International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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IJSTR Volume 3- Issue 11, November 2014 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Razali, Zulkifli Nasution, Rahmawaty

Abstract; Different from the study optimization of land use model of a watershed that has been exist; this research aims to get the model of the use of agricultural land in the lake Toba catchment area based on maximum economies advantage. Calculation of the maximum economical agricultural land use based on two things, which are wide cropping who guided by land evaluation suitability and analysis of farmer's agricultural commodities that are cultivated on the lake Toba catchment area. This research was conducted with methods of survey and regression analysis. The results show that there is diversity and farmer advantage and if sorted then: mango > red onion > clove>hazelnut> bunded rice> peanuts >Arabica coffee > cassava > corn. Only 18 of the total 36 Land units on land area of study that suit to be area cropping commodities are tested with an area of 137847.90 ha. Land use in the catchment area of Lake Toba achieving profitability with optimal combination of farmer cropping mango (89.28%), the onion (9.27%) and bunded rice (1.45%).

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Vaishali Khobragade, Leena H. Patil

Abstract: Images are being used since many years in all spheres including Forces, Treatment of injuries and diseases etc. But in the past few years, number of images has increased in huge amount due to the growth of web database. So, in vast and varied collection, users of different domains face a problem of retrieving images relevant to the user query. The semantic association rules mining is constructed at the offline phase where the association rules are discovered between the text semantic clusters and the visual clusters of the images to use it later at the offline phase. Multimodal will refer to the ability to represent, process and analyze two data modalities simultaneously textual keywords or unstructured images.

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Nuraida Md Hassan, Najwan Osman Ali, Mohamed Yusof Radzak

Abstract: Thevehicles in use around the world have produced serious problems to the environment and the depletion of the earth’s petroleum is the motivation to the researchers to develop the alternative way to our daily life. This research paper focuses on development of overall electrical wiring system - low current installation between the controller, high voltage installation and engine compartment installation for Electric Vehicle (EV) conversion. This conversion system used electrical energy stored in rechargeable lead acid batteriesto drive three phase AC Induction electric motor and equipped with controller build by Curtis. The vehicle successfully runs on full electric power but further improvement and modification need to take into action to improve the performance of the vehicle in tern of speed and motor torque by fine tuning of the controller.

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Nicodemus D. Matojo

Abstract: Two morphotypes of the Tailed Net-winged Beetle Lycus trabeatus Guérin-Méneville, 1835 (Lycidae; Coleoptera), currently listed as a monotypic form, were identified and collected from the field in the southern highlands of Tanzania, where they were uncommon. One category was identified as a holotype female and the other one appeared to be a less described paratype female. Their morphological analysis reveals significant variation that connotes subspecific delimitation. The landmarks here reported as the basis for sub-categorization of L. trabeatus are mainly associated with the elytra upon which two new subspecies namely Lycus t. trabeatus and Lycus t. matojoi are proposed. The findings also expand the biogeographic docket of this insect.

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Rina Wahyu Winarni, Winny Gunarti W.W., Wirawan Sukarwo

Abstract: Animated film could be one form of media campaigns. This study designed a short animated film entitled “The Story of Three Little Girls” as a creative strategy to help socialize the issue of human trafficking, especially for teenage girls in Indonesia. As a media campaign this animated presents visual narrative and the main characters. The visual narrative of character animation involve the visual elements, consisting of visual style of facial features, body posture, and fashion style. Qualitatively, the discussion about the visual elements using a semiotic approach to reading visual signs in the character animation. Quantitatively, this study also involving 130 students to read the meaning of the visual style. The visual narrative of character animation show the main visual elements that can build the campaign message.

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Cristiani Baldo, Sergio Paulo Dejato Rocha

Abstract: Proteus mirabilis is a common causative agent of the urinary tract. This microorganism expresses several virulence factors. In uropathogenesis processes P. mirabilis can expresses adhesins, flagella, toxins, enzymes, quorum sensing and immune evasion factors. This review describes some aspects of virulence factors of uropathogenic P. mirabilis.

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Iliycho Petkov Iliev, Nikolay Petrov Denev

Abstract: Parametric third-degree models of laser output power and efficiency are developed for the first time on the basis of the large volume of experiment data on copper bromide vapor (CuBr) lasers. The results obtained using the regression models are compared against experimental data. Good correspondence is found with a relative error of 4-5%. Based on the obtained third degree regression equations, predictions are made for new laser sources with enhanced output characteristics - power and efficiency. The statistical adequacy and reliability of the results is assessed. The results are evaluated and interpreted.

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Mirza Muhammad Amir, Dr. Roz Halliwell, Ashad Mustafa

Abstract: Since the beginning of time, energy has pervaded our earth. We rely on it to advance in any development. As the energy sources become scarcer, it is important to learn how to save and economize energy. A perfect energy should be cheap and efficient. Bi-Fuel system is such a concept, which combines the best of Diesel and Gas driven engines. Diesel driven engines though provide high power density but own the drawback of high cost and high on-site fuel storage. Gas driven engines provide low cost but own the drawback of low power density. A Bi-Fuel system is Compression ignited engine, which runs on the simultaneous combustion of Diesel and Natural gas. It works by introducing gas to the engine via various technologies and then electronically controlling flow dependent on output. This greatly extends the runtimes and limits the amount of diesel fuel that must be stored on site. This research work is about Bi-Fuel system and all this is intended to reflect this idea, whose time has come!

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EASK Fernando

Abstract: The rapid increase in synthetic fabric production promotes the development of water jet looms and water jet weaving technology. Water jet looms are particularly characterized by their high insertion speeds and low energy consumption. However, the main drawbacks of these machines are their excessive water consumption that leads to water wastage. Even though water is a finite, valuable resource and should be used in an effective manner, very little research has been focused on the recirculation of used water and the usage of ground water in water jet weaving. Therefore, the author attempts to design a filtering system that can recirculate the water used in water jet weaving. The water quality of ground water has also been analyzed for its suitability in the weaving process. In order to have a uniform weft that minimizes greigefabric defects and mitigates machine damages, an experimental analysis was executed. The acquired data shows the parameters of ground water that should be controlled during recirculation. Finally, an objective assessment of test results was used to develop a suitable, simple, and cost effective filtering system. The system can be utilized to recycle ground water and to minimize both water wastage and consumption in water jet weaving.

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Faria S. Imam, Saimah Tahsin, Asif Hassan

Abstract: The construction industry is changing fast due to continuing invention of new technologies, construction equipments and materials. To keep pace with the advancement of technology it is required for the codes to be updated on a regular basis. Initiative has been taken to update BNBC (Bangladesh National Building Code) 1993, and a draft copy has already been prepared. Significant changes have been introduced in BNBC 2012 with regard to analysis for lateral loads. To identify the changes in design and analysis of various structures a comparative study is necessary to relook at the provisions of the present code and look for the feasibility of any change of the recent upgrading code. This study aims at the comparison of provisions of wind and earthquake analysis given in existing BNBC 1993 to that in proposed BNBC 2012. It is found that seismic base shear of the building calculated by BNBC 2012 varies significantly from seismic base shear calculated by BNBC 1993. Finally structural analysis and design of a typical apartment building situated in Dhaka City is conducted to demonstrate the changes regarding lateral load in proposed BNBC 2012 with respect to BNBC 1993. The basic differences in seismic base shear and maximum lateral displacement with varying number of stories using two codes are presented. The comparison in inter storey drift is also made for 6 storied and 12 storied building to show the effect in inter storey drift using two codes. Analysis is made to compare maximum reinforcement requirement for column design to provide guideline to the engineer for the most economic design.

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Jonatan Ginting, B. Sengli J. Damanik, Jamuda M. Sitanggang, Chairul Muluk

Abstract: The problem of providing rice to feed the population of Indonesia nationally until now is still a problem for which need to be addressed.One alternative to be able to help overcome this problem is to develop the cultivation of upland rice in immature rubber plantations.This research aims to obtain an adaptive upland rice variety grown in immature rubber plantation with an appropriate soil tillage method and the optimal dose of organic matter to obtain high rice productivity.This research using split - split plot experimental design with 3 factors and 3 replications.The first factor is the soil tillage method consists of 3 methods (1.Soil cleaned with a hoe, then planted. 2.Soil tillage method 1 time with a hoe, flattened, then planted. 3.Soil tillage method 2 times with a hoe, flattened, then planted). The second factor is an organic material consists of treatment doses : 0 tons/ha, 5 tons/ha, 10 tons/ha dan 15 tons/ha. The third factor is the upland rice varieties (Si Kembiri and Situ Patenggang).The results showed that Situ Patenggang variety provide highly significant effect on the increase in the number of tillers and number of panicles per hill of plants compared to Si Kembiri variety. Organic material at dose of 5 tons/ha giving the highest significant effect to increase in the number of panicles per hill of upland rice crop. Combination of soil tillage method 2 times and Situ Patenggang variety giving the best significantly effect on increasing : the number of productive grain per panicle, grain weight per hill of upland rice plant and grain production per experiment plot. Combination of organic material at dose 5 tons/ha with Situ Patenggang variety giving best effect to the increased number of productive grain per panicle, grain weight per hill of upland rice plant, and grain production per experiment plot.

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Alban Kuriqi

Abstract: Environmental protection and water quality preservation is an import task for each person in the world. In this paper importance of water quality is discussed, in addition different waste water treatment processes are presented. Main objective of this paper is application of Simulink for dynamic modeling of biological treatment, especially concerning to the activated sludge processes (ASP). In connection with Simulink modeling different mathematical approach are presented and consider also during the simulation. Simulink modeling on Matlab is developed based on aerator tank model. Aerator model itself consists on movement of particles settled on bottom of the tank, by using air bubbling process. Several simulations are done for two different cases, dry weather and rain episode. Concerning to dry weather episode, equilibrium of biomass and organic matter is reached after long period (i.e. 200 days). While concerning to the rain episode there is a decrease of biomass and increase of organic matter, also it is notice a significant growth of bacteria’s. Finally this model could be improved by considering a slow increase of flow rate.

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G. E. Iniama, E. N. Nfor, E. D. Okon, I. T. Iorkpiligh

Abstract: The reaction of zinc chloride with 2-acetylpyridine-4-phenylsemicarbazone and nitrogen–sulphurmonodentate ligands such as thiophene, pyridine, picoline ,aniline and ammonia; yielded five novel mixed -ligand complexes: Zn(2-Ac.4-Psc.Th)Cl2 ,Zn(2-Ac.4-Psc.Py)Cl¬2, Zn(2-Ac.4-Psc.Pi)Cl2, Zn(2Ac.4-Psc.An)Cl2 and Zn(2-Ac.Psc.Am)Cl2. These were characterized by elemental analysis,molar conductivity,1H and 13C-NMR, IR and electronic absorption spectroscopic studies.All the complexes possess tetrahedral geometries. The antimicrobial activities were evaluated against staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis,Aspergillusnigers andCandida albicans.The result of significant inhibition of growth and proliferation of these microbes by the chelates were obtained particularly with the highest efficiency shown by thethiophene and aniline incorporated complexes

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Oke Alice O, Omidiora Elijah O, Fakolujo Olaosebikan A.

Abstract: Digital image processing has made its way into today’s technology and Computer driven Society with applications encompassing a wide variety of specialized disciplines. Image degradation, however, becomes a serious threat to image processing as current trend in security measures tends towards the use of biometrics. Moreover, data collected using image sensors are generally contaminated by noise and region of interest in the image degraded by many factors among which is motion blur during acquisition, thus, the need to recover or reconstruct the original image. Several image restoration algorithms have been developed to minimize such errors. Wiener filtering algorithm has been and still being adjudged the best restoration algorithm for the clas of linear methods. However, it has the tendency to cause undesirable artifacts in the resultant image. In order to remove the undesirable artifacts, this paper developed a modified Wiener algorithm. Performance of which was evaluated and Computational results showed modified Wiener performed better than the conventional Wiener algorithm.

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Pawan Gupta, Susheel Jain, Anurag Jain

Abstract: In this paper we cover some reference paper and compared different algorithm on the basis of their performance and selection of data set. Where the efficiency concerns on the time evaluation of features selection, and the effectiveness is related to the quality of the subset of features selection. We analysis this report based on feature subset selection algorithm from the years of 1997 to 2013 and summaries the result of data.

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Nithya. K, Aruna.A, Anandakumar.H, Anuradha.B

ABSTRACT: In the field of image processing, various types of denoising algorithm is used to smoothen the texture of the image quality and to remove the unwanted noise such as salt and pepper noise, additive white Gaussian noise etc. In the existing work, a novel gradient histogram preservation (GHP) algorithm was developed to enhance the texture structures and exhibits the poor performance in human image detection experiments. In the proposed work Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) methods is used to estimate the noisy observation of an medical image to preserve the texture appearance. By experimental results peak signal noise ratio(PSNR) parameters will be calculated efficiently and make the image enhanced without noise and brings the quality of image without any loss of data by comparing the GHP and DWT to give a high performance using mat-lab simulation.

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D.Shilpa Kamala Priya, S.Boopathy

Abstract: In Wireless Sensor Network each sensor is powered with battery life. Energy consumption plays an important role in WSN. Network life is prolonged by enhancing the energy conservation. The geographical forwarding and k coverage is used together to analyze the energy and the battery life. The sleep awake scheduling algorithm is used where energy loss takes place, so a distributed k covered randomized algorithm is used to improve the battery life and energy. The k coverage covers the maximum area with minimum number of sensors. Example for k coverage is planet exploration, multi sensor data etc. The k coverage plays an important role by minimizing energy and determining the number of active sensor for the required k coverage field. Geographic forwarding is used for passing the data from source to destination, when forwarding the data it assumes that all sensors are active but it is unrealistic in real world application where the sensors are switched on and off. The work carried out in this paper focuses on providing a minimum energy duty cycling protocol to prolong the battery life and energy efficient geographic forwarding.

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Adarsh Ranjan, Kushagra Sharan, Sudeep Mazumdar

Abstract: Pedal Powered Washing Machine (PPWM) is a low cost washing machine made up of easily and readily available scrap parts in daily life. It is a machine which generates power through human pedaling and with the drive mechanism, converts the pedaling motion into required rotary motion of the drum. Its innovation lies in its simple design, use of inexpensive parts, very low repairing and maintenance cost, affordability to each member of the society and it does not affect the environment. Our team intends to directly address the problems faced in washing clothes, and thus have developed a new design for easy effort in washing, rinsing and drying clothes. PPWM is a completely new concept, which in its one laundry cycle does washing, rinsing and drying of clothes similar to that of an automatic washing machine available in the market.

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Rheymar F. Asio, Jeffrey T. Blay, Ryan C. Dalhag, Ranniel D. Dela Pena, Edward D. Gumapac, Odrareg Pormento, Angelita M. Pagcaliwagan

Abstract: This study determined the Compatibility of the Body Dimensions of Nigerian BS Marine Engineering and BS Marine Transportation Students to the Classroom Armchairs of Lyceum of the Philippines University – Batangas LIMA Campus. This study used a descriptive method of research wherein the quantitative data were gathered using a survey questionnaire to determine the body dimensions of the respondents (lower and upper extremities), and to identify the extent of problems encountered by the Nigerian Students in the academic performance related to classroom armchair. The respondents of the study were Bachelor of Science in Marine Engineering and Bachelor of Science in Marine Transportation. The students from all groups of different class hours have the possibility to encounter very little problem in their academics due to their classroom armchair. The body dimensions of First Year Nigerian students were larger than the classroom armchairs at the LIMA Building but fitted in the armchairs of new building. The results also showed that there is no significant difference between the problems encountered by male and female Nigerian students when it comes to their classroom armchair. The LIMA administration must continually improve the resources of the University and investing for the safety and comfort of the students can be an opportunity for the school to grow for the next coming years..

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Rezaul Karim, Md Abu Shamim Khan, SM Nur Alam, Nabila Nawshin

Abstract: The main work of this project is the characterization of household waste and its equivalent energy recovery of the household waste management in the urban areas. Primary and secondary data were used for the manuscript. In the total amount of the waste 87% is vegetable, 4% grass and wood, 1% plastic, 2% is paper and only 1% metal were found. The moisture content as discarded waste was found 68.05%. The suitability of the municipal solid waste as a possible source of energy was also put into consideration; an energy content of the solid waste was determined and observed to be 6.04 MJ/kg which is significant. Hence, it can be used to generate energy in Jessore Municipatlity. Hence, electricity energy with 1420 kW will be produced by the household waste of Jessore pourashava if household waste will be properly managed.

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Dharmesh Kashyap, Jaydeep Viradiya

Abstract: Cloud computing is emerging as a new paradigm for manipulating, configuring, and accessing large scale distributed computing applications over the network. Load balancing is one of the main Challenges in cloud computing which is required to distribute the workload evenly across all the nodes. Load is a measure of the amount of work that a computation system performs which can be classified as CPU load, network load, memory capacity and storage capacity. It helps to achieve a high user satisfaction and resource utilization ratio by ensuring an efficient and fair allocation of every computing resource. Proper load balancing aids in implementing fail-over, enabling scalability, over- provisioning, minimizing resource consumption and avoiding bottlenecks etc. This paper describes a survey on load balancing algorithms in cloud computing environment along with their corresponding advantages, disadvantages and performance metrics are discussed in detail.

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Kamran Khan, Salman Qadri, Shabir Ahmad, Abu Buker Siddique, Anam Ayoub, Shaista Saeed

Abstract: To reduce the high failure rate of software projects, managers need better tools to assess and manage software project risk. As a way to build such resources, on the other hand, details programs analysts must remainder create a better knowledge of the particular measurements of software package project risk as well as how they may have an impact on task performance. Development in this area continues to be obstructed by means of: (1) a reduction in confirmed equipment intended for computing software package project risk that will make use of the particular measurements of chance which have been seen as essential by means of software package task supervisors, as well as (2) a reduction in idea to describe the particular linkages in between numerous measurements of software package project risk as well as task performance. Within this examine, six to eight measurements of software package project risk ended up recognized as well as reliable as well as logical measures ended up designed for each and every. Well guided by means of socio techie programs idea, an exploratory model originated as well as analyzed. The outcomes present that will societal subsystem chance influences techie subsystem chance, which often, in return, influences how much task supervision chance, as well as eventually, task performance. This significance of those information intended for investigation as well as exercise are usually reviewed.

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Artemio A. Martin Jr

Abstract: A soil resource database of the major agricultural soils of Cagayan Valley was developed and complimented by a printed guidebook “Soils in Cagayan Valley: Guidebook to Sustainable Soil Resource Management”. The database contained an inventory of all the established soil seriesin the four provinces of Cagayan Valley, Region 2– Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya and Quirino. Morphological, physical and chemical properties of the established soil series of the four provinces under study were collated and properly validated in the field using standard procedures of profile description, soil sampling and laboratory testing. After correlation and validation of the primary and secondary data, assessment of crop suitability was conducted, and finally, management recommendations for each soil series were formulated. The locationsof the soil at the barangay level were identified using the Geographic Information System (GIS).The soil resources database includes the soil physical and chemical characteristics, constraints to crop production, suitability for major crops of the region, and soil management recommendations intended for agricultural practitioners to grasp vital information on the different soils in the region. It will guide technicians and farmers to undertake decisions on what crop to grow in a specific soil series based on crop suitability rating, harnessing the innate characteristics and nutrient contents of the soils, as it provides standardized systems in nutrient management stipulating the quantified fertilizer inputs for specific soil series – an information needed at the field for optimal and sustainable soil resource management. As designed, searcher can select a specific province, then municipality and then a particular barangay where he wants to identify its dominant soil series. A user friendly system would facilitate the location of the soil in any of the four provinces as well as show the municipalities under specific province. A list of barangayscan be seenas well and the selection for specific barangay can therefore be obtained easily. Once the barangay is selected, the dominant soil series in that area with the corresponding information on their characteristics, crop suitability, limitations up to soil management recommendation will be seen on the screen. The guidebook will complement the information system, especially for localities lacking tools to access the system. The information contained in the soil resource information system can therefore serve as decision-support information system towards sustainable agricultural production.

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Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Doumit Camilios-Neto, Cristiani Baldo, Agnes Magri, Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi

Abstract: Sophorolipids are biosurfactants belonging to the class of the glycolipid, produced mainly by the osmophilic yeast Candida bombicola. Structurally they are composed by a disaccharide sophorose (2’-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glycopyranose) which is linked β -glycosidically to a long fatty acid chain with generally 16 to 18 atoms of carbon with one or more unsaturation. They are produced as a complex mix containing up to 40 molecules and associated isomers, depending on the species which produces it, the substrate used and the culture conditions. They present properties which are very similar or superior to the synthetic surfactants and other biosurfactants with the advantage of presenting low toxicity, higher biodegradability, better environmental compatibility, high selectivity and specific activity in a broad range of temperature, pH and salinity conditions. Its biological activities are directly related with its chemical structure. Sophorolipids possess a great potential for application in areas such as: food; bioremediation; cosmetics; pharmaceutical; biomedicine; nanotechnology and enhanced oil recovery.

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Durairaj. M, Kannan.P

Abstract: Cloud computing is a modern technology that increase application potentialities in terms of functioning, elastic resource management and collaborative execution approach. The central part of cloud computing is virtualization which enables industry or academic IT resources through on-demand allocation dynamically. The resources have different forms such as network, server, storage, application and client. This paper focus as on how virtualization helps to improve elasticity of the resources in cloud computing environment. In addition to, this paper gives a detailed review on open source virtualization techniques, challenges and future research direction.

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Pallavi Yadav, Paras Nath Barwal

Abstract: Responsive web design is a web design approach aimed at designing sites to provide an optimal viewing experience. The basic idea of designing a responsive website is to fit in the content, based on the size of the device without hiding any content and changing the view of layout. Since the visitors of different websites through handheld devices in increasing day by day, it has become necessity to design the websites with responsive layout. Responsive website designing have reduced the problem of resizing, panning, and scrolling and accessing them from any device. People can now access information easily with responsive websites because they respond to need of users and the devices they are using. The layout of site changes based on the size and capabilities of the device. Responsive designing have reduced lot of efforts of organizations in developing and maintaining the websites for different devices. This can be achieved by using CSS3 and HTML5 for designing. Different classes are designed in CSS which are used at multiple location in code, these classes’ helps reducing number of line of code of the project and prevents from inline styling, which helps in maintaining symmetry throughout the design and layout. This paper will elaborately discuss the need of these websites today, how they benefit the users, how to design these websites, what are the challenges faced while designing such websites and how to resolve them and what are its future implications.

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Mr. Rashid Hamed Al Azri, Mr. MajidHilal Al-Rashdi

Abstract: Teaching new vocabulary in English Foreign Language classes is among the hottest issues for any every ELF teacher anywhere in the world. Of course there are a variety of methods and strategies to do so in class, but in this paper wewould like to present a minor study we have made, in order to prove what methods are more effective than others and why such methods are more effective as opposed to others. We also learnt a lot in the process of this study, and therefore decided to write this paper in order to present all the data and findings from a practical point of view, including all relevant benefits and limitations.

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Jai Prakash Kohar, Sekhar Gogoi

Abstract: Radial Drilling (RD) is an economic, environmentally friendly technique to drill numerous micro diameter lateral horizontal wells from different levels from an existing well. In this paper emphasis has been given to study the process of radial drilling technology, its advantages, overcoming its limitation, its usage in the recovery of left out crude oil from exiting reservoirs especially those from brown fields. The paper also provides ways to implement RD to such oil & gas fields before implementing the expensive IOR-EOR methods and also an analysis of its economic feasibility is discussed. The Indian prospects of Radial Drilling technique has also been analysed and recommendations has been given based upon the possibility of implementing in the brown/ depleted fields of India.

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Johnmichael Quinlan

Abstract: In this report the author will describe the problems related to background detail geometry creation and level design. Specifically I’m going to concentrate on texture encoding methods to improve the usability and workflow for artists and designers while maintaining a solution in keeping with existing game engine technologies.

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Animut Assefa, Meseret C. Egigu, Ameha Kebede

Abstract: Low degradability of substrates is one of the factors that hinder the production of biogas. With the aim of maximizing biogas yields from cow dung (CD) and poultry litter (PL), a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic conditions at 38 ºC using batch digester operating for 21 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). Temperature pre-treatment at 60 and 80 ºC and chemical pre-treatment with NaOH (0.45 g, 1.35 g and 2.25 g) were applied as a pre-treatment. Cumulative biogas production and VS reduction from anaerobic digestion of 80 ºC pre-treated substrate was 46.3% and 26.1% higher than the control, respectively. However, thermal pre-treatment at 60 and 80 ºC did not show statistically significant difference in biogas production. Biogas yields of substrates that received 0.45 g, 1.35 g, and 2.25 g of NaOH increased biogas production by 0.03%, 21% and 56% over that of the control, respectively. Overall results indicated that the biogas yield and VS and TS reduction can be enhanced through thermal and chemical pre-treatments prior to anaerobic digestion.

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Langat Reuben Cheruiyot, Tonui Benard Cheruiyot, Lagat Janet Jepchumba

Abstract: In this study we have explored an estimator for finite population total under the famous prediction approach. This approach has been compared with design-based approach using simple random sampling and stratified random sampling techniques. It is shown that the estimators under model based approach give better estimates than the estimators under design based approach both when using simple random sampling (s.r.s) and stratified random sampling. The relative absolute error from both approaches is computed and has been shown to be superior under the super population model than the design based approach. This approach is then applied to predict the total number of people living with HIV/AIDS in Nakuru Central district.

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N.R.Meddage, V.G.S. Pradeepika

Abstract: Video search engine optimization is a new trend in the internet. Increasing demand for video searching has persuaded business companies to spend more on video search engines as a marketing strategy. Therefore designing video search engines have become a lucrative and imaginary trend. Most of existing video search engines uses their own video repositories (databases) for storing video data to fulfill video requirements of Internet users and it costs more money because video files need more storage capacity and wide range of movies are needed to satisfy users and it is unaffordable for individuals and small business organizations. Metasearch engine is the ideal solution to develop video search engine with minimum effort and cost. Developing a metasearch is supported by a variety of web technologies and programming skills. This research project concerns about creating a server-based metasearch engine, “AVQUICK” to search multiple video search engines to extract top videos for given user queries and to re-rank results to give better video experience for users. AVQUICK is developed using VB.net programming language and it is not expected to use own databases. Different “Information Retrieval” (IR) techniques and web content mining techniques are used for searching engines, analyzing HTML document, extracting text and to re-rank collected results.

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Meta Mahendradatta, Arfina Sukmawati Arifin, Zainal, Abu Bakar Tawali, Nandi K. Sukendar

Abstract: Preparation of concentrate dispersion from snakehead fish (Channa striata) as food supplement required stabilizer such as carrageenan. Snakehead fish was selected as raw material due to its high content of albumin protein. This research aimed to study the effect of carrageenan on physical stability of concentrate dispersion and to determine the optimal concentration of carrageenan which produced stable concentrate dispersion. Treatments used in this research were the concentration of carrageenan (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2%) and storage time (one day, three days and five days). Production process of concentrate dispersion from snakehead fish consisted of preparation of 10% fish concentrate solution, mixing with appropriate carrageenan concentration, homogenization at 6500 rpm for 5 minutes and sterilization at temperature 121oC and 1 atmosphere pressure for 15 minutes. Observation was conducted on the stability of concentrate dispersion after one, three and five days. Measurement parameters were viscosity, sedimentation volume, phase separation, and redispersibility. The result showed that the difference of carrageenan concentration influenced the physical properties of concentrate dispersion. The higher the concentration, the greater the viscosity of carrageenan (61.33 - 1920.68 cP), the higher sedimentation volume (0.67 - 0.99 cm), the lower the phase separation (0.43 –0.01cm), and the lower redispersibility (13.55 – 0.33). The best concentration of carrageenan for making concentrate dispersion was 1.5%.

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A. Shyam Kumar, K.V.Reddy, M.Ashok

Abstract: This study characterized the influence of Gypsum (CaSO42H20) a chemical fertilizer on Tulsi (Ocimum basilicum) plant. The experiment was conducted with five different methods of treatments Viz. Control,Incineration,Broadcasting,Lines and spots and constant 1 ton /hec gypsum applied to the field for observing morphological variability through a randomized completely block design with four replications. Data was recorded on plant height, Plant weight, Stem weight, Leaf weight and Number of leaves. There was a great significance observed in Plant height, Plant weight and Stem weight. Interesting high morphological variability was seen constantly in the Spots treatment. Hence, the results suggest that Spots treatments works best to achieve better growth at 1 ton /hec application of gypsum.

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A.Amidah Amrawaty, M. Saleh S. Ali, Nurdiah Husnah

Abstract: The successful of farm development relies heavily on science and technology adoption by cattlemen society. Indonesia as a developing country has absorbed technologies from developed countries, some showed good results but some others less complies with the existing conditions. Technology transfer from developed countries to developing countries could hamper development. The importance of indigenous technology expressed that only one thing could help efforts to increase the income of farmers with an understanding of local knowledge systems and the structure of the existing institutions. Therefore, to develop animal resources and in particular sustainable beef cattle farm, a synergy need to be built between local knowledge of farmer communinities which already applied and blends in with the local culture and modern knowledge generated through research, actualized in concept of sustainable animal husbandry development acting very dominant for sustainability, well-being, social, and creativity. Local knowledge is possible for synergy with modern knowledge which has become the main knowledge in agricultural development today. Synergizing both of these knowledges needs a precondition of mutual respect among owners of these the stocks of knowledge. Experts or owners of modern knowledge must admit and cherish local knowledge owners and vice versa, owners of local knowledge should also appreciate the modern one. Without esteem from both knowledge owners it is impossible to synergize both of this knowledge.

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Anuradha Thilakarathne, Janaka I Wijayanayake

Abstract: In today’s ICT service industry, there are many changes that promote technology services in many markets. Cloud Computing is a comprehensive solution that delivers IT as a service. Different Cloud Services enable an organization to operate its IT applications on an OPEX model rather than the traditional CAPEX model. The cloud computing significantly impacts shifting of both IT paradigm and Telecom platform. Telecommunication services, especially the Internet service have flooded the world with huge volume of information and posing challenges to the organizations and telecommunication operators on keeping up expanding the network in order to provide the good quality of services while providing higher level of security on service deliverables. In this paper, we examine the types of security risks been glued on to the cloud computing and the importance of refrain from those vulnerabilities in mass scale.

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Magaji G. Usman, M. Y. Rafii, M. R. Ismail, M. A. Malek, Mohammad Abdul Latif, Yusuff Oladosu

Abstract: Heat stress has significant effect on protein metabolism, including degradation of proteins, inhibition of protein accumulation and induction of certain protein synthesis. It also poses a serious damage to the growth and development of the plant. The ability of the plants to respond to this stress by maintaining protein in their functional conformation as well as preventing the accumulation of non-native proteins are highly important for the cell survival. Heat shock proteins are involved in signaling, translation, host-defence mechanisms, carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid metabolism. In fact, these proteins are now understood to mediate signaling, translation, host-defence mechanisms, carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid metabolism by playing a significant function in controlling the genome and ultimately features that are obvious. Several reviews have reported the tolerance of plants to different abiotic stresses. The topic of enhancing protection mechanisms (including HSPs) to induce heat resistance is very interesting and research in this area has many repercussions for the understanding of heat stress response. However, this review reports Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) and their function, research progress on the association of HSPs with plant tolerance to heat stress as well as the response of the HSPs under heat stress as an adaptive defence mechanism.

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K.V. Sekharnath, U.Sajankumarji Rao, Y.Maruthi,M.N.Prabhakar, M.C.S. Subha ,K. Chowdoji Rao, Jung-il Song

Abstract: Using solution casting technique, MFI-24Q Zeolite-incorporated (Sodium alginate and Hydroxy propyl cellulose) blend membranes were prepared and subjected to characterized and used for the pervaporation separation of water-isopropanol mixtures. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique was used to analyze the possible chemical reactions between NaAlg, HPC, zeolite, and glutaraldehyde. TGA studies revealed the stability of the zeolite incorporated membrane and scanning electron microscopy results used to analyze the surface morphology of the membranes. X-Ray diffraction analysis showed the broadening and sharpening of the peaks at different NaAlg concentration with HPC. This indicated changes in the crystallinity to amorphous ratio which in turn showed the miscibility of these two polymers in the blend membrane. The effects of Zeolite loading and feed composition on the pervaporation performance of the membranes were analyzed. Both flux and selectivity increased simultaneously with an increase of zeolite content in the polymer matrix. This was explained on the basis of enhancement of hydrophilicity, selective adsorption and molecular sieving action including reduction of pore size of the membrane matrix. The membrane containing 15 mass % of zeolite shows the highest separation selectivity of 991 with a flux of 0.67x10-2 kg/m2 h for 10 mass % of water in the feed mixture at 300C. Increase in water selectivity of the membrane was explained due to a reduction in free volume by increasing zeolite content of the membrane. Separation selectivity and permeation flux data are dependent on water composition of the feed mixture. The hindrance of water permeation at higher composition of water in the feed mixture was explained due to the formation of clusters of water molecules.

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Prakash Tripathi, Dr. Kanojia Sindhuben Babulal.

Abstract: Vehicle connectivity can be considered as an emerging technology that provides dissemination of warning messages and traffic information to vehicles running on the road. The deployment of vehicular ad-hoc network communication is strictly dependent on strictly on their security and privacy features. Recent advances in the hardware and software technology, tremendous improvements are made. Emerging Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks have the potential to improve the safety, traffic efficiency and as well as comfort to both drivers and passengers of highways. In the last three decades, various kinds of improvements are made in Wireless Ad-hoc Network and now a day’s one of the most attractive research topic is Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) and become the most relevant form of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks. In this paper we address the Security in Vehicular ad-hoc Network. We provide a detail threat analysis as well as devise the solution of these threats. We provide a set of security protocols to protect the privacy and analyze the robustness and efficiency. In this paper we propose security architecture for vehicle communication. The architecture contains symmetric and asymmetric cryptography mechanism in the vehicular distributed environment for dissemination of information securely and efficiently.

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Dr. Onumadu, F.N. Odoemelam, L.E., Osakwe, O.P.

ABSTRACT: The study analyzed organic food-crop production in Umuahia South Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. Structured and validated interview schedule was used to collect relevant information from 115 organic food-crop farmers using multistage random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean and regression statistics. The findings showed that the organic food-crop farmers were dominated by farmers aged 30-49 years representing 68.7% of the total respondents. Majority (61.7%) were females and 80.9% of them were married. Over 45% of the respondents had household size of 4 – 6 people. There was high literacy among the farmers who had farming as their major occupation. The commonly grown organic food-crop were maize, tomato and pepper, vegetables and cassava. Other crops were intercropped with these food-crops to provide the much needed green manure for the crops. Increased productivity (91.3%), low cost of production (79.1%), high yield of product (75.7%) and organic food taste and safety in consumption (53.9%) were the major reasons why farmers engaged in organic food-crop production. Nevertheless, constraints which militated against organic food-crop production in the study area included pest and disease attack (96.5%), poor storage facilities (88.7%), inadequate extension contact with farmers (72.2%), lack of credit facilities and subsidies (71.3%) and lack of infrastructural facilities (70.4%). Results of the regression showed that age, market availability, land tenure system and education correlated significantly with the level of farmers’ production of organic food-crops. It was recommended that farmers should be motivated through credit facilities to enable them purchase inputs needed for organic farming in order to ensure sustainable production of food. Again, farmers should be enlightened on various organic methods of controlling weeds, pests and diseases by extension workers.

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Nura Alam Jeko

Abstract: Medicine is a life savings product and its important cannot be avoided. Especially developing country like Bangladesh where many fatal diseases attack by people and supplying cheap rate medicine can contribute the country community. Providing economical rate quality medicine is crucial in developing country because most of people live below scarceness level. In the research found that enormous number of people purchasing medicine repeatedly and spending large amount of money. This research was conducted in Uttara, Nikunjo, Banani and Dhanmondi areas in Dhaka city. All the data analysis and evaluation has been done on basis of Dhaka city. Online medicine business can provide economical rate quality products through maintain efficient operating level. Online medicine business prospects were high and people showed their expectation toward this business but depending on some variables. People mostly expectations were providing quality medicine and services alone with a good price. They also showed intention to purchase medicine online and want delivery within short period which may pose a challenge to the business. This was occurred because people now wanted fastest delivery possible. Most of the people want home delivery of their order which is recently has been introduced in Bangladesh which lead to customer satisfaction. Customer were very much concern this kinds of services. Thus efficient operating and quality medicine supplies can help to that business grow more.

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Nasiru Alhassan, Adams Abdul-Rahaman

ABSTRACT: Thirty-six (36) cantaloupe melon fruits were used for the weight loss and firmness level trial. Eighteen (18) fruits were coated with NatralifeTM coating while the 18 of the fruits were not coated and were used as control fruits. Six fruits each of coated and uncoated fruits were stored in a cold store at 2°C, another six fruits each of coated and uncoated were stored at 9°C cold storage, while the other six fruits each of the coated and uncoated fruit were kept in shelf life room of 20°C and a relative humidity of 85-90% for 30 days. The coating of melons with NatralifeTM coatings was by hand brushing with sponge and allowed for 30-45 minutes to dry under natural ventilation before been stored at the various storage conditions. In regard to weight loss Melon fruits coated with NatralifeTM coating had a signficant effect at 0.05% on weight loss stored at cold storage of 2°C and 9°C and shelf life room of 20°C and had reduced weight loss compared to uncoated control melons. Cantaloupe melon fruits stored at shelf life room of 20°C loss firmness at a rapid rate than fruits held at cold store of 2°C and 9°C. At cold store 2°C and 9°C, it was found that both coated and uncoated melons held at 2°C loss less firmness than fruit stored at 9°C cold store. Overall, Melon fruits coated and stored at 2°C perform better than fruits stored at 9°C and shelf-life room, while fruits held at 9°C did better than those stored at shelf-life room.

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Dr. Omar AL-Khataibeh, Dr. Firas AL- Labady

Abstract: The Exceptio Constitutional method appears as a form of connection of the Constitutional Court of the constitutional lawsuit, When there is a case pending in front the trial court and intended to be applied to the text of the law, and one of the dispute parties see is unconstitutional, then he Exceptio Constitutional to trial court, and he will appreciates the seriousness of this Exceptio, The Exceptio is an objective exception it can be raised at any stage of the proceedings to exceptio which related to public system as it the trial court can be exposed on its own. As result for this paper; prevent individuals to resort directly to the Constitutional Court to appeal the constitutionality of any law or regulation, and Jordanian legislator suspended referral exceptio Constitutional that raised front of the trial court to accept the Court of Cassation, which considered it by the law that it have the right to accept or reject the exceptio Constitutional. And here the researcher recommend to Amend the Article (9) of the Law of the Constitutional Court regarding with the aspects entitled to appeal directly to the Court on the constitutionality of laws and regulations by adding a paragraph authorizing individual personal interest directly appeal to the Constitutional Court. In other words to be appeal by the original case in addition to the other four methods, and issue text with a few guarantees to not abused this right by the plaintiffs and the exhaustion of the Constitutional Court. And don’t leave the subject of referral the exceptio Constitutional under Cassation Court responsibility.

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Nwadinigwe, Chukwuemeka A., Udo, Godwin J., Nwadinigwe, Alfreda O.

Abstract: Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals Concentrations in Sediment Samples around major Tributaries in Ibeno Coastal Area, Niger Delta, Nigeria was investigated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Unicam 939 model. Fifteen composite sediment samples were collected in February 2013 and June 2014 representing dry and wet seasons respectively. The concentrations (mg kg-1) of heavy metals in sediment for dry and wet seasons were in decreasing order of (dry) Fe (22.18±14.82) > Mn (9.67±2.75) > V (3.39±3.30) > Ni (2.18±0.78) > Cd (0.48±0.75) > Co (0.10±0.01) > Zn (0.49±0.08) > Pb (0.05±0.07) and (wet) Fe (23.28±0.24) > Mn (9.45±2.63) > V (3.31±3.34) > Ni (1.94±1.48) > Cd (0.48±0.74) > Pb (0.03±0.04). The mean concentrations of Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, in dry season were higher when compared to the mean concentrations of the heavy metals in wet season except, Fe, V, and Co. The mean concentrations of Cd for dry and wet seasons were the same in dry and wet seasons. All the heavy metals were detected in all the sediment samples. The mean concentrations of all the heavy metals were higher than the control sediment in both dry and wet seasons but below the World Health Organization standards. Iron was found to be the most abundant metal in sediment for both seasons. The average pH (6.170) of the sediment was slightly acidic and below WHO and DPR standards. Frequent monitoring of aquatic environments is necessary in order to detect and prevent cumulative consequences of heavy metallic pollutants which may lead to sub-lethal effects in the aquatic fauna and clinical poisoning to man and farm animals that depend on them for food.

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Odum P.O, Aloba O

Abstract: Transport systems are meant to support cities with complex spatial structures and a high concentration of socio-economic activities. Calabar is acclaimed to be one of the leading tourist destinations of Nigeria and its development is highly dependent on the efficiency of its transport system. This paper seeks to find out the causes, implications and solutions to the recent traffic congestions in Calabar, particularly, following the ban of commercial motorcycles (Okada). Structured questionnaires were used as research instrument and the analysis was done by simple tables of percentage frequency distribution of the responses. The findings reveal that the recent traffic challenges are largely due to inexperienced, inconsiderate and undisciplined taxi drivers, who have just shifted to driving without requisite knowledge of road driving rules/regulations as well as the influx of more cars into Calabar. It was also observed that the transport problems have implications on the environment, loss of productive man hours, increase stress, and reduced productivity. Other implications include increased fatalities increased accidents rates. Possible solutions proffered by respondents include: educating taxi drivers, proper driving license certification process, proper traffic signal synchronization, encouraging non-motorized transportation, encouraging carpooling, and provision of parking lots at designated points near economic activities like market, offices, etc. The paper demonstrates that, some urban transportation challenges can be avoided by proper planning, simple value re-orientation and positive attitudinal changes.

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Rini Widiati, Yunus Musa, Ambo Ala, Muh. Farid Bdr

Abstract: This research aims to classify soybean genotypes tolerant and susceptible to drought and acidity and to determine level of water content and observation parameters which can be used as an indicator of genotypes selection againts drought stress and acidity. The results are expected to give contribution in the development of soybean plants on acid dry land. Research was carried out as experimental study using a Split Plot design (SPD) with soil moisture levels (k) as main plot (MP) and soybean genotypes (g) as sub plot (SP). The soil moisture levelswere set based on the percentage of soil water content consisted of four levels e.g. 100% field capacity (k0), 80-100% field capacity (k1), 60-80% of field capacity (k2), 40-60% of field capacity (k3). Soybean genotypesused as the sub plot were g1 (variety Menyapa, 50 Gy); g2 (var. Orba, 25 Gy); g3 (var. Tanggamus, 0 Gy); g4 (var. Tanggamus, 25 Gy); g5 (var. Tanggamus, 50 Gy); g6 (var. Orba, 50 Gy); g7 (var. Menyapa, 0 Gy) and g8 (var. Orba, 0 Gy). A total of 32 teratment combination was obtained and planted on acid dry land. The data was analyzed using statistical software (Excel). Study results indicate that 1) genotype tolerant to drought and acidity were g1 (var. Menyapa, 50 Gy); g2 (var. Orba, 25 Gy); g3 (var. Tanggamus, 0 Gy); g4 (var. Tanggamus, 25 Gy); g5 (var. Tanggamus, 50 Gy); 75Gy) and g6 (var. Orba, 50 Gy), while sensitive genotypes were g7 (var.Menyapa, 0 Gy) and g8 (var. Orba, 0 Gy); 2) soil moisture content of 40-60% field capacity can be used an indicator of resistance to drought and acidity; 3) The parameter of the root volume, length of stomata, stomatal pore width, number of stomata and relative chlorophyll index can be used as an indicator of selection for soybean genotypes againts drought stress and acidity.

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M. Kalpana Devi, Felicia Rajammal Selvarani

Abstract: The inhibition effect of Benzyl Tri ethyl ammonium chloride on the corrosion behavior of 430 stainless steel in 1.0 M HCl as corrosion medium is investigated by mass loss method. The maximum inhibition efficiency is found to be 79% at 303 K. The investigation of adsorption isotherms indicates that the inhibition process fit Langmuir isotherm, fairly well. The surface morphology has been analysed by SEM and EDAX.

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Ng'wala James Jihulya

Abstract: Diet and feeding ecology of O. niloticus and L. niloticus in Rubondo Island National Park (RINP) an area protected from fishing and Kome Island (KI) an area unprotected from fishing activities in Lake Victoria were compared. Important food items of O. niloticus and L. niloticus both in RINP and KI areas did not differ. Main food items of O. niloticus were detritus, remains of water hyacinth and phytoplanktons. Phytoplanktons in O. niloticus stomachs were from five classes of Cynanophyceae, Basillariophyceae, Chrolophyceae, Dinophyceae and Euglenophyceae. Class Cyanophyceae had the highest number of occurrences than any of the phytoplankton observed in the stomachs of O. niloticus. The percentages of occurrences were 65.96, 24.2, 9.61, 0.01 and 0.01 for Cyanophyta, Chlophyta, Diatom, Euglenophyta and Dinophyta respectively. High indices of relative importance (IRI%) of haplchromine fishes in L. niloticus stomachs in both areas show that L. niloticus has returned to its original food of haplochromine fishes as it was during its upsurge in Lake Victoria. The indices of relative importance (IRI %) of haplochromine fishes for L. niloticus in KI and RINP areas were 95.3% and 87.3% for KI and RINP areas respectively. The second important prey was Caridina nilotica with indices of relative importance of 1.2% and 12.7% for KI and RINP areas respectively. Insects were important food of juvenile L. niloticus. Cannibalism of L. niloticus occurred in both areas.

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Syamsul Arifin

Abstract: Bacteria can live in a lot of liquid medium like as beverage: Sugarcane juice, Borassus flabellifer water and Cow milk. The sign of medium have bacteria is medium can be sour and wrinkle, so that medium can be to decomposing, that at long time and no fresh again. We know bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) can be colony splintering or inactive, with technique knob and 48 kHz ultrasonic in PZ (Syamsul arifin, 2013), and in this experiment to replaying technique using beverage: Sugarcane juice, Borassus flabellifer or cow milk, with strip paper of pH indicator, specification 48 kHz ultrasonic frequency, 1 VPP intensity from function generator, transmitted with 12 knob (small ball), the ultrasonic treatment is applied continuously or periodically about 3 hours and measurement every 30 minute The result observation have new phenomena in the differences pH value between no (without) ultrasonic, and with ultrasonic in mediums i.e.: The pH value in each liquid medium without ultrasonic are decrease of pH value at long time (> 5 hours or days), but with radiation continue of ultrasonic or periodic of ultrasonic are very attractive pH value. This study shows, each liquid medium has same graphic of pH schema with no ultrasonic there are decrease in the pH value (acid liquid); and pH schema in with periodic of ultrasonic of there are decrease pH value at the moment of 30 minute (with ultrasonic) and increase at 30 minute ( after no ultrasonic) and that keep on; but in with continuous ultrasonic the pH schema keep on are with constant line of the pH value in Sugarcane juice and Cow milk, but no in water of Borassus flabellifer, that the null minute has same as pH value at no ultrasonic, at the 30 minute first has decrease, at the 30 minute second has continue value, than at 30 minute third has increase value and at 30 minute forth - soon have constant value of pH as same as at no ultrasonic.

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Vijayan Nagarajan, Punitha Chandrasekar

Abstract: Sentiment Analysis, also known as Opinion Mining, plays a vital role in social media analytics, call center data etc. There are many existing algorithms and methods to approachSentiment Analysis. Though these algorithms produce reasonable results, they fail to give near optimal (close to 100%) results. This paper aims to obtain maximum accuracy in Sentiment Analysis in-comparisonwiththe other existing algorithms and approaches.We devised a new algorithm called “Sentiment pivotal” tree to achieveresults with maximum accuracy by taking into account on few key factors like identifying the expectations of the customers along with the inclusion of neutral words for analysis.In order to attribute the above factor we introduce a new term called “Expective”along with the existing terms“Positive”, “Negative”and“Neutral”.

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Uzair Iqbal, Ali Javed

Abstract: Review-Scrum is basically reversion of Scrum; basic features in R-Scrum are to sort out those issues which are challenges in scrum. Issues of risk handling factor, lack of pictorial model, number of hectic meetings and continuous pressurize working environment. In R-Scrum using the MDA which gives the pictorial model of the product.

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John K. Rotich, Simeon K. Maritim, Jakob K. Bitok

Abstract: We develop hybrid finite difference schemes arising from operator splitting to solve 2-D heat equations. We developed the Crank-Nicholson-Lax-Fredrick’s hybrid scheme and determine that the method is more accurate than pure Crank-Nicholson method. The method is unconditionally stable because it is Crank-Nicholson based.

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Vishal Jain, Dr. S. V. A. V. Prasad

Abstract: Today Semantic web is playing a key role in the intelligent retrieval of information. It is the new-generation Web that tries to represent information such that it can be used by machines not just for display purposes, but for automation, integration, and reuse across applications. It allows the representation and exchange of information in a meaningful way. Ontologies form the backbone of the Semantic Web; they allow machine understanding of information through the links between the information resources and the terms in the ontologies. Ontology describes basic concepts in a domain and defines relations among them. An ontology together with a set of individual instances of classes constitutes a knowledge base. An effort has been made by the Semantic Web community to apply its semantic techniques in open, distributed and heterogeneous Web environments, and for sharing the knowledge in the semantic web. For sharing the knowledge ontologies were introduced, and have grown considerably in number. Building ontology for a specific domain may be start from scratch or by modifying or using an existing ontology. The term Semantic Web (SW) given by Tim Berners Lee is considered as vast concept within itself. Semantic Web (SW) is defined as collection of information linked in a way so that it can be easily processed by machines. It is information in machine form. It contains Semantic Web Documents (SWD’s) that are written in RDF or OWL languages. They contain relevant information regarding user’s query. Crawlers play vital role in accessing information from SWD’s.

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Dr. Monem A. Mohammed

Abstract: Cox regression model is one of the models can be used in analyzing survival data and we can detect relationship between the explanatory variables and their survival time, so the cox regression is semi parametric model that consist two parts, the first part is nonparametric (λ_0 (t)) and other is parametric part (e^(((β▁z)) ́ )) where ((β)) ́ is the vector of unknown parameters, (▁z) is the vector of explanatory variable. The data which used in this study is type one of censoring was taken from hospital with left-censored data, testing distribution of survival time by using goodness of test and we find the distribution of survival time is unknown. Selecting cox regression model as the best model to analysis data by checking the assumption Cox regression model once graphically by using Kaplan–Meier estimator to estimating the survival function from lifetime data of patients, We estimated the parameters by using (partial likelihood) method and test the model parameter by using (Wald) test which shown that only two parameters(treatment and anemia status) are effect on survival time.

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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - January 2022 - Volume 11 Issue 1