International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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IJSTR Volume 4 - Issue 5, May 2015 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Adegoke, C. W., Abiodun Funmi

ABSTRACT: Since the early civilizations in China (Neolithic) and the Middle East, humans have recognized the dual desirable roles of clay tiles, as roofing material, which remain valid today - First, it was an effective means to shed water from buildings and secondly it reduced the spread of fire. The Standard Double Roman tile (SDRT) was the first roof tile to be mass produced in South Africa. The Double Roman can trace its shape back to Roman engineering principles where it was discovered that arches have an ability to withstand greater pressures as the arch distributes the weight more evenly down to the base of the structure. However, after the initial introduction of the concrete tile to Nigerian roofing market, architects began to express displeasure with its unusually heavier weight than other competing roofing materials. Suggestions were made to original manufacturers for product improvement by reducing the overall product weight. Concrete tiles are composite materials made from mixture of Portland cement, sharp sand, smooth sand and natural fibre. Bolyn Industries [7] has established that a mix ratio by volume of 1(cement):11/2(sharp sand):11/2(smooth sand) with some fibre makes a good concrete tile product. The sharp sand provides strength while smooth sand provides smoothness to the concrete surface. This study seeks to improve the current Double Roman product by reducing its overall product weight which is currently at about 5.0 kg to about 4.0 kg. Going by the previous experience with Polycrete invention [2], it is hereby conceived that replacement of smooth sand with lighter waste materials such as paper or saw dust in the concrete tile constituents may achieve the desired product weight reduction. The study investigates the most economic mix ratio of the concrete tile constituents to achieve the desirable engineering properties of light weight, strength, durability, water tightness and rust-proofness. Results with preliminary mix trials indicate that replacement of smooth sand with paper or sawdust in the concrete batch may achieve the desired results, but paper produces a better ductile and more workable material while saw dust produces a brittle and more crack-prone product. It is established in this study that 16-18 Products of Improved Double Roman Roofing Tiles (IDRT) of approximately 4.2kg each, are achieved in a batch mix of 1 head-pan of Portland cement, 2 head-pans of sharp sand and 4kg of waste paper compared to the average weight of 5.0kg achieved for the Standard Double Roman Tile (SDRT). Comparative market survey of existing roofing systems in Nigeria shows that there is a wide range in cost of N450.0 per m2 for Galvanized Iron sheet, N1500.00 per m2 for Aluminium Long span and N3,500.0 per m2 for Classic Stone-Coated roofing sheets respectively compared to N1000.0 per m2 achieved for the IDRT; thus the second objective of this study to achieve a competitive product price in the median of the above-reported cost range has also been achieved.

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Samer Farkh, Abdallah Zaiour, Jalal Abdallah, Samir Farkh, Hanadi Ismail, Ahmad elMoll, Mirvat Ballout, Nafez Harb, Katia Haddad, Zaher Zeaiter

Abstract: The age of a fossil bone can be determined based on the chain of radioactive uranium, as far as it behaves like a closed system. Uranium is incorporated into the bone after its death and disintegrates into thorium. The calculation of age is based on the assumption that living tissue does not contain uranium and at the entrance of uranium in the dead tissue, it did not contain thorium. Uranium is soluble in water and easily enters the bone while the thorium adsorbs on the clay soil particles since it is insoluble in water. In this work, we determined the equations needed to calculate the age of a bone sample. We have shown that age cannot be determined from the activity ratio between uranium-234 and its source uranium-238 because ratio had to be 1 from 3.5 million years, before they both entered the bone. Thus, we used the activity ratio of thorium-230 and its source uranium-234 which allowed us to go backward up to 350 000 years. In the case where 234U/238U is greater than 1, an amount of exogenous 234U should be deducted.

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Elham S. Dawood, Modhi K. Elshamry

Abstract: 400 grain samples collected from barley fields in Hail area at the northern part of Saudi Arabia was used for this study. Isolation and identification of seed-borne fungi were conducted according to standard tests described by the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) using YGCA medium. A total of 265 of external mycoflora and 517 of internal mycoflora were grouped into five fungal genera namely, Aspergillus , , Alternaria , ; Penillium ; Fusarium and Ulocladium spp. were isolated. Comparsion between frequencies and relative densities of external and internal mycoflora was carried out among the species of the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and A. niger reaveled high Fr. and RD of external mycoflora (A. flavus Fr.60.9 - 40.5%, RD 48.3 - 40.9%and A. niger Fr. 52.7- 48.6- % and RD 38.7- 41.9% as external – internal mycoflora mycoflora respectively). All the species of Ulocladium and Alternaria were predominant as internal mycoflora .The most predominant species of Ulocladium and Alternaria were U. atrium (Fr 89% -75.5%and RD %-79- 62.5% as internal – external mycoflora respectively) and Alternaria alternate (Fr. 60% - 46.6 % and RD. 55-32.3as external–internal mycoflora respectively).

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John Baptist Kirabira, Angella Nalweyiso Semakula, Thomas Makumbi

ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine the relative energy efficiency of metal casting units in Uganda with a view of estimating the energy conservation potential. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) tool was used to accomplish this task. Energy consumption data was collected through interviews and field observations from the different foundries and was used as the input data for the model. Six foundries in the Central region of Uganda were surveyed following a snowball sampling technique. This consisted mainly of the annual energy consumption by the different foundries while the model outputs were annual total sales and annual total profits. Results showed that all the foundries were energy efficient with the exception of one, foundry E, as indicated by its energy efficiency score of less than unity. It can be seen that there exists potential in foundry E for energy savings and this may be accomplished by emulating energy management practices in the other units most especially foundry A and foundry D. The findings in this study can also be extended to other energy intensive industries in the country like the cement industry.

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Rachna Verma, Mohammad Ayaan Siddiqui

ABSTRACT: As we know India faces problem of Power blackout every year due to the overloading on the main electrical grid. To avoid the above problem, Microgrids are the best solution. Basically, Microgrids are the small version of electrical grid. They are independent power system. Microgrids can be connected with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. The use of renewable energy introduces the need of various storing devices and supplies it whenever required. Microgrids can provide wide range of applications in buildings, military camps and corporate/academic campuses, etc. They can have efficient and effective provision of electricity to “off-grid” areas as well as “keep the lights on” in times of crisis for critical applications like hospital. Though, Microgrids being so advantageous it has several technical challenging issues to overcome i.e. voltage and frequency control, islanding and its protection in Microgrids. This paper discusses the overview of Microgrids and issue to overcome in it-its Protection.

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Zehra Karapinar Senturk, Arafat Senturk, Resul Kara

Abstract: The most energy consuming operation in a wireless sensor network is data transmission. The bigger data to be transmitted, the more energy is consumed. Therefore, minimizing the amount of data to be transferred is very important. Data aggregation appears at this point. Summary of the data of a group of node is transmitted to sink or another node instead of sending all data. Since data aggregation is that much important, it is usual to see some counter attacks to overshadow the network process. Also, it is natural to see some studies to increase the efficiency of data aggregation process in the literature. In this paper, we give an overview about recent secure and energy efficient data aggregation studies. We also referred attack types faced in wireless sensor networks and give some recommendations to cope with them.

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Ibama Brown, Wachukwu Fyneface Chijioke

ABSTRACT: Growth in Port Harcourt has been experienced in terms of population and space. However, while some settlements in the northern fringes of Port Harcourt metropolis are growing rapidly, some are almost stagnant if not shrinking. This work has identified reasons why Port Harcourt is growing towards the north, factors for changes in population, land-use and infrastructure, the magnitude of the changes in population and infrastructure have been identified, the role of both the public and private sector in addressing the issue of rapid growth of settlements that are immerging as the bigger settlements in an unplanned and uncontrollable way have been discussed. Questionnaires were administered, oral interviews were conducted and personal observations helped in gathering information about the study area. Findings indicates that there is correlation between population and infrastructural development, some settlements are densely populated while others are sparsely populated, some settlements need facilities that will cause multiplier’s effect while others need facilities that will serve their basic needs. People are moving to the northern fringes of Port Harcourt metropolis because land is available, less expensive and the topography encourages infrastructural development. This work has assessed the dynamics of settlements in the northern fringes of Port Harcourt metropolis by looking at changes in population and infrastructure.

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Tanko, I. Y., Adam, M., Shettima, B.

ABSTRACT: The Azara barite deposits formed parts of Middle Benue Trough which is located in an elongated rift (or faulted-bounded) mega structural depression trending NE-SW to a length of over 1000 km and a width of 100 km.Petrological and geochemical investigations of Azrara barite deposits were carried out. Eight (8) selected samples of barites were collected from the veins, four from known veins (V1V3V17 and V 18) and four from new veins (VAVBVCand VD) werecarried out with the aim of determining their mineralisation potentials using petrographic studies and gravimetric method of analyses. The Petrographic studies of some of the thin section of the samples conducted using a polarizing microscope to determine the contents, distributions and textures of the various veins (Table 1). The weight percentage composition of barite in the samples are V1 (86.39 %), VC(82.61 %), V18(81.48 %), V3 (81.17 %), V17 (79.82 %), VA(78.94 %), VB(76.82 %) and VD (70.55 %) respectively. It is deduced from this work that, the chemical weathering of the carbonates resulted in two distinct types of barites; Barite associated with mainly quartz (SiO2) and limonite (FeO(OH).nH2O) as major gangue ( ) and barite with siderite (Ferrous Carbonate with high amount of Mg) ankerite (Ca (Fe, Mg) (CO3)) and Calcite (CaCO3). The outcomes were compared with the barite specification of Weigal,1937 of 95.00 % and were found to be good for making drilling mud for use in the oil industry, paints and other chemicals

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Saeed Mansour, Dr. Wagdy R. Anis, Dr. Ismail M. Hafez

Abstract: The fossil fuel is a main issue in the world, due to the increase of fossil fuel cost and the depletion of the fossil fuel with continuous increasing demand on electricity. With continuous decrease of PV panels cost, it is interesting to consider generation of electricity from PV system. To provide electric energy to a load in a remote area where electric grid utility is not available or connection with grid utility is available, there are two approaches of photovoltaic system, PV without tracking system (Fixed System) and PV with tracking systems. The result shows that the energy production by using PV with tracking system generates more energy in comparison with fixed panels system. However the cost per produced KWH is less in case of using fixed panels. This is the backbone in choice between two approaches of photovoltaic system. In this work a system design and cost analysis for two approaches of photovoltaic system are considered.

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Eyenghe Tari, Ibama Brown, Wocha Chikagbum

ABSTRACT: The need to adapt to climate change will be a fundamental driver of developing countries. The impacts are global in outlook but the mitigation policies and plans to cut down greenhouse gases emission and other elements are more local in actions. This study is carried out to evaluate and ascertain the risks of climate change on the urban poor in Port Harcourt city. However, from our findings, it shows various possible sectors that the impacts will be severe. These areas include environment, health, food insecurity, air and water pollution, flooding and ecosystem distortion; and the urban poor are most vulnerable. Also, most vulnerable areas in the city were identified which include Diobu, D/Line, Port Harcourt Township, New GRAs and most parts of Obio/Akpor local government areas in the city. Most of the residents in these areas suffer flooding because of increasing rainfall. The temperature of the city has increased and the ecological system is distorted around the coastal areas. The study also proffers possible appropriate policies and plans that should be adopted by policy makers and urban planners to mitigate and/or ameliorate the impacts of climate change on the poor of Port Harcourt city.

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Ghazal.A.Ghazal, Salwa.A.Hegazy

Abstract: this article, study some finite sample properties of zellner estimators, when the case of the regressors in the second equation is subset of the regressors in the first equation. A new approach is given based on the unrestricted residual, we derive the exact first and second moment of the estimator. Consider with the orthogonal condition and normality of the disturbances terms.

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Yuhanis Ladewi, Sri Mulyani, NS

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the influence management commitment and change management to the implementation of ERP. Where the ERP system is a computerized system that allows the management of all resources in the base organization's overall enterprise. Mc. Leod, (2008: 15) (Romney, 2012: 56). The usefulness of this research is to develop science and problem solving. The results showed that there was a significant effect of management commitment and change management to the implementation of the ERP system Meanwhile, if viewed from the side of the relationship, there is a strong relationship between management and change management commitment to the implementation of the ERP system.

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Sibanda Mavellas

ABSTRACT: IT governance is one of the major areas of concern in Zimbabwe public and private sector organisations. Most organisations in the country are running their IT function without any consideration of the international best practices in as far as governance of the IT function is concerned. This research seeks to identify the structure of the IT services department in polytechnics and its associated roles and responsibilities, the structure of the board that play the oversight function over the IT service department and conduct a detailed investigation on a wide range of IT governance issues that include: - IT governance status and alignment, drivers and barriers, Input and decision making in IT governance, IT governance structures and processes, IT performance and accountability and assessing IT governance performance.

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Anuj Gupta

Abstract: Classification is an important data mining technique with broad applications. Classification is a gradual practice for allocating a given piece of input into any of the known category. The Data Mining refers to extracting or mining knowledge from huge volume of data. In this paper different classification techniques of Data Mining are compared using diverse datasets from University of California, Irvine (UCI) Machine Learning Repository. Accuracy and time complexity for execution by each classifier is observed. . Finally different classifiers are also compared with the help of Confusion Matrix. Classification is used to classify each item in a set of data into one of predefined set of classes or groups

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Ishaan Dua, Prerna Choudhary, Shubham Soni, Sheila Mahapatra

ABSTRACT: In this research paper we have designed a system that acts as a temperature sensor and also a warning system the system also has the facilitation of shutting down the machinery whose temperature is to be monitored. The main function of the system is to constantly monitor the temperature of a machine, compare it to a predefined limit and shut down the machine if the temperature exceeds or falls below that limit. The system is highly useful for systems with high dependence on particular temperatures. The paper includes the requirement of such a system along with the idea behind development of the project. We have covered the hardware and software requirements for designing such a system. The paper covers the basic design of the project along with the block diagram. We have divided the entire design into sub circuits that cover the bridge rectifier, relay driver and A to D convertor. We have covered the software simulation of the sub circuits. The results of the simulations have been compared to the expected outcome and so we know that the design is working properly.

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Bruna Caroline Marques Goncalves, Cristiani Baldo, Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi

Abstract: Levansucrase is a fructosyltranferase that synthesizes levan and present great biotechnological interest. It’s being widely used in therapeutic, food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Levansucrase is produced by many microorganisms such as the Bacillus subtilis Natto using the sucrose fermentation. In this mini-review we described some properties and functions of this important group of enzymes and the recent technologies used in the production and purification of levansucrase and levan.

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Janet Wagude

Abstract: Conflict management skills are a fundamental aspect of leadership effectiveness and likeability of principals has become of greater importance. If an individual is perceived to manage conflict in an appropriate and effective manner within an organizational setting, that individual is also perceived to be more competent in general. The purpose of this study was to investigate influence of principals’ age on conflict management styles. The study adopted a descriptive survey methodology. The Thomas Kilmann conflict management instrument was used to collect data. The study found that there is no particular age that most frequently use a particular style although up to age 45, principals use avoiding more, and between age 46-56 they tend to use compromising. The recommendation for policy makers was that there is a need to have in service training so as to empower principals on conflict management styles. The study suggested possible areas for further research.

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Elijah Maronga, Elkana Asuma Maroria, Edwina Nyikal

Abstract: What factors prompt trainees to enroll in youth polytechnics? What informs trainees’ choice of particular courses for study? These are questions this descriptive survey research sought to address among youth polytechnics in Kisii Central District, Kenya. The district had 13 youth polytechnics and 603 trainees. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 203 trainees while all 13 managers, one from each youth polytechnic participated in the study. The findings of the study showed that enrollment in youth polytechnics was mainly influenced by the trainees’ inability to pursue formal education at secondary school level because of lack of tuition fees; the trainees' inability to attain secondary school admission requirements; need to acquire skills for employment; and advanced age of the pupils while in primary school due to repetition. Trainees chose courses because they perceived that such courses would help them secure employment or become self employed. The study recommended that trainees from poor economic backgrounds be made aware of the possibility of obtaining funds in form of bursaries from the Constituency Development Fund (CDF) to help them complete their studies at the youth polytechnics; that the government and youth polytechnic management should ensure that relevant equipments and facilities are provided to facilitate high quality training in the youth polytechnics; and that youth polytechnics should tailor their training programs around courses that will support self reliance upon completion.

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Ambe Verma, Ankita Pandey, Jagriti Shanker, Nitu Pandey, Swati Singh Sarkar, Ajay Yadav

ABSTRACT: India is a vast country based on agriculture and irrigation is the most important factor for agriculture. In India there are many sources provide for irrigation. Every day new technologies are emerged in the world which brings a revolutionary change in the nature of this world. day by day the energy resources used by the large population of this world are coming on the last stage This project give the idea that how the other different form of energy can be used and implemented efficiently to overcome from this problem The aim of this project is to achieve the objective of energy lasting problem which is likely to be faced over in coming decades. Energy lasting is a big problem in India. This is faced by every people, who live in the country. Swing energy is the form of energy. In this paper we have represented the methodology of swing energy using for rural area of application. This paper is all about Swing Set Water Pump in which the water pump will execute with the help of a swing set of canopy type. As we need a motor to operate the water pump but in this project we use the swing in the place of motor and we use oscillatory motion of swing in the place of rotating motion of a motor. Everybody has needed the energy at an increasing rate, ever since he came on the Earth. Because of this lot of energy has been exhausted and wasted. All the member are dedicated the amount of their important time to participate in multiple meetings, read and research for making the content to the report. We would especially like to thanks for the efficient condition of the entire Advisory member and their experiences. This study was initial and performed within the BUDDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, GIDA, Gorakhpur the final report represents the labour and interest of the entire member working for this project. Finally, we would like to thanks to all the member of our college workshop who helped us in manufacturing of this project model.

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Hamid Hamed Ibrahim, Ahmed H. I. Elfaig, Mokhtar, J, Omer Egemi, Mohammed Abdelkreim

Abstract: This article investigates and analyzes land use/land cover change in Ghubaysh area-Western Sudan during the period 1973-2010. The main objective of the article is to detect and identify land cover changes that have occurred during the last four decades. Multi-temporal satellites images (MSS, TM and ETM+) of 1973, 1987 and 2006 were used for data collection. The EARDAS Imagine classifier tool 9.2 and ArcGIS 10.2 have been used in the data analysis. Cultivated area, Wadis, shrubs, grass and forest were the most dynamic parameters used in land cover classification. Results showed high level of accuracy (98.2%, 96.3 and 89.6%) for the selected images for the years 1973, 1987 and 2006, respectively. The results also showed that the study area was once very rich in vegetation cover consisted of grass shrubs and forest which covered 86.7% of the study area. A prolonged and unsystematic change in land cover was reported. The agricultural area increased by a rate of +1.8% and shrubs increased by a rate of +0.67 per year during the last four decades. A decrease in land cover by a rate of -1.4, -0.37 and -0.08 was accounted for grass area, forest and Wadies, respectively. A remarkable change has taken place in agricultural area from 9.8% in the year 1973 to 41.4% in the year 2010. This expansion is at the expense of the area covered by grass, forest and Wadis.

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Shefali Malhotra, Parag Narkhede, Kush Shah, Samanth Makaraju, M. Shanmugasundaram

Abstract: In this paper we have discussed about various fault tolerant task scheduling algorithm for multi core system based on hardware and software. Hardware based algorithm which is blend of Triple Modulo Redundancy and Double Modulo Redundancy, in which Agricultural Vulnerability Factor is considered while deciding the scheduling other than EDF and LLF scheduling algorithms. In most of the real time system the dominant part is shared memory.Low overhead software based fault tolerance approach can be implemented at user-space level so that it does not require any changes at application level. Here redundant multi-threaded processes are used. Using those processes we can detect soft errors and recover from them. This method gives low overhead, fast error detection and recovery mechanism. The overhead incurred by this method ranges from 0% to 18% for selected benchmarks. Hybrid Scheduling Method is another scheduling approach for real time systems. Dynamic fault tolerant scheduling gives high feasibility rate whereas task criticality is used to select the type of fault recovery method in order to tolerate the maximum number of faults.

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Etiuma, Rebecca Anietimfon, Anaekwe, Nicholas Ogbonna

Abstract: In this research work, West-Gaeke method was used to determine the ambient air SO2 concentration in Aba township area. The sampling was carried out from March to December 2013 covering the wet and dry seasons of that year. The mean concentrations over the year during dry and wet seasons were 0.180 ppm and 0.149 ppm respectively. The wet season concentration was 9.42 % lower than the dry season concentration due to rain attenuation. The highest concentration obtained was 0.259 ppm at Asa Nnentu Market (Latitude 05003’55, Longitude 007021’43) during the dry season while the lowest concentration was 0.082 ppm at Plot 204 Obohia Road (Latitude 05005’27, Longitude 007021’36) during the wet season. The values obtained in this work are higher than the limit of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA) of 0.001-0.01 ppm for air quality standard which shows that the area is polluted by SO2.

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Joseph Otoo, Johnson K. Ofori, Francis Amoah

Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to present a formulated Linear Programming(LP) Model for 16 selected small scale farmers from 32 operational areas of Fanteakwa District in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The study considered ten (10) crops namely garden eggs, water melon, cabbage, onion, tomato, cucumber, okra, pepper, cocoa (nursery) and plantain. The formulated LP Model for this study assumed profit maximizing behavior, a single-period planning and a certain environment. The formulated LP Model suggested no production of sole crop enterprises like cabbage, onion, cocoa (nursery), pepper (grown on raised bed), pepper and garden egg (grown on raised bed + irrigation). The model also prescribed no production for crop mixtures like garden egg/okra and cabbage/cucumber/pepper. The formulated LP Model prescribed production of 1 acre of garden egg, 3 acres of watermelon, 4 acres of tomato, 2 acres of cucumber, 1 acre of plantain, 2 acres of garden egg (irrigation), 1 acre of okra/garden egg/pepper and 1 acre of pepper/garden egg. Comparison of results obtained by using existing farming plan and the LP Model indicate that results obtained from the LP Model were significant improvements of the existing farming plan. The LP Model saved 0.2% and 0.6% of available capital and labor requirement respectively. A 16.25% significant increment of the net returns was obtained by the LP Model. This was as result of net returns increasing from GH¢77,848.00 to GH¢88,177.00. These results suggest the essence of application of formulated mathematical models like the LP Model to planning and management of limited resources.

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E.A Omondi, P.K Ndiba and P.G Njuru

Abstract: The presence of e-waste in a landfill can release persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), into the environment. PCBs are a family of more than 200 chemical compounds (congeners), each of which consists of two benzene rings and one to ten chlorine atoms. This study investigated use of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for phytoremediation of landfill leachate waste containing PCB. Landfill leachate was simulated in the laboratory by spiking water samples with PCB to obtain concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 μg/L, which were in one to two orders of magnitude above the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limit of 0.5 μg/L or 0.5 ppb. Water hyacinth plants were grown in 2 L samples of the PCB spiked water for 15 days and evaluated for tolerance and bioaccumulation of PCB. Phytoremediation of PCB spiked water by the plants was evaluated by measuring the change in concentration of PCB. The plants tolerated PCB concentrations in the range of 5 to 15 μg/L without depicting any serious adverse effect except for change in root color and an initial wilting of peripheral leaves. Water hyacinth reduced the concentration of PCBs in the leachate over 15 days from 15 to 0.42 μg/L for the 15 μg/L initial concentration sample and to below the GC/MS detection limit of 0.142 μg/L for the 10 and 5 ug/L initial concentration samples. Bioaccumulation of PCB in the plant tissue was evaluated through solid phase extraction and testing of samples for PCB with GC/MS. Bioaccumulation of PCBs at a concentration of 0.179 μg/g was observed in the water hyacinth roots for the 15 μg/L sample but none was detected for the lower initial PCB concentration and shoots. The study demonstrated potential of water hyacinth plants in phytoremediation of PCBs in e-waste leachate.

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Pesta Corry Sihotang

Abstract: Pesta Corry Sihotang. Effect of sympathetic hyperactivity, Endothelial Dysfunction Due to Hypertension and Small for gestational age (SGA). In Indonesia, hypertension due to pregnancy (Pregnancy Induced Hypertension) range from 5-10% of all pregnancies. This is a major cause of death, after bleeding. Hypertension due to pregnancy can be Preeclampsia and eclampsia, if not handled appropriately. This study aimed to prove the influence of the sympathetic hyperactivity, endothelial dysfunction on the incidence of PIH and SGA. The study design is nested cohort. Methods and ways of working: 30 pregnant women who were willing to participate in this study examined after signing the agreement / informed consent. Research subjects are grouped into groups of PIH and Normal and followed until delivery. In conclusion there was a significant difference between the incidence hype-reactor and hypo-reactor second trimester with the incidence of PIH and normotensive with Chi-Square P <0.05 against the incidence of hypertension. While the risk of PIH on hype-reactor group in the second trimester has RR 3.66 (CI 1.04 to 12.9), while the results of the third trimester there is a difference between having hype-reactor and hypo-reactor with RR of 5.83 (CI 1.37 to 24.6). Results ET-1 shows the differences in levels of endothelin in the third trimester with PIH and normotensive patients, namely (R = 0.38 p = 0.038 and R = 0.49, p = 0.005). Furthermore, in the third trimester relationship with the incidence of PIH R = 0.74 or 0.01 p in the end there are differences between the mean levels of ET-1 in the third trimester between PIH and normotensive group (p <0.05). Recommendations CPT (Cord Pressure Test) is a tool that can be used to predict the incidence of hypertension in pregnancy, especially in the second trimester, while the results of Elisa can predict the incidence of hypertension in pregnancy.

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Try Koryati, J. A. Napitupulu, Luthfi A. M. Siregar, T. Chairun Nisa

Abstrak: The objective of the research was to find out the influence of IAA hormone , kinetin and paclobutrazol which were applied to the clones and which treatment that most likely indicated the response for expediting the girth increment and bark thickness so that the trees can be quickly tapped. The experiment was conducted at Kebun Karang Inong East Aceh . The research was organized, based on Nested Design of three factors , namely a clone factor with 5 levels, hormonal factor of IAA + Kinetin with 7 levels, and paclobutrazol factor with 3 levels. The results showed that the growth regulators applied could accelerate the girth increment and other parameters. Hormone applications significantly influenced the parameters of the girth increment and number of chlorophyll. Athough for other parameters the hormone applications did not have a significant effect,. The paclobutrazol application treatment through soil (P1) was the best treatment for all the parameters observed. Clone treatment also had a significant effect on the girth increment, leaf area, and number of chlorophyll. The best clone to girth increment was clone PB 330 (K2). Combination of application treatments with paclobutrazol and hormone only significantly affected the girth increment, and the best treatment was P1H2. The combination of all three treatments between clones with paclobutrazol and hormones only significantly affected the number of latex vessels. The largest number of latex vessels was in K2H3P1 treatment.

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Adam Mahama, D.Sc.

Abstract: Information and Communication Technology in the education policy of Ministry of Education made it mandatory for all students to be proficient in ICT literacy skills before coming out of each level of education in Ghana. In furtherance of this policy, ICT was made examinable at both the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE)and Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE). The study examined the extent and character of Junior High School students’ involvement and interaction with ICT outside the normal school settings in Ablekuma Central sub-metro district of Greater Accra. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. Reliability analysis and test-retest carried out on the questionnaire produced Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.814 and 0.79 validity coefficient. Random Stratified Sampling was used to select 123 students from a group of 564 Junior High School students during the summer of 2014.The study found the public Internet café to be a central activity for Junior High School students in accessing and using ICT outside the traditional school settings. Results of the study also confirmed that ICT has some gender attributes that favoured boys in some way such that its access and usage tend to be biased toward the interest and fashions of boys in a manner that made them more confident and more likely to use ICT than girls.

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Dr.Ghassem Faraj Pour, Ali Mazloum Ali Abadi, Mehdi Alijani, Reza Amiri

ABSTRACT: Efforts to improve the quality are one of the prerequisites for the success of individual companies and for the competitiveness of all whole companies. In the field of improvement and excellence, business excellence models answer to the question that what the better organization is; what goals and concepts they follow, and according to what standards they behave. The EFQM excellence model can be transition from multiplicity to unity of different existing models. The most important approaches of these models are self-assessment and identifying improvement areas in an organization. On the other side, organizations which are at lower level of total quality management, will encounter so many areas to improve when using this model and implementing of self-improvement. Choosing the most important key problems are always the main challenges and because of resource constraints and strategic goals, organizations have to prioritize identified improvement opportunities. This paper introduces a model for prioritizing and choosing the most significant improvement opportunities using the organization Business Excellence team members and because the analysis and decision making atmosphere for excellence team members is not generally complete with accurate information, it seems using of fuzzy decision can be very helpful.

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Madaraka F. Mwema, Kimayu S. Musau, Ngugi J. Mburu

Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that drying maize using biomass driers increase the quality of grains, delays insect infestation, mold and aflatoxin contamination in relation to direct sunlight drying. Most importantly, biomass drying takes shorter time. It is therefore important to undertake performance of these driers to investigate the possibility of empirical control of such systems in remote areas. In this paper, we present results of thermal performance of typical biomass-powered drier (batch type). The results show that under natural convection, temperature behavior within the drying chamber is unpredictable. However, the use of exhaust fan (forced convection) gives predictable temperature distribution within the drying chamber. For burner shutter open at 50% and using maize cob as the fuel for forced convection, the drying chamber attained a maximum temperature of 93˚C after 28 minutes and minimum temperature of 69˚C after 37 minutes in the lower tray (tray 1). For burner shutter open at 100%, the drying chamber attained a maximum temperature of 91˚C after 41 minutes and minimum temperature of 67˚C in tray 1. With burner 50% open, tray 2 attained a maximum temperature of 62˚C after 30 minutes and minimum temperature of 56˚C after 40 minutes. With the burner 100% open, tray 2 attained a maximum temperature of 61˚C after 39 minutes and minimum temperature of 52˚C after 52 minutes. From these results, the optimal operating conditions of the burner operation were achieved when the shutter was open at 50%. It took 76 minutes to dry 5kg of maize with about 0.8kg (including dampness from rains) moisture content in tray 1. It took 140 minutes to dry the same quantity and moisture content of maize in tray 2. These results show that it is possible to control empirically biomass cereal (maize) driers.

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Aliasghar Baziar, Abdollah Kavousi-Fard

Abstract: This paper proposes a new hybrid method based on support vector regression (SVR) to predict the load value of power systems accurately. The proposed method will use the SVR to overcome some deficiencies such as overfitting and complicated structure that exist in the neural network. In order to find the optimal values of the parameters, krill herd (KH) algorithm is used as the optimizer. The KH algorithm can explore the problem search space for reaching the best structure for the SVR when training. In order to check the performance and accuracy of the proposed hybrid method, the empirical load data from the Fars Regional Company are used as the test data. The simulations show the high reliable and accuracy of the proposed method.

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Ijun Rijwan Susanto

ABSTRACT: In this study, the researcher attempted : 1) to understand the basic features of organic farming in The Paguyuban Pasundan’s Cianjur ; 2) to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize the challenges of organic farming on their “lived experiences” in the community; 3) to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize and applied the values of benefits of organic farming in support of environmental health on their lived experiences in the community; 4) The purpose was to describe and understand how the stakeholders who are able to articulate their ideas regarding the model of sustainable organic farming: 5) The Policy Recommendation for Organic Farming. The researcher employed triangulation thorough finding that provides breadth and depth to an investigation, offering researchers a more accurate picture of the phenomenon. In the implementation of triangulation, researchers conducted several interviews to get saturation. After completion of the interview results are written, compiled and shown to the participants to check every statement by every participant. In addition, researchers also checked the relevant documents and direct observation in the field The participants of this study were the stakeholders, namely : 1) The leader of Paguyuban Pasundan’s Organic Farmer Cianjur (PPOFC), 2) Members of Paguyuban Pasundan’s Organic FarmersCianjur, 3) Leader of NGO, 4) Government officials of agriculture, 5) Business of organic food, 6) and Consumer of organic food. Generally, the findings of the study revealed the following : 1) PPOFC began to see the reality as the impact of modern agriculture showed in fertility problems due to contaminated soil by residues of agricultural chemicals such as chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides. So he wants to restore the soil fertility through environmentally friendly of farming practices; 2) the challenges of organic farming on their “lived experiences” in the community : farmers did not consider the loss that may be experienced by others as the principles for profit has become very prominent. As a result, the development of organic agriculture simply stuck into a commercial activity which would be a criticism of the founders, One of the factors that led to the involvement of the government regulated organic farming is because of the bickering about what is called organic agricultural products and because many nonorganic products sold as organic products, Organic farmers have difficulty in finding locally based seed for organic farming, certification of organic farming has changed, it is not just the assurance processes into a tradable commodity; 3) The Benefits of Organic Farming in Support for Environmental Health, organic farming gives a positive impact on public health, because it does not cause environmental pollution (water, air, soil) by the residues of chemical fertilizers and synthetic chemical pesticides. Besides organic farming also healthy communities through the provision of agricultural products that are free of pesticides and chemical fertilizer residues; 4) The Social Development Model of Sustainable Organic Farming : Sustainable agriculture (organic farming) seeks acre balance of three long-term goals, namely : a) Social-cultural: to create quality of life (to satisfy personal and community needs for health, food safety, and happines), b) Environment: to Enhance utilization of soil, water, air, and other resourches limited, c) Economics: to be profitable, market forces. These objectives can be achieved if supported by organizational-oriented good governance principles of sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agriculture is the implementation of the principles of sustainable development. Sustainable development will be achieved if conducted prior social development within the broad scope of stakeholders; 5) The Policy Recomendation for Organic Farming : a) National Strategic Agenda : The Program "Go Organic" must be forwarded with the 2010 program "Go Organic 2020" where the formulation of the vision, mission, and activities that will be undertaken are arranged with a broader circle of involved, including organic farmers, organic entrepreneurs, non-governmental organizations, as well as colleges; b) Regional (ASEAN integration 2015) and International Agenda, at the regional (ASEAN) and the international level, in addition to doing the lobbying, marketing also need to do the work of advocacy. Purpose is to make the existing policy, it could benefit small farmers, not otherwise become barriers to global trade as well as new bilateral.

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Tharsika Ratnarajah, Gunasingham Mikunthan

Abstract: Chilli fruits are commonly contaminated by Eurotimycetes fungus, Aspergillus sp. (Eurotiales: Trichomaceae). This fungus produced white to lime green mycelium; yellowish to green conidia, which size is around 34±0.8. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Aspergillus sp. on chilli seed germination. The seeds of the chilli variety MI green were obtained from DATC, Jaffna for using this experiment. Chilli seeds were treated with Aspergillus sp., Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus sp. + Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus sp. + Neem extract and distilled water as control. Highest germination percentage were observed in T5 (suspension of T.viride) as 73% followed by 65% germination from T1 (distilled water), 44% from T3 (suspension of Aspergillus sp. and T.viride), then T4 (suspension of Aspergillus sp. and neem leaf extract) and T2 (suspension of Aspergillus sp.) showed the germination as 30% and 20%, respectively. The growth inhibition percentage of Aspergillus sp. in presence of T. viride and T. harzianum were calculated by dual culture over control. The percent inhibition of radial growth of Aspergillus sp. was 55.35% by T. viride and 50.25% by T .harzianum in seven days after inoculation. Results show that T.viride was superior to T.harzianum in restricting the growth of Aspergillus sp. on dual culture in PDA.

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Eri Besra, Dwi Kartini, Meydia Hasan

Abstract: This study aims to assess the effect of the image of the retail and consumer trust in buying interest private label products. The study was conducted on 346 retail consumers who buy private label products in Bandung, Indonesia. Sampling technique used is proportional random sampling. Survey methods used to obtain primary data by distributing questionnaires. In deep interviews were conducted to strengthen the finding. Data was analyzed by structural equation modeling. The model showed a significant effect of retail image on customer trust of private label products. A significant difference between the retail image and purchase intention of private label products and significant relationship between consumer trust and purchase intention of private label products.

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Rajni Tewatia, Asha Mishra

Abstract: Security of a network is always an important issue. With the continuously growing network, the basic security such as firewall, virus scanner is easily deceived by modern attackers who are experts in using software vulnerabilities to achieve their goals. For preventing such attacks, we need even smarter security mechanism which act proactively and intelligently. Intrusion Detection System is the solution of such requirement. Many techniques have been used to implement IDS. These technique basically used in the detector part of IDS such as Neural Network, Clustering, Pattern Matching, Rule Based, Fuzzy Logic, Genetic Algorithms and many more. To improve the performance of an IDS these approaches may be used in combination to build a hybrid IDS so that benefits of two o more approaches may be combined.

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Oko, J.O., Abriba, C., Audu, J.A., Kutman, N.A., Okeh, Q.,

Abstract: Bacteriological and nutritional analysis of groundnut cake powder sold in open market at Samaru-Zaria was studied. The samples collected from four zones of the study area were analysed for possible microbiological contamination and its nutritional quality. The results indicated a microbial load of 1.93 x 105 cfu/g and 1.94 x 105 cfu/g for zones A and B respectively, 1.01 x 105 cfu/g for zone C and 2.37 x 105 cfu/g for zone D. The bacterial isolates found to be associated with the groundnut cake powder in this study included Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus feacalis. The nutrients content of the sample included carbohydrates 55.15%, moisture 12.65%, lipid 15.40%, protein 12.60%, ash 3.95% and crude fibre 0.25%. Groundnut cake sold in the study area is highly contaminated with bacteria except for samples from zone C which is within the Food and Drugs Agency (FDA) recommendation of 1.0 x 105cfu/ml as allowable microbial contamination for food. The high level of microbial contamination is a serious cause for concern as it may trigger epidemics. However, the product is highly nutritious.

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Miss.Pooja Yadav, Col.Sachin Marwah

Abstract: The increasing concern over globalization between other things has made the achievement of lifetime skills vital for all classes of people. Achievement of such skills can be developed from technical education programs in the advance of any nation. Skill gaining provides knowledge and inculcates the approaches that are essential for arrival and progress into an occupation. When skills are developed in any occupation, it will provide and improve the standard of living with the cover beside poverty, thereby behind national development. This paper observes sampling distribution and moving average concept that how technical education can generate the required skills, the significance of skill acquisition, its roles, benefits and sustainability in national development. It also mentions among others that government should look into and improve productivity that can encourage skill achievement for the youths. The solutions are divided the sampling box into few group before stacking up workstation, and use table and some other wood product. Cost reduction for each solution was intended and the solution with highest cost decrease is chosen to increase the productivity of the college.

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Wan Arfiani Barus, Abdul Rauf, Rosmayati, Chairani Hanum

ABSTRACT: Salinity stress is one of the serious abiotic stress and lead to reduced productivity and plant growth. The effect of salinity stress and its interaction with ascorbic acid was investigated on some morphological traits. Ascorbate is a strong antioxidant which has remarkable biological effects on plants growth, including an improvement in plants' tolerance under salinity stress conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ascorbic acid application to improve salt tolerance of rice on saline soil. This research was down as a factorial based on randomized block design with 3 replications. In this research were tested eight varieties of Rice (Ciherang (V1), IR 64 (V2), Lambur (V4), Batanghari (V5), Banyuasin (V6), IR 42 (V8), Inpara 10 (V9) and Margasari (V10) and Ascorbic Acid is applied at concentrations of 0 (A0) , 500 ppm (A1) , 1000 ppm (A2) and 1500 ppm (A3). Ascorbic acid is applied in 4 times with at the age of 15, 35, 55 and 75 days after sowing. All concentrations of ascorbic acid generally has a positive effect on morphological characters. However, the best response was found at 1500 ppm (A3) concentration of ascorbic acid on Banyuasin variety.

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Hope Ngozi Nzewi, Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu

Abstract: This study explored the relationship between strategic planning and performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. Specifically, it determined the nature of relationship that existed between total assets and profit after tax of the selected banks. Exploratory research design was employed.Secondary data were sourced from the Nigerian Exchange Fact Book 2011 to 2013. Linear regression and Pearson bivariate correlation analytical techniques were used. Findings revealed that there is a weak positive relationship between the total assets and profit after tax of the selected commercial banks. The policy implication is that any meaningful profitability of the commercial banks in Nigeria must ensure proper institution and comprehensive execution of the strategic planning processes by the various managers of the selected commercial banks.

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Dhanoop K Dhanpal, Ajit Joseph, Asha Panicker

Abstract: Clustering is an efficient method for increasing the lifetime of wireless sensor network systems. The current clustering algorithms generate clusters of almost equal size. This will cause “hot spot” problem in multi-hop sensor networks. In this paper an energy efficient varying sized clustering algorithm (EEVSCA) and routing protocol are introduced for non-uniform node distributed wireless sensor network system. EEVSCA helps for the construction of clusters of varying size, at the same time unequal cluster based routing algorithm forces each cluster head to choose node with higher energy as their next hop. The unequal size of clusters can balance the energy consumption among clusters. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that EECSVA balance energy consumption well among the cluster heads and increase the network lifetime effectively.

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Mohamed Madar, Mohamed H Abdikadir

Abstract: This paper contributes to the suitability of web 2.0 technology in implementing collaborative learning and proposes an integrated framework of Web 2.0 tools and collaborative learning activities. This paper is also identifying the mismatch between adopting web 2.0 technologies and the delivery of the curriculum on the cloud or via the Internet. It is found that Web 2.0 and a collaborative learning are two platforms to be easily synchronized due to their common attributes that enable their complementariness. This paper argues that integrated framework of Web 2.0 and CL allow users exploit teaching/learning materials maximally and at the same upsurges learners’ understanding in the subject knowledge. Suitable of Web 2.0 in implementing curriculum was also encouraged since the proposed framework consists of both components of Web 2.0 functions and activities of collaborative learning environment. Pedagogically, there has been a mismatch between E-learning technologies and mode of delivery, for instance, E-learning platforms are widely used to increase content accessibility only while now this framework introduces that Web 2.0 technology of E-learning can also be used to create, share knowledge among users. The proposed framework if efficiently exploited will also allow users at all levels create personalized learning environment which suits perspective teaching/learning styles of the users. Apart from academic achievement or enhancements of the teaching and learning processes, the proposed framework also would help learners develop generic skills which are very important in the workplaces. As a result of this, fast and independent learning technically depend on technology based pedagogy and in this case, this proposed model has two dimensions which are very crucial to the enrichment of students learning activities.

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Inta Budi Setya Nusa

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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - January 2022 - Volume 11 Issue 1