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IJSTR Volume 1 - Issue 8, September 2012 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Zahra Esmailzadeh

Abstracts :- Yeats The Tower contains some of his best-known works. Even while its name suggests the poet's willed isolation, Yeats could not escape the radical changes that his country underwent in the 1920s. Written in 1928; the collection serves as a type of retrospective on Ireland's tumultuous decade, the two major events of which were the Anglo-Irish war (1919-1921) and the Irish Civil war (1922-1923). Of all Yeats' poetry "Meditation in Time of Civil War" is perhaps the most personal in its explanation of his protestant ascendancy past. Especially in the first section, the speaker seems ambivalent about his family history and his place in the civil war. "Nineteen Hundred and Nineteen" was originally titled "Thoughts Upon The Present State of World" and then Yeats changed it to Nineteen Hundred and Nineteen. The title of this poem is the year in which the Anglo-Irish war began. It signals the beginning of a new era after the Great War and marks the first year of that struggle. In both these poems, Yeats's position is to live in an in-between status. Two key elements in Bhabha's writing, when it comes to describing the colonial identities of both the colonized and the colonizer, are the concepts of ambivalence and hybridity. This study attempts to examine Bhabha's views on the relationship between the colonizer and the colonized to evince this relationship in Yeast's "Meditation in Time of Civil War" and "Nineteen Hundred and Nineteen".

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Ozurumba Benedict Anayochukwu

Abstract :- This paper examines the causal relationship between inflation and fiscal deficits in Nigeria, covering the period 1970-2009. This was carried out by way of developing an estimation model of inflation and fiscal deficit, with a view to testing causes and effects as well as the relationship between them. The estimation technique used is the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model and the Granger-causality test. The result of the Granger-causality test shows that the null hypothesis which says that fiscal deficit does not cause inflation should be rejected since the result is significant with probability less than 0.05. This implies that fiscal deficit/GDP causes inflation. However, no feedback mechanism was observed. The results from the ARDL test confirm a significant negative relationship between growth in fiscal deficit (% of GDP) and inflation. The above results confirm the a priori expectation. It is recommended that policies targeted at inflationary control in Nigeria could best be achieved if they are aimed at fiscal deficits reduction. In addition, the government should support growth in the real sectors of the economy.

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Ajayi, O. A, S. S. Adefila

Abstract:- Kaolin is a clay mineral that has a wide application in the industry, depending on its purity. The quality of kaolin mined around the world is depleting especially with depth and rate of mining. Consequently, the usability of this mineral is threatened by the presence of some inherent impurities. Beneficiation enhances kaolin applications; hence, it becomes imperative to understudy comparative means of upgrading kaolin, for the process integration and optimization. In this work, chemical and biological leaching of iron rich kaolin sample was carried out using sulphuric acid, oxalic acid, cultured and un-cultured Aspergillus niger (A. niger). The kinetics of leaching determined from XRF analysis was observed to be higher for acid compared to biological method and at shorter contact time. The conversion of alumina for oxalic, sulphuric, un-cultured and cultured A. niger were determined to be 77.81, 87.73, 26.38 and 28.37, respectively; while that of iron were 66.07, 98.32, 25.71 and 28.51. The kaolin leached with un-cultured A.niger was observed to digest both alumina and iron at an enhanced rate in the first 6 days, while the cultured remained inactive due to adaptation, for the same number of days. The cultured A.niger was later observed to leach more than the un-cultured one despite the adaptation period, it went through.

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Kembe, M. M, Onah, E. S, Iorkegh, S

Abstract:- The effect of queuing in relation to the time spent by patients to access clinical services is increasingly becoming a major source of concern to most health -care providers. This is because keeping patients waiting too long could result to cost to them (waiting cost). Providing too much service capacity to operate a system involves excessive cost. But not providing enough service capacity results in excessive waiting time and cost. In this study, the queuing characteristics at the Riverside Specialist Clinic of the Federal Medical Centre , Makurdi was analysed using a Multi-server queuing Model and the Waiting and service Costs determined with a view to determining the optimal service level. Data for this study was collected at the Riverside specialist clinic for four weeks through observations, interviews and by administering questionnaire. The data was analysed using TORA optimization Software as well as using descriptive analysis. The results of the analysis showed that average queue length, waiting time of patients as well as overutilization of doctors at the Clinic could be reduced at an optimal server level of 12 doctors and at a minimum total cost as against the present server level of 10 doctors with high Total Cost which include waiting and service costs. This model can also be used by decision and other policy makers to solve other Multi-server queuing problems.

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Yusuf Gbadebo Taofeek, Efunwole Hezekiah Olusegun

Abstract- The ZnO films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique without employing any stirring technique using weak and strong complexing agents such as Dimethylamine (DMA) and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The optical, structural, and morphological properties of ZnO films have been investigated. When the complexing agent were DMA and EDTA, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns from the values of interplanar spacing of a=3.351Å and c=5.226Å were hexagonal structure. The film grown using EDTA was well defined grains with a thickness in the range 0.5 - 0.7μm while the SEM micrograph of DMA film has no well defined crystallites and this was due to restriction on precipitation. The films prepared in absence of complexing agent shows reflections along (002), (200) and (203) planes corresponding to formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure of zinc oxide and formed a network of flakes and magnified cauliflowers of diameter 0.8-1μm. The optical band gap for DMA and EDTA associated thin films were 3.3 and 3.35Ev respectively. Therefore, the effect of complexing agent on the crystal phase of ZnO films was generally found. The thin films obtained in this research could be used in high density data storage systems, solid-state lighting (where white light is obtained from phosphors excited by blue or UV light-emitting diodes), secure communications and bio-detection.

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M. Loganathan, A. Anbarasu & A. Velmurugan

Abstract- In this study, Biodiesel -Dimethyl Ether (BDE ) was tested in a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque .The engine speed was maintained at 1500 rpm. Here the jatropha oil is used as a non edible oil to produce the biodiesel. The dimethyl ether is used as an additive to enhance the engine combustion. The BDE 5 (biodiesel 95% and dimethyl ether 5%), BDE 10 (biodiesel 90% and dimethyl ether 10%) and BDE 15(biodiesel 85% and dimethyl ether 15%) were tested in the engine. The results indicate that when compared with neat jatropha, the engine performance increased and emission level decreased with adding the diethyl ether with methyl ester of jatropha oil. In comparison with neat jatropha, the BDE10 blends have 10% higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) .The experimental results showed that the CO, HC and NOx emission is decreased for all BDE blends. The brakes specific fuel consumption ( BSFC) decreased for all BDE blends compared to neat jatropha oil.

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L. Vaida, D. Banyai, P. A. O Adegbuyi, J. O. Uhomoibhi

Abstract :- Pumps are often used in both industrial applications and mobile hydraulic machinery. In variable displacement pumps, the flow rate is dictated by the system requirements. The electro-hydraulic pump is a new integrated product, which comprise the combination of a pump and motor as a unit replacing the traditional connection with a shaft coupling. The pump is actuated without a rotating shaft utilizing a piston pump embedded in the motor. This brings with it some added advantages such as easy installation, reduction of noise in the system and decrease in power loss. In operation, the piston pump body is placed in the motor rotor, the air gap between the rotor and motor stator is filled with hydraulic oil, the rotor is directly rotated in the hydraulic oil and the control of the pressure and flow is achieved by means of the mechanical adjustment at the pressure valve. Electro-hydraulic systems with volumetric control offer a lot of advantages for pumping, due to the use of axial pistons with variable displacements possibilities. Several researchers have tried to describe the performance structure of these pumps in relation to efficiency; energy loss etc. without needed success. Previous studies have shown that using single loop suppress the steady state vibration, causes relatively good valve performance and reduces the impact on the control piston at the ends of a system's strokes. The use of single feedback control loop reduces the pump production cost whilst maintaining reasonable performance useful for many different and acceptable commercial applications. In our research work we carried out some engineering studies of the control structures of these systems by investigating the characteristics, the convenience and dependence on control scheme and power operation. This paper focuses particularly on the automation of the control systems of these pumps. A system that enhanced the control of flow, pressure and hydraulic power without modifying the structure of the pump was designed, fabricated, tested and is hereby presented. We report on the relationship and dependence of control scheme on power operation and conclude that the use of either single or double feedback loop scheme is largely dependent of the demand and need to protect the pump drive motor.

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O. K. Ogunbamike

Abstract - In this study, the dynamic response of a uniform deep beam resting on a Winkler elastic foundation and excited by a moving load is considered. The solution technique discussed involves the use of finite Fourier transform and the resulting simultaneous equations are reduced to simple algebraic equations via Laplace transform. Analytical and numerical solutions depict that as the values of the elastic foundation moduli increases, the amplitudes of transverse vibration of the beam decreases.

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Rhythm Aggarwal, Dr. Shakti Arora

Abstract - Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Indian rivers are polluted due to the discharge of untreated sewage and industrial effluents. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In this study river water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollution of Kaushalya River in Parwanoo. The water quality was studied quarterly at two sites at upstream and downstream regions during 2011 in the months of January, April, July and October. Physico-chemical and microbiological analyzed. Also the correlation coefficients between parameters of river water samples were parameters of the samples were measured, moreover, possible sources of contamination were determined. Most of the parameters analysed for Kaushalya river were in acceptable range except COD, Alkalinity, Hardness, Total Coliform and Faecal Coliform which showed human, animal and agricultural activities as the main sources of pollution. Trace metal and pesticides levels were low suggesting low contamination of the river by industrial wastes and toxics. However due to presence of a water treatment plant in the village Kamli from where the water of Kaushalya river is supplied to different sectors of Parwanoo, the river is suitable for drinking, bathing, recreation, irrigation and industrial uses, etc. Thus the overall water quality of the study site remained within the safe limits throughout the study period. Though the river is safe, still some of the conservation and management plans are proposed to reduce the sewage and the agricultural impacts on the river.

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Muhammad Ali Ramdhani, Elis Ratna Wulan

Abstract- The purpose of this study is to identify the determinant factors in the formulation of human and computer interaction in software design for Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The methodology used is descriptive analysis toward determination of the determinant factors in the formulation of human and computer interaction in software design for CAI through Focus Group Discussion, and then weighting each aspect in the interaction of human and computer through the respondent perceptions and questionnaire by using utilities weighting model on the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The result showed that the determinant factors in the determinant factors and the formulation of human and computer interaction in software design for CAI, which are respectively based on the value of their interests, are functionality, productivity, interaction model, and security.

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Goutam Goyal, M. E., Dr. K. K. Dhawan, Dr. S. S. Tiwari

Abstract:- To examine the hypothesis that the newer generations of cochlear implants could provide considerable speech understanding to late-implanted, prelingually deaf adult patients. Cochlear implant (CI) user's performance degrades significantly in noisy environments, especially in non-steady noisy conditions.Unlike normal hearing listeners. CI users generally perform better when listening to speech in steady-state noise than in fluctuating maskers, and the reasons for that are unclear. In this article, we propose a new hypothesis for the observed absence of release from masking by CI users. A new strategy is also developed and integrated into existing CI systems to improve speech recognition in noise for CI users.

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Utsev, J. T. , Aho, M. I.

Abstract - In view of the importance of water to the existence of human life, this research attempts to identify the various sources of water, their quality, and the resulting effects when in short supply within the Tse-Agberagba , Akpagher and Ibbilaalukpo communities of Benue state. In this study, questionnaires were administered, field survey which involves direct observation of the existing water sources and oral interview were conducted. The field survey and oral interviews revealed the available sources of water in the areas which include; Stream, Borehole, Rain, and Well. The questionnaires explored the various uses of water as well as the effects of water shortage within the communities. Also, water samples from the various sources were analysed for; Colour, pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Total Iron, Chloride concentration, Sulphate, Total Suspended Solids, E-Coli, and Total Coliform. It is discovered that, there is short in water supply to meet the water demand of the people; hence, high prevalence of water shortage and associated health and other problems. About 95% of the settlements have no water supply facilities to compliment natural water supply sources like streams and rainwater. The result of the analysis indicated that almost all the streams and well water in the three communities were not safe for drinking as a result of high E-coli and coliform count, thus causing pathogenic diseases. Borehole and rainwater sources which are short in supply within the communities were discovered to be the best if properly collected and stored.

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Utsev, J. T., Taku, J. K.

Abstract - The cost of cement used in concrete works is on the increase and unaffordable, yet the need for housing and other constructions requiring this material keeps growing with increasing population, thus the need to find alternative binding materials that can be used solely or in partial replacement of cement. Agricultural waste material, in this case, coconut shells, which is an environmental pollutant, are collected and burnt in the open air (uncontrolled combustion) for three hours to produce coconut shell ash (CSA), which in turn was used as pozzolana in partial replacement of cement in concrete production. Concrete cubes were produced using various replacement levels of 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 percent of OPC with CSA. A total of 54 cubes were produced and cured by immersing them in water for 7, 14 and 28 days respectively. Properties such as compressive strength, density, setting times and pozzolanic activity index were determined. The results showed that the densities of concrete cubes for 10 -15% replacement was above 2400Kg/m3 and the compressive strength increased from 12.45N/mm2 at 7days to 31.78N/mm2 at 28 days curing thus meeting the requirement for use in both heavy weight and light weight concreting. Thus, 10 -15% replacement of OPC with CSA is recommended for both heavy weight and light weight concrete production.

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Farhad Soleimanian Gharehchopogh, Ezzat Ahmadzadeh

Abstract:- Letter recognition for manuscript is one of the categories that has been deliberated in recent years and has many applications. Considering variety of hand writings correct recognition of manuscript letter has many difficulties. In literature various algorithms has been used to letter recognition for manuscript in different languages. Regarding to artificial neural networks (ANNs) abilities in machine learning, parallel processing, flexibility and pattern recognition it would be a convenient method to be used in this field. In this paper, we proposed an ANN based algorithm to letter recognition for Farsi/Arabic manuscript. Finally, we illustrate that proposed method is one of the best method to be used in letter recognition for Farsi/Arabic manuscript.

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Abstract - State variable are crucial to transient simulation initialization of electrical circuits. Other variable that are mathematical related to state variable may also be used to initialize transient response especially in symbolic simulation. In this paper we formulated and simulated electrical circuit transient symbolically using the transient mesh equation derived from branch effective voltage source. The result of the simulation agreed with the existing Matlab simpowersystem tool.

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Mamilus . A. Ahaneku, Anthony . N. Nzeako

Abstract :- Electromagnetic radiations at high frequencies have varied effects on different biological media. Investigations are on going to ascertain the effects of electromagnetic radiations on human, especially with the proliferation of communication masts in the cities. In this paper, efforts are geared towards the assessment of the level of impact on the environment especially as it concerns the pulsed signal at microwave frequencies. This paper will also offer some perspectives on the potential implications for human health exposure on the radiation should the exposure limit exceed the recommended safety zone of about 300 metres away from the base stations. Two measurement procedures were implemented here; one for determining the power density due to the base station of interest, the other for evaluating the total exposure within the university environment. The maximum level recorded at the various sites was 1.3 mW/m2 while the total sum of radiation level encountered was about 2 mW/m2. The investigated level was compared with the international safety level and was found to be below the recommended safety level as provided by international agencies such as ICNIRP and ANSI as examples.

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Basavarajaiah. D. M D. M., B. Narasimhamurthy, B. Leelavathy, Prabhakar B., Vidyashankar N., Mamatha K., Nirmala C., S. Sasthri

Abstract:- Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common AIDS-defining opportunistic infection worldwide. Tuberculosis co-infection with HIV is becoming a global emergency especially in India. Its diagnosis is notoriously challenging in countries, with poor resources and with limited diagnostic facilities. The main objective of the research study was to determine the prevalence, pattern and risk factors for TB in HIV co-infected children in Bowring and lady Curzon hospitals, India A cross sectional study, five years retrospective cohort of HIV- children co infected with TB was carried out at the Centre of excellence from April 2004 to Dec 2009. SAS-6.50 version software was used to analyze data. Univariate analysis was employed to draw the significant inference. Of a total of 60 HIV-infected children observed during the review period, 16(26.66%) were diagnosed as having co-existing TB. Among these, their mean age, weight, CD4 cell count and CD4 percentage at the time of diagnosis were 6.3 ± 2.4 years, 14.3 ± 3.4 kg, 262 ± 28.0 cells/ml, and 9.9%, respectively. Pulmonary TB accounted for 14.60% of all TB cases seen, while disseminated form was seen in 3.00%, TBM (5.0%) and TB Bone (2.5%). TB defaulter at 2 months, six months and eight months was 0.86%, 1.10% and 2.56% respectively. Weight loss, severe cough was the clinical features found to have a fairly good sensitivity (88.9%) and specificity (88.6%) for TB in co-infected children (No censored data), with a positive predictive value of 23.0%. While immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) occurred in 3 (5.00%) of the patients, two death (3.34%) was recorded among the co-infected children. HAART initiation with low CD4 count is highly associated (r=0.75) with TB. The logistic regression model is very easy to predict the relation between CD4 count and HIV-TB co infection.

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G. L. Meena, S. S. Burark, D. C. Pant, Hemant Sharma, R. K. Yogi

Abstract:- The study was undertaken in Alwar District of Rajasthan with the objectives to examine the input-output relationships and assess the resource use efficiency in milk production. The study covered 75 cooperative member milk producers and 75 non-cooperative member milk producers. The results of Cobb-Douglas production function revealed that concentrate had positive and significant influence on returns from buffalo milk across all the household categories for both the member and non-member groups. Green fodder and dry fodder were also influenced the returns from milk significantly across all the household categories for both the member and non-member groups with the sole exception of large category of non-member group. D1 (winter) and D2 (Rainy) dummy variables were found to be positive and statistically significant. The results of Chow's test clearly revealed that the production functions between member and non-member groups differed significantly. The results of the resource use efficiency revealed that green fodder was over-utilized in small and medium categories for both the member and non-member groups, dry fodder was over-utilized by medium category of member group, concentrate was over-utilized by only medium category of member group and by small & medium categories of non-member group while it was under-utilized by large category of non-member group and labour was over-utilized by only small category of member group.

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O. A. Ajayi, B. O. Aderemi, A. S. Ahmed, S. S. Adefila, Ityokumbul, M. T

Abstract:- Synthesis of zeolite from kaolinite clay is a very promising process, requiring thorough beneficiation and calcinations to obtain purer monomer. Kaolinite clay sourced from Kankara, Nigeria is associated with inherent impurities, making its transformation rather challenging. The addition of dye, though, assisted in inhibiting the negative effects of impure phases on the desired end products and increases the nucleation growth, but it could also affect the specific surface area (s.s.a) of the as-synthesized zeolites, as well as product coloration. Specific surface area results from five types of dyes were used in this work, namely: fuchsine, malachite green, toluidine blue, methylene blue and crystal violet were compared with those obtained from ageing, alkalinity and crystallization time for the un-dyed materials. XRF, XRD, SEM and BET analytical technique were employed in monomer and products characterization. The s.s.a for products obtained investigating aging, crystallization time and alkalinity were 470m2/g, 375m2/g and 275m2/g, respectively. The introduced dyes recorded s.s.a of 220m2/g, 340m2/g, 265m2/g, 335m2/g and 520m2/g respectively, for fuchsine, malachite green, toluidine blue, methylene blue and crystal violet. The properties of the as-synthesized zeolites (especially s.s.a) were observed to correlate with the dyes' polar surface area (psa) and its bulkiness. The dye with the lowest psa gave product with the highest s.s.a, an indication of its pore penetration capability, leading to reduce level of segregation and better crystallinity.

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O. A. Ajayi, Olawale, A.S., S. S. Adefila

Abstract:- The utilization of agrowaste for the production of bioethanol has attracted worldwide attention as a strategy for reducing global warming and improving global energy security. Sorrel drink, popularly known as "zoborodo" in Nigeria is a non-alcoholic drink, which is obtained from the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa, by solid-liquid extraction process, leaving the calyces pulp as the raffinate. The calyces obtained after extraction being rich in carbohydrate, is used in this work as raw material for glucose production. The rate of glucose production and its concentration using hydrochloric acid was found to increase with increase in temperature, acid concentration and reaction contact time and reduction in calyces' particle sizes. The conversion after 120 minutes was found to be 25% at 600C with 6% w/v acid strength. The results suggest that acid strength greater than 6%w/v would be more effective from 600C and above. The finding also shows a shift in the influence of mass transfer control to reaction control mechanism, with increase in temperature. It is established that under favorable condition sorrel calyces could serve as alternative source of energy and raw material for food and pharmaceutical industries.

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Dipraj, Dr. A. K. Pandey

Abstract- Variable speed drives are nowadays growing and varying very fast. Drives expanse depends on progress in different part of science like power system, electronic, control methods and so on. Because the fuzzy logic techniques can be used to control any type of system. The mathematical background and initial assumptions on which the conventional method relies on. On the other hand the fuzzy control is based on fuzzy logic, a logical system that is much closer to the human thinking and natural language compared with the classical control methods. Usually the synthesis of controller includes both the controller type selection and the adjustment of its parameters. In some cases the controller\'s type might be more complex than a PI (D) type controller. In all the cases, the tuning problem must be satisfactorily solved. These types of situations can be solved more easily with a fuzzy controller which has made possible the establishment of intelligent control. This study presents efficient method for speed control of a separately excited D.C motor using fuzzy logic control (FLC). However, the controllers based on fuzzy logic theory are used only in simple configurations and their analytical knowledge is still poor. In this paper, a quantitative and qualitative study of fuzzy controller is made.

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N. Swathi, K. Ravi Kumar

Abstract:- Image pressing applications performes image segmentation as pre-processing technique to extract the features for next stage. The application performance depends on image segmentation, to process the foreground or background objects. The image segmentation plays a vital role in computer vision and image processing applications. Inspite of having many thresholding techniques in literature they have their own limitations. This paper proposes a new method of thresholding using Gray Level Spatial Correlation (GLSC) histogram with a dynamic similarity discrimination factor( ) and Fuzzy logic in deciding the threshold using Shannon\'s entropy. The similarity discrimination factor( ) is made dynamic by considering the absolute difference between the global and local mean of the image. Calculating the threshold in the fuzzyfied region makes the segmentation process the most time efficient than the existing methods. Experimental results proove better efficiency than the existing methods. The technique out performs in case of low contrast images.

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Lokesh Shukla, Dr. Anita Nishkam

Abstract:- Constituent Wool Fibers Structure in DRF and Conventional yarns were elicited in Co-relation to Processing Parameters Wool Fiber Length, Twist Multiplier and Strand Spacing by using Box and Behnken\'s Design. The Straight fiber % increases as strand spacing increases at 65 and 70 mm fiber length and decreases at 75 mm fiber length. In all strands spacing, Straight fiber % increases up to 70 mm fiber length than decreases in further increase in fiber length, and Spinning-in-Coefficient % is increases as fiber length increases. In all 3 levels of fiber length, Spinning-in-Coefficient % increases up to 14 mm strand spacing than decreases in further increase. The straight Fiber %, Mean Fiber Extent and Spinning-in-Coefficient of Wool Fiber at optimum levels of variables DRF yarns are improved in comparison to Conventional yarns. The role of TM is not visible. In DRF yarns, straight fiber % was 71 to 61, mean fibers extent was 44.10 to 53.90, spinning in coefficient (%) was 64.75 to 74.90, trailing hooks was 9 to 15, leading hooks was 0 to 10, both leading and trialing hooked was 0 to 5, looped was 1 to 4 and entangled was 0 to 4 respectively.

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Kavita Gururani, Chandra Kala Pant, Namrata Pandey, Pramod Pandey

Abstract:- The effect of heat on the reaction system of glycine - glutamic acid and glycine- leucine at 90 ± 50C has been investigated in aqueous environment in the presence of montmorillonite clay with or without divalent cations (Ca2+, Cu2+ and Mg2+) under prebiotic wetting-drying cycles of primitive earth. The resulting products were analyzed by paper chromatography, UV as well as by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Formation of peptides seems to depend on the nature of the reactant amino acids, duration of heating as well as on montmorillonite clay incorporated with divalent cations. In glycine/glutamic acid, oligomerization of glycine was limited upto tetramer level (Gly4) along with the formation of glycyl-glutamic acid, whereas reaction system of glycine/leucine gave peptides up to tetramer level (Gly4) and showed the formation of Leucyl-Glycine (Leu- Gly). Thus the formation of peptides from the above reaction system reveal that incorporation of metal ions on clay (M) surface enhance the catalytic activity by ion-dipole interaction of cations with dipolar amino acid Zwitter-ions.

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Chiawa, M. M, Torruam, J. T, Abur, C. C

Abstract:- The study investigates government expenditure and economic growth in Nigeria, using cointegation and causality analysis. The study employs Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test, Kwiatkowski, Philips, Schmidt and Shin (KPSS) Test, Johansen based Cointegration and Granger Causality Test. The ADF and KPSS tests indicate that the series are all integrated of order one [I(1)]. The results from the Johansen Cointegration tests indicate three long-run relationships between government expenditure and economic growth. While the test for causality shows that economic growth granger-cause government expenditure. The study also indicates that there exist two unidirectional causality running from GDP to TCE and GDP to TRE which supports the Wagner's Law, that government expenditure affects the economic growth. The regression results indicates that the coefficients of TCE, TRE, TDE and THE have positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth. The results of Error Correction Model (ECM) have negative signs and the Error Correction term (EC) indicate that there exists long run relationship between economic growth and Government expenditure. This show that its takes more years to attain equilibrium. The study therefore concludes that government expenditure causes economic growth. Based on the results obtained, the study recommends that government should ensure that capital and recurrent expenditures are properly managed to accelerate economic growth. Moreso, government should promote efficiency in the allocation of resources on human development by encouraging more private sector participation to ensure productivity-intensive growth.

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M. C. Ikejiofor, O. N. Eke-Okoro

Abstract :- The NRCRI developed cassava stem cutting machine was evaluated. It has the overall dimension of 101.5 x 51 x 120cm. A performance test was carried out on the machine using three different cassava varieties of varying sizes. Also, two different cutting velocities of 1.23 and 1.32m/s were used for the evaluation. The cassava stems were fed manually into hopper while the cam mechanism controls the dropping rates of the cassava stems to the cutting unit. Test results showed that the highest cutting efficiency of 99.15% was obtained for the TME 419 cassava variety with stem size of 2.0cm and machine cutting velocity of 1.23m/s, while the lowest cutting efficiency of 94.11% was obtained for TMS 30572 with stem size of 2.6cm and machine cutting velocity of 1.32m/s. The output capacities of the machine were 944 and 984stakes/min for the cutting velocities of 1.23 and 1.32 respectively. The quality of the produced stakes was very good and showed satisfactory germination performance. The machine should be recommended for maximum production of cassava stakes to encourage mechanization of cassava production.

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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - January 2022 - Volume 11 Issue 1