction of complexity, simplicity and fault tolerance.

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I.O. Akpan, E.S. William

Abstract: This study employs Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analytical technique for the analysis of elemental concentrations in the roadside soils in Calabar, Nigeria, in order to ascertain the levels of heavy metals in relation to traffic density. Twenty one elements, viz., Al, Si, P, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb and Pb with concentrations (in ppm), ranging from 9.0±3.8 (Ga) to 192560.3±789.5 (Si) respectively were detected from ten different sample locations. Significant enrichment were obtained for Mn(7.677); Cu(5.189); Zn(5.203, 5.177 and 6.554); Ti (5.723, 5.395 and 5.000); Cr (6.901, 7.323 and 14.321); P(5.683, 5.750) and Si(6.747) respectively, indicating that their concentrations were sufficient to pose environmental problems. High concentrations of Pb in areas of high traffic density and the Strong, positive and significant correlation results corroborate with results of enrichment factor, cluster analysis and counting statistics of number of vehicles plying sample locations thereby confirming heavy metals on roadside soils in Calabar to be associated with vehicular emissions.

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Bahram Dastourian, Elias Dastourian, Shahram Dastourian, Omid Mahnaie

Abstract: Wavelet play an important role not only in the theoretic but also in many kinds of applications, and have been widely applied in signal processing, sampling, coding and communications, filter bank theory, system modeling, and so on. This paper focus on the Haar’s wavelet. We discuss on some command of Haar’s wavelet with its signal by MATLAB programming. The base of this study followed from multiresolution analysis.

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George, Ubong Uwem, Joseph Asor, Andy, John A.

Abstract: Studies on the toxic effects of water soluble fraction (WSF) of Hevea brasiliensis on the histology of the gills of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings showed severe impacts on the gills of the test organisms. Six concentrations were prepared from the water soluble fraction of the latex (0, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70mg/l) for histopathological examination on the gills of the species. In the control group there was no histological change on the test organism. Gill samples for histological examination were prepared from the concentrations which toxic manifestation of the toxicant was observed. There was no toxic manifestation on the control (0mg/l), 30mg/l and in the 40mg/l of concentration, whereas the test organism in the 50mg/l, 60mg/l and 70mg/l concentration exhibited various reactions which included, erratic movement, vertical swimming position, colour changes, weaken swimming motions, and changes in opercula rate. In the 50mg/l concentration the gill showed disintegration of cells in gill, in the 60mg/l concentration it was observed to show Lamellae erosion and fusion of cells and in the 70mg/l concentration Pronounced lamellae erosion was observed in gill ray. Therefore, if latex obtained from Hevea brasiliensis finds its way into the aquatic environment as would be expected, it will cause deleterious ecological effects to both terrestrial and aquatic biota at the long term. Realizing the tremendous adverse effects associated with WSF of the latex from H. brasilensis, safety measures should be adhere by companies using rubber latex has their raw material.

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Deen Dayal Giri, Ajay Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Sahu, Pradeep Kumar Mishra, Kapil Deo Pandey

Abstract: Culturable methanotrophic bacteria (CMB) were studied in the soils of forest and savanna of tropical dry deciduous forest ecosystems employing most probable number (MPN) technique. The spatiotemporal study was conducted at the six sites differing in the soil physicochemical properties and vegetational cover. CMB population was high in the moist sites compared to the dry sites and in sub soil below 10 cm depth. The top soil population ranged between 7.0 × 104 to 7.1 × 106 g-1 dry soil. The population declined exponentially with depth. In temporal study at bimonthly interval for two consecutive years, high CMB population was in winter that declined 10 - 20 fold in rain. The CMB population variation was explained solely by temperature (59%), temperature and soil nitrate (76%), and temperature soil nitrate and moisture (77.4%) in the step wise regression analysis.

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Adams Abdul-Rahaman Musah Zakariya, Nasiru Alhassan

ABSTRACT: Hot water dipping (HWD) at a range of treated temperatures at 50OC /11ms and stored at temperatures of 7OC and 25OC were applied to keitt mango and Nam doc mai mango fruits after harvest and some were also left on control without hot water dipping. During the storage both treated and untreated fruits were stored at 7OC and 25 OC. The quality characteristics such as surface colour changes, weight loss, firmness and sensory evaluation were investigated for a storage period of Ten (10) days. Regarding the effect of storage temperatures on the changes in fruit weight loss, the data of both varieties indicated less weight loss in 7OC and high weight loss in room temperature of 25OC, leading to significance difference in fruits weight loss between the two temperatures. Loss in fruit firmness was also high in temperatures of 25OC compared to 7OC in both varieties but Nam doc mai variety retained fruits firmness better than the Keitt fruits. Panelist after the organoleptic test scored high for sweetness (sugars content) for 25 OC , and low for 7OC but in both conditions panelist rated Keitt mango fruits higher than the Nam doc mai mango fruits. Overall acceptance was high in fruits treated and stored at 25oc for both varieties. Generally in overall acceptance Keitt mango did better in both 25oC and 7oC in both treated and untreated fruits.

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Qi Jingang, Li Yang, S.A Tukur, Zhao Zuofu, Wu Di, Dai Shan, Wang Jianzhong

Abstract: Electric pulse treatment (EPT) had recently proven to be an effective grain-refining technology; however, the quantitative understanding of the EPT mechanism is still unclear. This research work was based on electromagnetic field theory combined with the EPT mechanism proposed by Zhai et al. In this study, the two critical values of electro-pulse frequency under a certain pulse voltage were calculated; the crystal rain and the chill layer were formed during this non-equilibrium solidification. Thus, the electro-pulse frequencies and their influencing factors were modeled. The solidification behaviors were analyzed accordingly. The model exhibits that the time domain of EPM-induced grain refinement was found to be between the occurrence of crystal rain and the formation of chill layer. Furthermore, the proposed model was validated by the solidification structure changes of Al-5%Cu alloy.

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P. S. A.Irabor, S. O.Jimoh, O.J. Omowumi

ABSTRACT: Raw materials development is critical to the success of the ceramic subsector of the nation’s economic and industrial growth. The much taunted sing-song of Nigeria’s abundant natural blessings in both metallic and non- metallic solid mineral raw materials resources in now staled news or history. The situation of raw materials development in Nigeria may be likened to the song by the reggae legend, Peter Tosh, who said, “many people want to go to heaven but non, want to die” just as many people, entrepreneurs, companies want to produce good quality ceramic products to create wealth but, none, want to prepare the raw materials. Consequently, this paper investigates, assesses and reviews the available local ceramic raw materials, identification, beneficiation techniques, and physical and exploitation development initiatives for the raw materials sector in Nigeria.

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A. O. Talabi, A.K. Ogundana.

Abstract: Drinking contaminated groundwater can have serious health effects. Bacterial assessment of groundwater in Ekiti State was carried out to determine its potability and source(s) of pollutants. Consequently, 73 groundwater samples were collected for bacterial analysis and NO3- determination. At each location, depth of each well and depth to water table were measured using dipmeter. Temperature (°C), EC (µS/cm) and pH were measured in-situ using a multiparameter potable meter (model Testr-35). Subsequently, the bacteriological analysis was carried out using nutrient agar medium to obtain plate count of living bacteria (viable cell count) while Coliform count was achieved using a lactose medium inoculated with serial dilution of the sample. Nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in the groundwater were determined colorimetrically by Spectronic -20 (Gallenkamp, UK). In situ measurements revealed that pH ranged from 6.0 – 8.9 (av. 6.87), NO3- (mg/L) 1.2 to 19 (av. 6.86) mg/L while EC<1000µS/cm for all sampled groundwater. Virtually all samples tested positive to bacterial contamination with coliform count ranging from 0 - 8 (av. 2.15) cfu/100mL and total bacteria count (TBC) from 2 – 25 (av. 9.42) cfu/100ml. The groundwater in the study area is low mineralized fresh water. However, it has been polluted bacteriologically arising principally from surface phenomena of improper disposal of wastes and human faeces.

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Swapan Kumar Saha, Ashraful aman, Md. shawkat Hossain, Aminul Islam, Ripa Sarder Rodela

Abstracts: B2b (business to business) and b2c (business to consumer) refers to business dealings between two businesses and business to consumer. B2b business can be between manufactures and wholesalers or retailers. B2b and b2c marketing are developing rapidly. Especially the transaction process though internet in Asia pacific region. Not only are these there several differences between b2b and b2c. The pricing process of b2b and b2c are much different also the supply chain of b2b and b2c are bit similar but has some differences. In Asia pacific region the future of b2b and b2c market is promising but there are some ongoing and upcoming challenges. If we overcome them then our b2b and b2c market will be a largest market in Asia pacific region and all over the world.

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Muhammad Syaifullah

Abstract : Background of this study was based on the argument that there were correlation between organizational commitment and quality of accounting information system. This study aims to examine: the influence of organizational commitment on the quality of accounting information system. This study is theorities study. The hypotheses are: there are significant organizational commitment on the qualityof accounting information system. The results of this study are as follows organizational commitment of information systems significant positive effect on the quality of accounting information systems.

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Dikko A. B., Ahmed A. D., Pascal T., Alkasim A.

ABSTRACT: The variation of excess viscosity of several liquid mixtures base on mole fractions with temperatures have been done by many researchers. In this paper, we employed volume by volume ratio of mixing and determined the excess viscosity of four different mixtures of methanol-water, ethanol-water, methanol-ethanol, and methanol-ethanol-water at 308.15 -343.15 K. We found that the excess viscosity of the mixtures generally decrease with increase in temperature and all the values show negativity, indicating lowest interaction.

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Galal A. Hassaan

Abstract: Integral time delayed processes require more attention in selecting reasonable controllers associated with them because they are a class of nonlinear processes . In this work, the PD-PI controller is examined to investigate its replacement to the classical PID controller. This research work has proven that the PD-PI results in a better performance for the closed-loop control system incorporating the PD-PI controller and an integrator plus delay time process. The time delay effect is compensated using 2nd order Pade approximation. The controller is tuned by minimizing the sum of square of error (ISE) of the control system using MATLAB. The MATLAB optimization toolbox is used assuming that the tuning problem is an unconstrained one. The result was producing a step response of the controlled process without any maximum percentage overshoot or maximum percentage undershoot. The performance of the control system using an PD-PI controller using the present tuning technique is compared with that using a PIDF controller tuned by Zhang and others in 1999.

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Galal A. Hassaan

Abstract: High oscillation in industrial processes is something undesired and controller tuning has to solve this problems. PID with first-order-lag is a controller type of the PID-family which is suggested to overcome this problem. This research work has proven that using the PID is capable of solving the dynamic problems of highly oscillating processes but with less efficiency than other PID-based controller types. A second order process of 85.45 % maximum overshoot and 8 seconds settling time is controlled using a PID controller with first-order-lag (through simulation). The controller is tuned by minimizing the sum of square of error (ISE) of the control system using MATLAB. The MATLAB optimization toolbox is used assuming that the tuning problem is an unconstrained one. The result was reducing the overshoot from 85.45 % to 15.9 % and decreasing the settling time from 8 seconds to only 0.552 seconds. The performance of the control system using a PID with first-order-lag controller using the present tuning technique is compared with that using the ITAE standard forms tuning technique

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Elsayed E. Hafez, H. Shokry Hassan, M.F. Elkady, Eslam Salama

Abstract: Nano-ZnO has been successfully synthesized via hydrothermal technique to evaluate as plant pathogenic antibacterial agent. The crystalline and morphological structures of ZnO were examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The morphological structure of synthesized ZnO was nano-rod with an average aspect ratio about 8. The antibacterial effect of ZnO nanorods on eight different hetero soft root plant pathogenic bacteria was investigated for inhibition and reduction the cell growth of examining strains using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of nanorods ZnO towards plant pathogens microbes were explored. The recorded inhibition zones using ZnO were ranged between 14 to 32 mm compared with 0 to 24 mm for antibiotics.

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Azagbaekwue, A , Ehiwario, J.C, Emenoye, C.E.

Abstract: In this study, our interest was on the effect of decisions resulting from different decision makers who are independent actors and their major aim is to maximize profit in an uncertain market environment. Every firm set its decisions in the future period as a response to its competitor’s policy. We employ stochastic programming and operators’ model in modeling the situation. A structured model in a telecommunication environment for virtual network operators (VNO) was used without their own network facilities.

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Isaac I. Akinwumi, Uriel R. Maiyaki, Samuel A. Adubi, Samuel O. Daramola, Bobby B. Ekanem

Abstract- This experimental investigation was carried out to determine the effects of contaminating a lateritic clay soil with waste engine oil on its geotechnical engineering properties. Varying percentages (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) of waste engine oil were mixed with the soil, as a simulation of its contamination. Specific gravity, Atterberg limits, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR) and permeability tests were conducted on the uncontaminated and contaminated soil samples. The specific gravity, plastic limit, optimum moisture content, maximum dry unit weight, and permeability of the soil decreased as its waste engine oil content increased. The liquid limit, plasticity index and CBR of the soil increased as its waste engine oil content increased. The plasticity and permeability properties of the soil make it unsuitable for use as a construction material, without modification or stabilization of the contaminated soil.

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M.Shabari,R.Thiraviyaraj, A.Suresh Kumar, R.Vignesh, S.Renuga Devi

ABSTRACT- Most of the manufacturing industries, like paints, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, Textiles, petrochemicals are produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and odors as part of their manufacturing process. It should be affect for the nature of environment and human health. So it can be consider that these kinds of pollutant problems are reduce by using of bio (or) chemical oxidation process. From this method dealing with these industrial air emissions include masking agents or activated-charcoal filters, or thermal- or catalytic-oxidization systems that use natural gas to burn off the pollutants. However, as the world struggles to increase energy efficiency to cut both costs and carbon emissions, industry is investigating lower-impact, and more efficient methods of controlling the release of harmful pollutants into the atmosphere. Bio (or) chemical oxidation is an air pollution control technology that uses naturally-occurring to biologically absorb and digest industrial emissions, converting them to carbon dioxide, water and mineral salts. The process typically involves drawing a contaminated air stream through some type of medium that hosts a community of microbes including either bacteria or fungi, or a combination of the two. The process is referred to as bio-oxidation, although it can occur in "bio-trickling filter," and "bio-filter" units, either alone or in combination, all of which operate at a different media "wetness" based on the requirements of the appropriate microbe’s and the targeted pollutant.

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Ameer A. J. AL Swidi

Abstract: In this paper ,I generalize concepts of 1,2 near-ring as well as of completely semi prime ideal with respect to an element x of a 1,2 near-ring and the completely prime ideal of a 1,2 near-ring with respect to an element x and the relationships between the completely prime ideal with respect to an element x of a 1,2 near-ring and some other types of ideals,as well as I will valid if I is c.p.I of 1,2 near-ring iff is a x-c.s.p.I of a 1,2 near-ring as well as valid if I is c.p.I of 1,2 near-ring iff is a x-c.s.p.I of 1,2 near-ring as well as I is e'-c.p.I of 1,2 near-ring iff it is a e'-c.s.p.I of 1,2 near-ring and all its valid after put condition of Boolean a 1,2 near-ring

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Okolie Chukwulozie Paul, Ezeliora Chukwuemeka Daniel, Iwenofu Chinwe Onyedika, Sinebe Jude Ebieladoh

Abstract: This paper improves the productivity of Soap mix using Response Surface and presents the optimization of a soap production mix using the previous production data. The data were optimized using response surface modeling tool to observe the optimum production mix of the raw material. Response surface regression analysis was used to estimate the coefficients for Y using data in coded units were the coefficient of determination (R-sq) is 100%. The response surface optimization model shows that the optimum production mix quantity of the soap should be 364.999kg.

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Odewo, S.A, Agbeja, A.O, Olaifa,K.A, Ojo, A.P, Ogundana S.A.

ABSTRACT: A medicinal plant, Passiflora foetida belonging to the family of Passifloraceae. The plant was chemically screened for nutritional values such as moisture content, ash, crude fat, crude protein, crude fibre and carbohydrate. It was assessed with a view of establishing and understanding their nutritional uses. The plant contained crude protein (25.83 to 26.05%), crude fibre(9.55 to 90.61%), crude fat (2.87 to 2.98%), Ash (28.55 to 28.84%), carbohydrate (40.46 to 40.69%) and moisture (1.79 to 1.96%). The significance of the plant in traditional medicine and importance of the nutritional value in the pharmaceutical industries were discussed. The infrared spectroscopy analysis was also carried out to know the molecular structure of the sample. It is showed that the molecular structure of the oil in the plant signifies five important peaks which include stretching, bending and double bond absorption. A peak of 1640.93cm-1 in the oil indicates the formation of an acid functional group(C=O-N).This makes the oil to be unsaturared. It is therefore recommended that more research is needed to be done in the area of characterization of the plant constituents for further use as a medicinal plant.

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Rodríguez P. Omar, Lopez Jorge E.

Abstract: In this paper, we present the results of the simulated behavior and experimental measurement of the chemical potential or potential interaction for a raw ceramic phase structure (Al2O3(ZnO/SnO2)+Ti0,1O2) used the theoretical model of multiples single harmonic oscillators. The above results were obtained considering the application of such materials by contact field sensors. In turn, was taken as the approximate basis for the interaction potential as a nonlinear function of: temperature, relative electric permittivity, relative humidity, type ofcharge carriers(n) and(p) of the material and surface voltage. On the other hand, was calculated and simulated the electrical behavior responsible for the chemical potential energy propagation in the structure of the compound under study.

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Aika Ibraheem Kreedy

Abstract: the ability of detect and predict poor quality of software is of major important to software engineering and reengineering, manger, quality assurance organization. Poor quality software leads to increase development cost and expensive maintenance. With so much attention on exacerbated budgetary constraints, a viable alternative is necessary. Software quality metrics designed for this purpose. Metric measure certain aspect of code or PDL representations, and can collected and use through life cycle. Automated software quality measures are important for easy integration into the software development process. This paper discuss on two metrics: static analysis tools and function point analysis tools, take examples for each type and discus the different between them.

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