International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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Volume 2- Issue 5, May 2013 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Cobbina, S. J., Michael, K., Salifu, L., Duwiejua, A. B.

Abstract:-The study on the rainwater quality was carried out in Tamale Municipality in Ghana which is poorly endowed with natural water bodies that dries up during the dry season. Rainwater samples were analyzed for pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids and major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Cl-, NO3-, H2CO3, CO3, silica and SO42-). pH levels ranged from 5.02 to 9.0 pH units with a mean of 7.18 ±0.72 pH units. The low pH found in some samples indicates high presence of CO2 in the atmosphere as a result of excessive bush burning within the environs. This can also be attributed to the increased use of fossil fuel which emits high amounts of SO2, NO2 (vehicular movement) and particulate matter (smoke, dust, suspended soot) in the air. Turbidity levels of rainwater during the four year ranged from 0.4 to 12.4 NTU with a mean of 2.6±2.5 NTU compared to WHO limit of 5 NTU. The high levels of turbidity of rainwater recorded may be due to the presents of particulate matter in the atmospheric air. pH showed good correlation with K+ which indicates that the rampant annual bush burning is the common source of atmospheric pollution in the metropolis. The rainwater quality in the study area is influenced by local activities such as bush burning and particulate matter or dust.

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Babatunde Bolasodun, Alan Nesbitt, Arthur Wilkinson, Richard Day

Abstract: - Comparative studies were carried out on the curing kinetics of an epoxy resin Araldite DLS 772 mixed with a hardener, 4 4' Diaminodiphenyl sulfone. Differential scanning calorimetry and a microwave heating calorimeter were used to monitor the curing kinetics of conventionally and microwave cured epoxy samples. These studies were carried out under non-isothermal conditions using five different heating rates. There was a significant increase in the fractional conversion of the microwave cured samples compared to the conventionally cured samples. The curing reactions for samples cured using microwave heating took place over a smaller temperature range. Higher reaction rates were observed in the samples cured using microwave heating. The activation energies of the microwave cured samples of Araldite DLS 772 / 4 4'DDS epoxy system were about ten percent lower than activation energies of conventionally cured samples.

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R. Pushpavalli, G. Sivarajde

Abstract:- Digital images are often contaminated by impulse noise during image acquisition and/or transmission over communication channel. A new Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy (HNF) filter for restoring digital images corrupted by impulse noise is proposed in this paper. The proposed filter is a hybrid filter obtained by aptly combining a Nonlinear Filter (NF), Canny Edge Detector (CED) and an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The internal parameters of the neuro-fuzzy network are adaptively optimized by training of well known images. The most distinctive feature of the proposed filter offers excellent line, edge, and fine detail preservation performance and also effectively removes impulse noise from the image. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed hybrid filter can be used for efficient restoration of digital images corrupted by impulse noise without distorting the useful information in the image. The performance of the proposed hybrid filter is compared with median based filters and hybrid filter [16] and shown to be more effective in terms of eliminating impulse noise and preserving edges and fine details of digital images.

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Yi-Jen Mon, Zhi-Jia Gu, Jia-Rong Wu

Abstract: The education of embedded system for students is popular in many institutes or universities recently. In this paper, the Advanced RISC Machine 9 (ARM9) based software called android developer suite (ADS) is combined with DMA 2440 educational kit to let students practice theoretical and experimental knowledge of embedded systems. The ADS will be illustrated at first then an example of camera application is demonstrated. The good experimental results and students’ learning assessments are revealed in this paper.

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Prasanth S. Poduval, Dr. V. R. Pramod, Dr. Jagathy Raj V. P.

Abstract : - This paper aims to highlight the difficulties faced by organizations in implementing Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). The authors with their experience in TPM and the refinery industry have attempted to understand the factors that hinder implementation of TPM. The paper first explains in brief the concepts of TPM and why TPM is a must for organizations in this complex dynamic business environment. It then takes up the various issues that hamper implementation of TPM in industries. Solutions to overcome the barriers are discussed briefly but will be taken up in detail in another paper with specific reference to refinery scenario.

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K.Harshavardhan Reddy, M. Rama Narasimha Reddy, A.VENKATASWAMI, Dr M.YOHAN

Abstract: - At first glance, calculating the efficiency of any type of compression system seems to be straight forward Comparing the work required of an ideal compression process with the work required of an actual compression process. But the difficulty lies in defining appropriate system boundaries that include losses associated with the compression process. Generally the losses that occur in the refrigerant compressor are Electric motor losses, Mechanical power distribution losses, Heat losses, Cycle losses, Volumetric efficiency losses.The EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) of the refrigeration and Air Conditioning system is improved by improving the cooling capacity (or) by reducing the power input to the compressor and by reducing the losses. In this project the parameters affecting the performance of reciprocating compressor are analyzed and appropriate modifications have been made which resulted in improving the performance (or) EER of the system.The modifications made are Surface finish improvements and usage of low viscosity co mpressor oils to reduce frictional losses between the mating parts. Reducing the displacement volume and suction valve leaf thickness to reduce the volumetric losses. Finally changing the suction head material from metal to plastic so as to reduce the heat losses and thereby improving the thermal efficiency

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Ms. Lavate Rupali N., Ms. Kadam Supriya S., Mr. Kothawale Suhas L.

Abstract: - This paper describes the implementation of a file system based distributed authoring system for campus-wide workgroups .In this we overcome the difficulty in changing a single document by different group members. Prior approaches operate on only specific documents but our system operates on any type of document. Each group member maintains one updatable copy of shared document. We also hoard read-only copies of each of these updateable copies in any interested group member’s node. All these copies are propagated to other group members at a rate that is solely dictated by the wireless user availability.

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Mathieu N. Bleyere, Charles B. Pomalegni, Serge E.P. Mensah, Agathe T. Fantodji, Apollinaire G. Mensah. Dr Mathieu Nahounou BLEYERE

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Several studies which have suggested foods for the new environment of reared grasscutter, report the composition, zootechnical performance, digestibility of these foods. However, very few investigations reveal the constitution of blood grasscutter after having provided food for measuring of concentrations blood nutrients. The main purpose of this study is the determination and assessment of blood nutrients through hematology and biochemical parameters and C-reactive protein in reared grasscutters subjected to a complete granulated food. METHODOLOGY: Eight subadult Grasscutters aged six months in Benin are subjected to different foods (foods from Côte d'Ivoire and another food usually distributed in Benin). In each animal, a blood sample is taken fasting the morning in tubes with anticoagulant and without anticoagulant. Through these blood samples, haematological and biochemical parameters were determined and evaluated through comparisons of statistical tests. RESULTS: The results of these investigations showed that the mean values of all blood nutrients were normal compared to some studies conducted elsewhere. In addition, our work has shown that both foods do not significantly different through the evaluated blood nutrients. However, concentrations of urea (28±2.8 mg/dl) and phosphorus (102.5±14.3 mmol/l) are increased in grasscutter subjected to complete granulated food compared to food usually distributed in grasscutter place of rearing (21.3±3.8 mg/dl and 78.5±9 mmol/l respectively). Furthermore, various relationships were observed between haematological, biochemical parameters, weight gain and C-reactive protein. CONCLUSION: The complete granulated food provides good and best content of nutrients in blood of subadult grasscutters.

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Deepak Prabhakar P., Dr. Jagathy Raj V. P.

Abstract: - Refiners today operate their equipment for prolonged periods without shutdown. This is primarily due to the increased pressures of the market resulting in extended shutdown-to-shutdown intervals. This places extreme demands on the reliability of the plant equipment. The traditional methods of reliability assurance, like Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance become inadequate in the face of such demands. The alternate approaches to reliability improvement, being adopted the world over are implementation of RCFA programs and Reliability Centered Maintenance. However refiners and process plants find it difficult to adopt this standardized methodology of RCM mainly due to the complexity and the large amount of analysis that needs to be done, resulting in a long drawn out implementation, requiring the services of a number of skilled people. These results in either an implementation restricted to only few equipment or alternately, one that is non-standard. The paper presents the current models in use, the core requirements of a standard RCM model, the alternatives to classical RCM, limitations in the existing model, classical RCM and available alternatives to RCM and will then go on to present an ‘Accelerated’ approach to RCM implementation, that, while ensuring close conformance to the standard, does not place a large burden on the implementers.

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Meigy Nelce Mailoa, Beni Setha

Abstract: - The aim of this study was to identification and analyzing patogenisity characteristic of Vibrio sp. Isolated From Eel Anguilla sp. Skin Mucus. The samples were taken from Tambala and Agogo rivers in Tanawangko waters, North Sulawesi, Indonesia,were put into sterile plastics, and then put into a cool box during their trip from the field to the laboratory. Analysis microbiology is of conducted by isolation and identification of Vibrio sp. There for the pathogenicity analysis consisted of agglutination and hemolytic tests. From 60 Vibrio which has been isolated from the mucus of eel fish, it was found that: Vibrio sp (45,0 %) V. alginolitycus (23,3 %) V. cholerae (21,7%) V. parahaemolitycus (6,7%), and V. vulnificus (3,3 %). The result of pathogenicity test showed V. alginolitycus (Lr7.b1) was α-haemolysis wheles V. parahaemolitycus (Lr10.a1) was β-haemolysis. There for the aglutinase test was positive on V. alginolitycus (Lr.7.b1) and V. parahaemolitycus (Lr10.a1), but agglutination of V. cholerae. show negative

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Mrs Veeravanitha D, Nandhini R, Sathya U, Ravanya R, Haripriya C

Abstract: - Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is a proposed new communication technology that seeks to expand the use of optical technology in switching systems. In this paper we propose a scheme to minimize the contention and to decrease a burst loss probability at OBS network. The key idea of the paper is that buffering is implemented in electronic domain. In addition we elaborate our proposed contention avoidance mechanism and system performance using burst loss probability , steady state throughput, load balancing and energy is presented. We also show through simulation that the proposed protocol is a viable solution for effectively reducing the conflict and increasing the bandwidth utilization for optical burst switching.

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Reda Aburas, Noor Raihan Ab Hamid

Abstract:- Competition in the financial industry is intensified due to the globalization and the advancement in information technology. Today, the adoption of information systems has evolved from office automation to providing comprehensive information critical in decision making. By far, the quality of information service becomes one of the important factors in customers’ assessment of service quality even before making purchase decisions. Likewise in the banking sector, customers’ decision to subscribe to the banks services would depend on amongst, the ISQ. This study aimed at identifying the measurement of ISQ based on customers’ expectations. With the use of questionnaire survey customers’ perceptions of quality of information service were identified. Questionnaires were randomly distributed to banks customers upon obtaining permission from the banks’ branch managers. To meet the research objectives descriptive and causal analyses were applied. SEM technique was applied to propose the measurement models of a four-construct ISQ. Theoretical and managerial implications were discussed. Finally this study presented some future directions of research.

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Minakshi Ganjir, Dipti Ranjan Behera, Sunita Bhatnagar

Abstract: Ipomoea pes-caprae and Merremia umbellata initially belonged to the same genus Ipomoea, later both were separated into different genus on the basis of morphological differences. In this study both the medicinal plants were compared using phytochemical analysis, cytotoxic activity and antioxidant potential. Phytochemical tests revealed lots of similarities than variation. The only difference in case of phytochemical analysis of the two plants was in the detection of tannins which was present in all the samples of Ipomoea pes-caprae while it was present only in polar extract in Merremia umbellata. In spectral analysis most of the extracts showed similar profile, except for hexane extracts. Majority of peaks were similar with a minor peak here or there. Regarding cytotoxic activity Ipomoea pes caprae showed better results(more than 80%) as compared to Merremia umbellata which showed less than 75% cytotoxic activity. Ipomoea pes capre revealed marginally better antioxidant properties in comparision to Merremia umbellata.

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EL Boukili, M. Nach, M. B. Sedra

Abstract: In This paper we will study Non commutative sln-KdV hierarchy equations by the means of Moyal Non commutative Lax generating technics. We will make some consistent assumptions shown to be essential in deriving the Lax pair of special noncommutative integrables systems, for this we calculate positive and negative orders of Moyal Noncommutative hierarchy equations for Burgers and KdV systems. We present also the conditions of having linear equations and giving the ansatz Process and the NC hierarchy equations in the general case.

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Isitekhale, H.H.E., Aboh, S.I., Oseghale, E.S.

Abstract: Sulphur status of some soils in Edo Central, Nigeria was evaluated in five different locations; Ekpoma, Irrua, Uromi, Ubiaja and Agbede. The area lies within the derived savanna-forest transitional zone. Surface soil samples (0 – 15 cm) collected from the five localities wasanalyzed for their physico-chemical properties, inorganic, organic and total sulphur contents. Results showed that inorganic, organic and total sulphur ranged from 0.10 to 0.37, 0.79 to 2.75 and 6.30 to 16.41 mg/kg respectively. Inorganic sulphur content of all the locations was generally below the critical level of 8.50 mg/kg and therefore generally deficient in inorganic sulphur. Inorganic sulphur correlated significantly with available phosphorus but was negative and non-significant with organic carbon, pH, nitrogen, ECEC, clay and silt contents. Application of sulphur fertilizer is recommended for adequate crop yield in the agro-ecological zone.

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Ammar A. Yousif Mohammed, InzarulfaishamAbd Rahim

ABSTRACT: An attempted to understand the noise generated during the car brake was led the researcher to search for oscillation systems that represent the brake disc-pad.They were found that the oscillation between the disc and the padduring the noise generated wereself-sustained stick-slip oscillations and can be present in a one degree of freedom. In this article an attempted was investigated to solve the stick-slip oscillation by MATLAB software with one mathematical equation only instead of using three separated equation resultedfrom different three oscillation equation condition interval. Find out the sign function had made this method possible. However, stick-slip oscillation forone degree of freedomwas solved in this paper by using this method. Study of the effect of changing the dynamic properties was investigated also to predict the noise generatesby changing these parameters. The contact interaction between mass and the belt was solved to find out the relation between the friction andthe relative velocity. The relative velocity curve was conducted through solving the system frictionequation by means of numerical time integration method ODE45. Friction-relative velocity values were used later inside ABAQUS software with beam on rotating rigid disc with different contact angle and condition. This study investigates the effect of the friction on the noise generated from brake at low frequency. The vibration responses showed that the friction relative velocity ratio is responsible for the separation of the system amplitude value. Changing the contact angle could change the noise generated and presented higher fundamental frequency. As a result, this method was approved to be correct method to study stick- slip phenomena.

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N.G. El-Sharkawy, S.F. El-Hadidi

Abstract: In this paper we find the general product induced by the semi special permutation (1)(2)(3)(4)(5). That is the general products of two finite cyclic groups in which one of order 5 and the other is of order m these general products can be described in terms of numerical parameters.

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Chafaa Hamrouni, Bilel Neji, Mohamed ben Amor, Hiroshi Nakajima, Adel M. Alimi

Abstract: Ultra small scale satellites have a very demanding and limited mass and power budget specification; therefore, mostly the design constraints prevent the use of small scale camera. In this paper, an imaging capturing subsystem is proposed for ultra small satellite, which includes low power consumption components; the developed imaging capturing subsystem was studied, simulated and successfully integrated in order to operate on board Femto satellite and cooperate with ERPSat-1 pico satellite during mission in Leo. In addition, the simulation has shown results that motivate integration of ultra small satellite with cubic sat during mission for space observation.

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Siti Kustinah

ABSTRACT: Dysfunctional behavior and organizational culture affects the quality of audit. Partially, dysfunctional behavior has negative and significant effect on the quality of audit. The decline of the audit quality is due to the auditors do not research of financial accounting standards, set a materiality level lower than it should, do not review more intensively of client documents, remove most of the time the audit has been spent in audit process and remove the difference between the actual time and time budget audit. Whereas, organizational culture has positive and significant effect on audit quality. The improve of the audit quality is due to the auditors do not feel stress when they have audit process, less work and competition among them.

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Gholamreza Bagheri, Yaser Ahangari Nanehkaran

Abstract: Recent developments in the field economic and international trade have renewed interest in achieving to the economic goals in any country. One of these goals is foreign direct investment which requires financial resources for investing projects. The countries that do not have enough capital for its development projects is focused to use of foreign investment “ transfer of funds and raw materials from one country to other country for utilize to establish economic corporation in latter country in lieu of direct or indirect participation in returning and revenue. The goal of this paper is present and focuses on basic concept, definition, general characteristics, classifications, structure, advantages, disadvantages, and stimulus of Foreign Direct Investment in Iran.

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Omar KhodjetKesba,Mustapha KamelMihoubi, Mohammed Bourkia,

Abstract : The study of the phenomenon of cavitation of centrifugal pumps remains of a great importance in the field of construction as well as in the field of installation of pumps in pumping stations. In fact, with the consequences it engenders: noise, vibration, erosion and loss of efficiency, it provokes, on the one hand, a progressive degradation of the performance of the machine and, on the other hand, an increase in the costs of the maintenance of installation ( a compromise between the functioning period and cost of exploitation), in addition to the loss of efficiency of pumps and the resistance of different materials to the effects of the phenomenon of cavitation. Among the techniques and methods of protecting the parts of pumps is the cladding of the parts with composite plastic materials for the purpose of increasing the resistibility and protecting the parts from the effects of cavitation. Relevant to this, our work aims at analysing this problem with the intention of preserving the efficiency of a pump by limiting the effects of cavitation through an experimental study that has been realized in a laboratory. As such, wheels of different materials are tested under conditions of cavitation taking into consideration the three types of metals used in the manufacture of the wheel, and this regarding the study of resistibility of each material subject to the effects of the phenomenon aforementioned. Thus, this present work consists in experimentally studying the physical impact of cavitational erosion upon the hydrodynamic behavior and the performances of centrifugal pumps, and that affects the weight of different wheels. This phenomenon can be obtained only through measurement: loss of efficiency that can have repercussions for the characteristics of functioning as well as the mechanical behavior.

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Prof. P. Balasiddamuni, Dr. K. KiranPrakash, Dr. C. L. Kantha Rao, Mr. A. Venkata Prasad, Prof. R. Abbaiah, Mr. G. Mokesh Rayalu.

Abstract:- The present study considered the familiar Gauss-Markov linear model Y = X  +  in which the error vector  has a zero mean vector and a covariance matrix , a diagonal matrix whose ith element is , the variance of ith observation Yi. Rao (1970) has suggested that the MINQUE theory for the vector of these heteroscedastic variances. In the present work, it has been assumed that the variance of error term will be a linear combination of certain independent variables i.e., = . Under this assumption the heteroscedastic variances and the parameters of the linear model have hence been estimated by using MINQUE theory.

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Ryna Rachmawati

Abstract: Microscience approach is a new and highly innovative practical science concept that use a very small scale or microscale. It has a lot of advantages over the tradition approach which is cheap, easy to store, and easy to clean, as well as save hazardous waste disposal because uses microscience kit. The integration of practical work with the theory may have contributed to the positive response of conceptual understanding, of course Microscience approach is aiming to provide science teachers’ training. This article will discuss the implementation of microscience approach as a model for improving in-service science teachers’ training quality at Balai Diklat Keagamaan (BDK) Bandung.

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Mohd Afzan Sharom, S. M. Firdaus, Ishak Abd Azid

Abstract: This paper presents the mechanical modelling and finite elements analysis (FEA) based on cantilever and artificial hair cell MEMS as flow sensors. The structure of this biomimetic flow sensor consists of a single cylindrical hair cell which is perpendicular to a cantilever length of 10000µm. The Sensor performance is measured by the distribution of Stress occurrence and displacement. In order to study the sensor force of 0.02N represent gas flow the force which is applied to cylindrical hair cell variation of the width of cantilever and height of the cylindrical hair cell. The FEA result shows the highest stress occurred as the width of the cantilever decrease while the displacement increase also when the width of cantilever decrease.

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Driss Ouzebla, Hassan B. Lazrek, Michael Smietana, Jean-Jacques Vasseur

Abstract: An efficient Knoevenegel reaction, addition of Michael, trans-esterification for the synthesis of new polyanionic acyclonucleosids using natural phosphate as catalyst

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Mr. Ashish Khodwe, Mrs. V. K. Rajput, Prof.C.N.Bhoyar, Prof. Priya M. Nerkar

Abstract: Network-on-Chip (NoC) is the interconnection platform that answers the requirements of the modern on-Chip design. Small optimizations in NoC router architecture can show a significant improvement in the overall performance of NoC based systems. Power consumption, area overhead and the entire NoC performance is influenced by the router crossbar switch. This paper presents implementation of 10x10 reconfigurable crossbar switch (RCS) architecture for Dynamic Self-Reconfigurable BiNoC Architecture for Network On Chip. Its main purpose is to increase the performance, flexibility. This paper presents a VHDL based cycle accurate register transfer level model for evaluating the, Power and Area of reconfigurable crossbar switch in BiNoC architectures. We implemented a parameterized register transfer level design of reconfigurable crossbar switch (RCS) architecture. The design is parameterized on (i) size of packets, (ii) length and width of physical links, (iii) number, and depth of arbiters, and (iv) switching technique. The paper discusses in detail the architecture and characterization of the various reconfigurable crossbar switch (RCS) architecture components. The characterized values were integrated into the VHDL based RTL design to build the cycle accurate performance model. In this paper we show the result of simple 4 x4 as well as 10x10 crossbar switch .The results include VHDL simulation of RCS on ModelSim tool for 4 x4 crossbar switch and Xilinx ISE 13.1 software tool for 10x10 crossbar switch.

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Yi-Jen Mon

Abstract: The airbag system has become a standard equipment of vehicles recently. The purpose of airbag system is to protect the safeties of driver and passengers. How to improve the ignition timing of algorithm of airbag control at the moment of car accident occurrence is very important. In this paper, the test platform of simulation is established such as to assure the corrections of ignition timings for numerous crash data of car accidents; meanwhile, by this platform the ignition algorithm of airbag control development can be effective and robust.

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B. Nagaveni, G. Sai Thirumal, M. Rami Reddy

Abstract: The Network-on-Chip (NOC) concept has recently become a widely discussed technique for handling the large on-chip communication requirements of complex System-on- Chip (SOC) designs. A traditional bus-based interconnection scheme does not scale well to very large SOCs because many Intellectual Property (IP) blocks must contend with each other to communicate over the shared bus. In contrast, an on-chip network uses the packet-switching paradigm to route information between IP blocks and it can be scaled up to achieve a very large total aggregate bandwidth within the chip. The issues of applying the Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technique to an on-chip packet switched communication network are discussed in this paper. A packet switched Network-on-Chip (NOC) that applies the CDMA technique is realized in Register-Transfer Level (RTL) using VHDL. The realized CDMA NOC supports the Globally-Asynchronous Locally-Synchronous (GALS) communication scheme by applying both synchronous and asynchronous designs. In a packet switched NOC, which applies a point-to-point connection scheme, e.g., a ring topology NOC, data transfer latency varies largely if the packets are transferred to different destinations or to the same destination through different routes in the network. The CDMA NOC can eliminate the data transfer latency variations by sharing the data communication media among multiple users concurrently. A six-node GALS CDMA on-chip network is modeled and simulated. The characteristics of the CDMA NOC are examined by comparing them with the characteristics of an on-chip bidirectional ring topology network. The simulation results reveal that the data transfer latency in the CDMA NOC is a constant value for a certain length of packet and is equivalent to the best case data transfer latency in the bidirectional ring network when data path width is set to 32 bits.

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Zhao Yu lin, Muhammad Mudassar

Abstract: The choice for the adoption of an exchange rate regime is considered very important in a globalized economy. This selection is affected with the evolution of industrial structure of the economy. The changes in exports and industrial base of the economy emphasize the need to redefine the parameters of international financial market. We have studied the relationship between the choice of an exchange rate regime and the development of industrial structure. In our analysis we have defined exchange rate regime as floating and fixed; and have used logistic regression analysis for a set of 33 countries in two time sets. The development of industrial base especially the tertiary industry has triggered the adoption of a liberal, floating exchange rate regime. The results support our hypothesis of a positive relationship between the evolution of industrial structure and movement towards a liberal exchange rate regime.

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S. Nag, A. Paul, M. A. Choudhuri

Abstract: - An attempt was made to identify the role of peroxidase activity as well as the changes of peroxidase (POX) isozymes that control adventitious root formation at the base of hypocotyl cuttings of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. 105). Three phases of the adventitious root formation process were identified; induction (0-24 h), initiation (24-72 h) and expression (after 72 h). The lower peroxidase activity during the induction period (0-24 h) corresponded with the first peak of IAA at 24 h which indicated termination of the induction phase. A peak of peroxidase activity with low IAA levels at 72 h signaled the termination of the initiation phase. After 72 h, peroxidase activity declined and IAA levels increased slowly and this was characterized as the expression phase. Exogenous application of auxin IBA (10-5M) or polyamine putrescine (PUT, 10-4M) had an effect on increasing the number of adventitious root than control. Compared with controls IBA (10-5M) or PUT (10-4M) treated cuttings exhibited increased levels of peroxidase activities also. The change in isozymes pattern were observed after 24 h of cuttings. The Relative Mobility Fraction (Rmf) of isozymes also increased and extra peaks of band intensity (OD) were also appeared during initiation and expression phases of rooting in Vigna hypocotyl regions treated with IBA (10-5M) or PUT (10-4M) than control.

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Navdeep Singh, Harshdeep Singh, Sewa Singh

Abstract/Objective: The prevention climatic changes induced by anthropological greenhouse gas emissions, is one of the of severe major challenges for the current and future generation of mankind hence this study investigates in providing a cheaper and cleaner fuel in burning from post harvesting agricultural wastes. Coal and wood have been the primary fuel used subsequently and produce lot of polluting gases like carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide which has consequences on health. The agriculture waste is bio degradable and decomposes/burns. Since waste can be a source of energy after mixing the waste material of different calorific value, the agriculture waste can be converted into fuel cakes or by modifying charcoal by destructive distillation process by using of effective carbonizer. The results obtained with multi-fuel (Agro-charcoal) further stronger the idea of setting small power plants, dedicated to rural sector of India.

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Suman Kumar Pariyar, Tapash Das, Tanima Ferdous

Abstract: In Kathmandu Valley among the other environment pollutions, air pollution is one of them. Valley is vulnerable due to its topography, which restricts the wind movement and allows pollutants to remain within the valley and the anthropocentric reasons. Brick kilns are the major source of air pollution along with other sources. These are not only deteriorating air quality and it is also degrading the health of the people living near the kilns. This research is base on both primary and secondary data sources to know about brick kilns pollution impacts on human health and environment around brick kilns zones, and to find out for minimize the air pollution do brick kilns adopt new technologies. For this research, primary data were collected from Nalin Chock of Bhaktapur district because many brick kilns were situated there and secondary data sources were provided the information about brick kilns production of different toxic pollutant components for air pollution and human hazards. Respondents of this research have shared that they are suffering with diseases like respiratory, nasal cognition, burning of eyes and loss of visibility, which accelerated many accidents on that particular area due to brick kilns. However, positive outcome of this study is that recently government has decided to ban Bulls Trench brick kilns in Kathmandu as a result; entrepreneurs are searching for environment friendly and cost effective alternative technologies, which will help us to built pollution free city.

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Aditya Kumar, Mohd Mohiuddin Ansari

Abstract: Chaos is one type of complex dynamic behaviour generated by determined nonlinear dynamic systems. Dependency on initial conditions and highly unpredictable nature of chaotic signals lead to novel cryptographic applications. Cryptography and chaos have some common features, the most prominent being sensitivity to parameters’ and variables’ changes. This paper focuses on multi-message signcryption schemes based on chaoswith public verifiability. In this paper we purpose two signcryption schemes for single and multiple recipients. The purposed schemes use a chaos based multi-key generator to generate multiple keys for signcryption scheme and are publicly verifiable, highly sensitive to the initial conditions, and provide high security due to its chaotic nature.

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Ahmad Najib Kobaissi, Karim Souhail Al-Souki, Hussein Jaafar Kanbar, Ali Ahmad Kanso.

Abstract: Assessment of compost quality from municipal solid waste (MSW) in a country like Lebanon, where national standards and quality assurances are still primitive, is an arduous task. Based on this fact, the present study was undertaken to determine the quality and stability of the compost produced in Ain Baal compost plant, in south Lebanon. Screened Samples were taken and divided into two categories. The first category was left without any interference as taken from the source (termed non-cured), whereas the second was further cured (termed cured). Analysis of both, the cured and non-cured samples showed a great variation based on the chemical and physical properties, metal content and stability tests. The control and enhancement of the curing period, aeration and moistening of the starting feedstock greatly improved the quality of the resulted compost. pH value, moisture content, C/N ratio and mineral nitrogen ammonia fitted the acceptable range after treatment. This fact reveals that with proper care and organization of the entire composting process, it is possible to improve the quality of the final product, and thus use it as agricultural supplements as a final objective. This report aims to demonstrate the current status of produced compost from Ain-Baal facility as well as to highlight on the possible enhancement of its quality.

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Phanendrababu H, ArvindChoubey

Abstract:This brief presents the design of a audio pass band decimation filter for Delta-Sigma analog-to-digital converters. The contribution of this work is the implementation of a multi-rate system of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) decimation filters of linear phase supporting decimation ratios of 32 to 128. A three-stage decimation filter with down-sampling factor of 128 is developed. A fourth-order CIC (Cascaded Integrator-Comb) filter which reduces the sampling rate by 32 is implemented non-recursively using cascaded form of realization in first stage. Two half band filters follow the CIC filter each reducing the sampling rate by two. The resulting filters features less pass band droop and higher folding-band attenuation than traditional filters. The system level analysis of the design is done on MATLAB and comparisons with other works in literature are provided.

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Md. Fahad Bin Zamal

Abstract: Fromthe mid-1960s,telecommunication services are used to provide by satellite. Later significant expansions available in the public and private sector which provide payload, transmission, and antenna and launch capabilities. Satellite television and global positioning system (GPS) navigation are now become new form of mobile communication in satellite communication. For the use of communication in maritime sector the Mobile-satellite services being used from the start of the 1980s.Aeronautical, personal communication and land mobile services are the frequent use of mobile satellite communication.

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Mr. K.Vijaya Kumar, Dr. Mir Safiulla, Dr. A.N Khaleel Ahmed

ABSTRACT: Carbon fiber reinforced Composite structures posses’ high strength and stiffness to weight ratios, also exhibits good fatigue resistance, and are less prone to deterioration caused by corrosion and cracking. Fabrication of these composite structures is highly process dependent. During curing process, the physical, mechanical and chemical properties are imparted to the components, and are generally cured in autoclaves under controlled temperature, pressure and vacuum. Any variation in these parameters leads to change in properties of a composite structure, hence there is a need to analyse the effects of vacuum failures at during curing on mechanical and Ultrasonic Characteristics. Efforts are also made to analyze the root causes for the vacuum failures during curing process. Laminates made of Hexcel 913 carbon/ epoxy prepeg are prepared and cured in the autoclave by varying the vacuum levels at different salient points of cure process during curing. The specimens were prepared as per the DIN 29971 standards to evaluate the DT and NDT characteristics. The Experimental results shows that ILSS will not vary much if the vacuum fails after (Tg) Glass Transition point, hence the vacuum can be maintained up to the Tg point and thereby it can be slowly reduced to zero. This shows that there is a scope to optimize the manufacturers recommended cure cycle so as to reduce the curing cost and time. This research work helps the designers in developing the tools and optimum cure cycles for carbon epoxy composite structures.

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Yasabie Abatneh, Omprakash Sahu

Abstract: The objective of the work is the conversion of waste plastics into fuel oil. Plastic wastes such as, polypropylene, low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene, polystyrene are the most frequently used in everyday activities and disposed of to the environment after service. Plastic are those substances which can take long periods of time to decompose if disposed off simply to the environment. Therefore, waste plastic should be changed into usable resources. The different waste plastics were thermally cracked at different temperature and then it was tried to measure the oil produced, the residue left after the reaction is completed, and the gas produced. Then it is compared that which types of plastics can yield higher amount of oil. There are a number of methods by which plastic wastes can be managed such as incineration, recycling, land filling, and thermal cracking. But this work focuses on thermal cracking of waste plastic to change them into usable resources, because in this method the emission of hazardous gases to the environment insignificant. This means we can change all the waste in to useful resources.

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Anil Kumar, S.K. Gandhi, Sewa Singh

Abstract: A fixed bed pyrolysis has been designed and fabricated for obtaining liquid fuel from mustard de-oiled cake. Thermal pyrolysis of mustard de-oiled cake were carried out in a semi batch reactor made up of stainless steel at temperature range from 4500C to 6000C and at a rate of 150C /min to produce bio-fuel. The maximum yield of oil was 51% on wt. % basis for mustard de-oiled cake, it was obtained at a temperature of 6000C with a less completion time. The fuel analysis of oil reveals that this pyrolytic oil can be used as fuel.

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Lav Dev Bhatta

Abstract: this article is about classroom practices at primary level from multicultural perspective. The main purpose of this study was to assess classroom practices in terms of multicultural perspective .Gram Sewa Higher Secondary School was the field for the study. Class observation guidelines, questionnaire, and interview guidelines were the research tools for the collection of information. Altogether twenty five classes were observed, interview with teachers, students and guardians and questionnaire filling from teachers and students were conducted. The findings indicated that The physical environment of classroom (seating chart and classroom decoration) and psychological environment of classroom( language of instruction, teachers understanding, planning, teaching methods, learning aids, motivation, assignment system, assessment system and extracurricular activities) were based on melting pot approach. Most of the teachers teaching practices were neither culturally relevant nor culturally responsive. The performance of marginalized group students was lower than main streaming. There is need of reformation to address classroom diversity and make it culturally responsive.

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Marie Nejedla, Eleanora Psenova

Abstract : - The aim of this study is to apply Elert’s principles for the determination of body sizes based on the knowledge of height and body weight to the radius of a sphere of the same mass and density as a human. The problem is addressed through multidimensional data analysis which facilitates a specific method of predicting "the variables" based upon the inter-dependencies between them. Elert’s System is the name of a general solution for the creation of sheer clothes designs which are created based on two body measurements of the customer. The independent variables in the experiment were further supplemented by a chest circumference and seat circumference. The experiment used a set of body dimensions from 1066 Czech women aged 18-60 years old measured in 1990. The output is a set of regression coefficients which can be used to calculate the so-called subordinate human body dimensions from which it is possible to generate the sheer documentation for the clothing product and verify the garment in 3D on a virtual figure. Elert´s principle is feasible useing two body dimensions and can be used in determining body size in the mass production of clothing.

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P.Jagannadha Varma, Y.Pragna, P. Manoj Kumar, B.Praveen Kumar, R.Anil Kumar.

Abstract: Due to the emerging technologies for video compression and broadband Internet, video streaming services are made available. Live video streaming without delay is a reality now. However, the available bandwidth has to be allocated optimally when video streaming takes place over a multicast network. This is because users have different requirement with respect to bandwidth. Moreover, the users may need streaming to their mobile devices, PCs or high – definition TV. In order to allocate bandwidth based on user requirement, the users can be grouped into various categories. This will facilitate to manage bandwidth allocation easily. This is achieved using MDC (Multiple Description Coding) in which video source is associated with various descriptions and the receivers are associated with one of the descriptions. This will automate the process of allocating different bandwidth to different users while the same video is being streamed. However allocating optimal bandwidth is a challenging task that needs research. In this Paper we consider this as an optimization problem. The aim is to maximize user bandwidth experience and satisfaction by improving coding efficiency pertaining to MDC. We developed an algorithm to achieve this. The simulation results of our algorithm reveal that it improves user satisfaction significantly.

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M. A. Umar, D. K. Wunzani

ABSTRACT: The whole plants of wild rice were collected from Gure, Kagoro, and Kaduna of Kaduna state in order to determine the concentration of Cu, Mn, Pb and Ni in wild rice plants. HNO3-H2O2 was used for digestion. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the determination of heavy metals in plants digest. Ni and Co were uniformly distributed in small quantity in all the plant parts. Mn and Cu, were differently distributed in good amount, with the roots recording the highest amount of Cu. The leaves recorded Mn and Pb as the highest. Gure location recorded the highest amount of Ni, Mn, and Pb, while, Cu was recorded as the highest in Kaduna location. ANOVA at 95%confidence level show that there is no significant different in concentration of Cu, Ni and Pb in all the locations and plant parts. But, the concentrations of Mn was significantly different in plant parts and locations at 95% confidence level. The concentration of the metals in grain were compared with other studies as well as WHO/FAO reference standard and most of the metals concentration in grain were within the limit for food quality standard. However, Cu concentration in grain was a little higher than the WHO/FAO reference limit and may pose danger in humans and animals who may consume the grain in the near future.

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Sabita Paul

Abstract: In today’s world the emerging technology has made an exponential growth of the Internet which has changed the pattern of almost all the organizations in performing their business. The Indian banking industry is not an exception of it. From the year 1990s privatization of banks, proliferation and emergence of so many foreign and private sector banks like ICICI, HDFC, CANARA banks etc have emerged in the Banking Industry of India. Both private and public sector Banks in India have been trying to give out their best service to their customers in terms of Banking Hall Transactions, Internet Banking, Automated Teller Machine (ATM) Banking, Mobile banking, Credit Card Transactions etc. The convenience of using ATM for banking transactions by customers of Banks in Odisha a major role to play in customer retention and satisfaction. This research paper aims to check if the current and prompt technological revolution altering the whole world has crucial impacts on the banking sector in Orissa. It is mainly based on data, collected from banking customers in different commercial banks of Odisha. Hence the findings of this research will help the banks to establish a customer oriented strategy to retain their customers in future. It mainly focuses on investigating the important factors influencing the online customers’ satisfaction with the overall service quality of their concerned banks. It emphasizes on measuring the ATM standards and service quality with a research focus on the commercial banking sector in Odisha. The methodologies used for this research involved interviews with bank customers and bank managers of the case study banks and administrations of questionnaires to a number of bank customers in Odisha. To investigate in the real-time scenario we have taken the case study of some Commercial banks limited in Odisha in order to understand “why” and “how” the electronic banking could not be implemented successfully.

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Andi Sukainah, Abu Bakar Tawali, Salengke, Amran Laga

Abstract: Fermentation is one of the food material processing techniques to improve the nutritional value of a product. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fermentation on isotherm sorption in corn flour and corn crackers. The varieties of corn used were BISI 2 and POP obtained from Cereal Crops Research Institute of Sulawesi Selatan. Steps involved in this study include flouring, fermentation, analysis of nutrient content and isothermic sorption at 30ºC and 40ºC with humidity of 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80%. The results showed that the fermentation of all corn flours can improve nutritional value which were observed in both corn varieties. Likewise, isothermic sorption with type II (sigmoid) on all types of corn were observed (fermented and unfermented) in corn flour and corn crackers. Based on the volume of water absorbed during the storage process, it appeared that there was an effect of the fermentation on corn flour either at a temperature of 30ºC or 40ºC, particularly humidity at humidity of <60%. Whereas, the fermentation treatment on corn crackers showed a positive influence at the storage temperature of 30ºC in all corn varieties. At storage temperature of 40ºC, fermentation treatment affect only the BISI 2 varieties.

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Dr. Syed Wali Peeran, Madhumala Thiruneervannan, Khaled Awidat Abdalla, Marei Hamed Mugrabi

Abstract: Endo-Perio lesions are occasionally encountered complicated dental conditions, difficult to diagnose and treat. In this current review, various topics that will help clinicians in handling such situations have been summarized. Thus this article reviews the normal anatomic communications between the pulp and periodontium, aetiology of the endo-perio lesions, various available classifications, diagnosis, prognosis and decision-making in the treatment of these conditions.

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Rita A.Gharde, Jyoti R. Amare, Santosh A. Mani

ABSTRACT: Recently, Liquid Crystal (LC) dispersed with polymer is used to enhance the physical properties of the LCs materials. These materials possess combined application of LC and polymer and their electro-optic applications have been extensively studied during last decades. The LC mixture consists of Nematic and Cholestric that are dispersed in a monomer or prepolymer with different concentration. The existing Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal (PDLC) consists of different concentrations of LC and monomer. The textures and Phase transition temperature (PTTs) can be studied by Polarising Microscope Studies (PMS). The Phase transition temperature (PTTs) can also be studied by Fabry-Perot etalon Scattering Studies (FPSS) In this paper, we present the changes in transition temperature along with new phase transition temperature in PDLC. Measurements were performed for both heating and cooling of various samples. In addition to this, Refractive Index (RI) of all samples were found for optical characterization of the material. Texture observation and spectroscopic techniques are used to characterize the other properties of the PDLC samples. The PDLC suspension can be used as a new liquid crystalline material that does not require any additional alignment processing or treatment. Our results will provide new opportunity and their uses in advanced technology development.

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Dr.Kaveri Dabhadker, Dr. Renu Shrivastva, Dr. Aradhana Sharma

Coal mining with perspective of health is a crucial area in India. The health condition of mine workers including women and children is one of the most serious impacts of mining. Workers not only suffers from external environmental situation of mines also they faces reduction in quality of life due to denial of access of food availability livelihoods. India, in this aspect poses a much more dangerous situation as coal mining is in developing stage here. Despite people suffering from several forms of environmental diseases, physical and mental deformities, poor nutritional status, occupational hazards, constant exposure of chronic diseases as a result of mining, there is a tragic gap in the availability of ‘scientific’ data on hazards of mining in India and specially coal mine workers. This is the root cause of mining industries to walk away from their responsibility towards the health of workers community. The apathy, lack of understanding the human values ,absence of strong political will and gross corruption in the government enhances the scope of coal industry to continue with impunity .As health issue is considered “technical and “scientific” part of any industry , the complains and evidences from worker community are brushed under the carpet as the relationship between mining management and workers is not based on humanities and the ill-health problems are tackled by the law implementing, monitoring and judicial authority on the pretext of improper and inadequate scientific collaboration.(MMP,2003) Our developmental policies, especially in the context of economic activities like mining; mine worker’s health is an important index for human growth and development, because coal like energy source is still the basic of up gradation of quality of life. Hence mining is one of the Industries that influence the health condition of surrounding area. How true is this in the context of India that rural, tribal as well as urban poor, who ignore their bodies for the extraction of minerals. Nutrition along with environmental diseases is also an important issue in the mining area. Logically it is due to absence of nutrients the efficiency of work is affected badly so proper nutritional intake is the prime necessity. Although the availability of nutrients in food is dependent upon the geographical environment of an area but socio-economic factors also play an important role in this regard. So the interrelating study of geo-economic environment and nutrition is prime requirement while considering heath of coal miners. As our newly formed state Chattisgarh is having rich mineral recourses, as coal, iron ore. bauxite, dolomite, lime stone even diamond, so mining industries are the base pillar of our economy . Also a significant part of our population is engaged in mining, so every relevant study is of community importance, especially coal mining sector Nutritional assessments indicates the nutritional health of an individual through nutritional assessment of the coal mine workers, it is easy to identify the level of nourishment of coal mine workers that ultimately an essential aspect to formulate the health case community development program to improve the overall health scenes of the Korba coal mine region

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Ni Wayan Karthi Sutharjana, Armanu Thoyib, Eka Afnan Taroena, Mintarti Rahayu

Abstract: Improved quality of services driven by organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) automatically will improve patient satisfaction and create patient loyalty. High loyalty will lead to changes in market share and profit for the company which provides service. The objective of this study is to examine the role of OCB in improving service quality, patient satisfaction and patient loyalty. Survey is carried out to women who have delivered in Maternity Hospitals in Denpasar, as many as 160 people. This study uses a quantitative approach with SEM analysis techniques. The results showed that OCB behaviors can indeed improve the service quality significantly; nevertheless OCB has not been able to directly and significantly improve patient loyalty. Other than that, service quality and patient satisfaction are perfectly capable in mediating the effect of OCB on patient loyalty. The practical implication of this study is that the Maternity Hospitals in the future should necessarily prioritize in improving the service quality and patient satisfaction to achieve patient loyalty.

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OGBA, Onwuchekwa Chidinma

ABSTRACT: This is a study on the information seeking behaviour of final year law students in Ekiti State University. This study is a follow up to previous study on the information seeking behaviour of Final year law students in South Western Nigerian Universities which was a framework of Wilson’s 1999 model of information seeking behaviour. A discursive face-face interview method which was unstructured in style was used to gather data from 25 final year law students of 2012/2013 class in Ekiti State University. A naturalistic approach was also involved as a methodology thus students were observed while they research for their resources. The interview was transcribed and arranged into themes for proper analysis. The research findings show that the respondents browse library shelves, lack knowledge of library services and current resources, use the library for print materials while they browse in cybercafé, avoid the e-library and library facilities and avoid seeking assistance from library staff because they perceive them as being harsh. Respondents were further found to be Google inclined despite numerous complaints and difficulties they face in Google. The barriers found in this study were inadequate resources from the internet search, inability to select right resources needed for research, lack of knowledge on sites to use for information research, money, harshness from library officials and lack of Nigerian resources online. These barriers were found to be affected by lack of information skills, attitude of library staff, ease in getting resources, and bad experiences from previous research. Respondents were also found to lack of information skills in the area of evaluation of resources, copyright and citation skills.

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H. Asare-Anane, E.K. Ofori, F.A.Yeboah, E.A. Tagoe, S.B. Bani, A.T. Bawah, R.O Ateko

Abstract-Emerging evidence links insulin resistance, a key feature in type 2 diabetes with decreased leydig cell secretion of testosterone. Low gonadal steroids, which include testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol have also been implicated with metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia, hypertension and cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate hypogonadism and its risk factors in Ghanaian men with type 2 diabetes. Two hundred and ten volunteers were used for this study. Total testosterone, Sex hormone binding globulin, prolactin, fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, blood pressure and body mass index were assessed. A questionnaire to assess androgen deficiency was administered to each consenting participant. Total testosterone levels were lower in diabetic men compared with non-diabetic men (10.8 ± 5.0 vs 15.6 ± 3.9, p=0.0001). There was no significant change in follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, sex hormone binding globulin and estradiol between controls and type 2 diabetics. However, luteinizing hormone was significantly higher in diabetics than non-diabetics (5.4±2.0 vs 4.5±1.5 p≤0.0003). Total testosterone levels were inversely related to BMI (R2=3.94, p=0.04), FBG (R2=6.492, p=0.0008) and TG (R2=31.41, p=0.025). The low testosterone observed in this study was a case of primary hypogonadism.

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Manoj Ramesh Rao R, Johny Richards R, Joel Manohar, Mr. Balamurugan. A. M, Dr. A. Sivasubramanian

Abstract: The field of optics has a drastic impact in the field of electronics and communication. With the rising need for higher data transfer rate, optical advancements have served this purpose. Optical amplifiers play a crucial role in the amplification of signal at regular intervals to avoid loss of data. Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier) carry out the amplification by stimulated emission and spontaneous emission and are known to provide a higher gain when compared to other optical amplifiers in this domain. This paper throws light on state of art results of the EDFA based on several experiments to measure their gain and noise figure. It is found that it provides better results for amplification of optical signals.

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