International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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Volume 1 - Issue 2, March 2012 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Hafiz Imtiaz,Shaikh Anowarul Fattah

In this paper, a spectral feature extraction algorithm is proposed for palm-print recognition, which can efficiently capture the detail spatial variations in a palm-print image. The entire image is segmented into several spatial modules and the task of feature extraction is carried out using two dimensional discrete cosine transform (2D-DCT) within those spatial modules. A dominant spectral feature selection algorithm is proposed, which offers an advantage of very low feature dimension and results in a very high within-class compactness and between-class separability of the extracted features. A principal component analysis is performed to further reduce the feature dimension. From our extensive experimentations on different palm-print databases, it is found that the performance of the proposed method in terms of recognition accuracy and computational complexity is superior to that of some of the recent methods.

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Tahsina Farah,Celia Shahnaz

In this paper a new thresholding based speech enhancement approach is presented, where the threshold is statistically determined by employing the Teager energy operation on the Wavelet Packet (WP) coefficients of noisy speech. The threshold thus obtained is applied on the WP coefficients of the noisy speech by using a soft thresholding function in order to obtain an enhanced speech. Detailed simulations are carried out in the presence of white, car, pink, and babble noises to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Standard objective measures, spectrogram representations and subjective listening tests show that the proposed method outperforms the existing state-of-the-art thresholding based speech enhancement approaches for noisy speech from high tolow levels of SNR.

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jitendra singh chouhan,Gurvinder Singh,Krishna Pal Yadav,Sheetesh Sad

CAC establishes, modifies and terminates virtual ath/channel connections. More specifically, it is responsible for high-layer signaling protocols, signaling ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) functions to interpret or generate signaling cells, interface with a signaling network, negotiation of traffic contracts with users requesting new VPCs/VCCs, renegotiation with users to change established VPCs/VCCs, allocation of switch resources for VPCs/VCCs, including route selection, admission/rejection decisions for requested VPCs/VCCs ,generation of UPC/NPC parameters .If the CAC is centralized, a single processing unit would receives signaling cells from the input modules, interpret them, and perform admission decisions and resource allocation decisions for all the connections in the switch. CAC functions may be distributed to blocks of input modules where each CAC has a smaller number of input ports. This is much harder to implement, but solves the connection control processing bottleneck problem for large switch sizes, by dividing this job to be performed by parallel CACs. A lot of information must be communicated and coordinated among the various CACs . In Hitachi\\\'s and NEC\\\'s ATM switches, input modules - each with its CAC - also contain a small ATM routing fabric. Some of the distributed CAC functions can also be distributed among output modules which can handle encapsulation of high-layer control information into outgoing signaling cells.

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Ankesh Kumar Srivastava, Ram Pyare

CuO substituted 45S5 bioactive - glasses were prepared. Glass - derived bioactive glass - ceramics were obtained through controlled crystallization of bioactive glasses. Nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by the parameters obtained from differential thermal analysis (DTA) of bioactive - glasses. The formed crystalline phases in bioactive glass - ceramics were identified using X - ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Surfaces of bioactive glasses and glass - ceramics were investigated by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectrometry. The bioactivity of bioactive glasses and glass - ceramics was investigated through immersion studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for different time periods by FTIR reflectance spectrometry with monitoring the pH changes and the concentration of silicon, sodium, calcium, phosphorus and copper ions in SBF solution. The density, micro hardness and flexural strength of bioactive glasses and glass - ceramics were measured. Experimental results show that a decrease in glass nucleation and crystallization temperature of 45S5 bioactive - glass by doping of CuO in it and the formation of crystalline phases of sodium calcium silicate and calcium silicate in bioactive glass - ceramics. The bioactivity nearly remains same by doping 1% of CuO by weight, but after that it decreases. Crystalliziation of bioactive glasses decreases the bioactivity. The density, micro hardness and flexural strength of bioactive glass - ceramics are higher than their respective bioactive glasses and also it increases with increasing CuO content.

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Abdel Rahman A. Alzandi

Some plants show the ability to accumulate large amounts of lead without visible changes in their appearance or yield quality. This study aims to use of three pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars (Little Marvel, Perfection and Alderman) in lead accumulation supplemented in soil by their roots, stems and leaves. Data showed that roots of pea cultivar Perfection were highly accumulated of lead being 90 mg Pb/g fresh weight than other parts stems and leaves, where only traces of lead reached to these parts being 5.2 and 1.1 mg Pb/g fresh, respectively. The highest rate of Pb ions uptake from the soil supporting of pea root cv. Perfection took place during the first 24 h of treatment with lead being 90 mg Pb/g fresh and after 72, 96, 120 h of incubation lead content in the medium decreased by 60, 45, 40 mg Pb/g fresh, respectively. Seeds of pea cv. Perfection recorded 0.9 mg Pb/g fresh lead, while other cultivars Little Marvel and Alderman recorded 2.3 and 2.1 mg Pb/g fresh lead, respectively. This research concluded that P. sativum L. cv. Perfection could be used as detoxificator organisms which it can absorb pollutants from soil contaminated with lead ions.

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Prof.Dr.Ahmed A.Hossam-Eldin, Mahmoud I.Houssin

The study is concentrated on the different possible protection systems for lightning. Two experimental tests (in high voltage Laboratory) were made to give the answers if delaying streamer air terminal is effective than franklin rod or not. Experimental test was made to reach the effective number of dissipation point in delaying streamer air terminal. One empirical equation was developed to determining the relationship between the flashover voltage and the number of dissipation points. Another experimental test for breakdown voltage to different air gaps are measured and compared between franklin rod and delaying streamer air terminal.. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical and the practice.

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Atul Kumar Dewangan,Sashai Shukla,Vinod Yadu

The paper presents speed control of a separately excited DC motor using fuzzy logic control (FLC) based on Matlab Simulation program. This method of speed control of a dc motor represents an ideal application for introducing the concepts of fuzzy logic. The paper shows how a commercially available fuzzy logic development kit can be applied to the theoretical development of a fuzzy controller for motor speed, which represents a very practical class of engineering problems.

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Mohamed S.M,Ali E.E.,Mohamed T.Y.

Heritability, genetic advance, genetic advanced as percentage over mean and genetic variability among different plant and fruit characters of thirty tomato genotypes were studied at Hudeiba Research Station (ARC) during the winter of 2007- 08. Analysis of variance showed significant variation among the genotypes for all tested characters. Fruit weight showed the highest genotypic and phenotypic variance (1642.9 and 1779.1) whereas fruit yield per plant showed the lowest ones (0.17 and 0.39). High genotypic variance was observed for most of the characters indicating more contribution of genetic component for the total variation. Genotypic coefficients of variations (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were highest for fruit weight (0.4885 and 0.4905) whereas the lowest ones were for days to 50% flowering (0.0552 and 0.0665). Higher GCV and PVC were recorded for most of the characters indicating higher magnitude of variability for these characters. The highest heritability was recorded on plant height (97%), while the lowest was for fruit yield per plant (43%). High heritability (broad senses) estimates were observed for all the tested characters indicating that these characters are controlled by additive genes action which is very useful in selection. Key words: Tomato, genotypic variance, phenotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variation, phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance

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This paper describes the design of a small dual band planar antenna to operate in the ISM (2.4-2.48 GHz) and WLAN (5-6 GHz) band. Dual band operation is achieved by choosing proper microstrip radiator shape and reduced ground plane which becomes a monopole antenna. Simulation of the antenna is carried out using CST Microwave Studio. The simulated results in terms of return loss and radiation patterns are studied. The designed antenna can be suitable for the ISM band (2.4–2.48 GHz) and WLAN (5-6 GHz) band.

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Anil Kumar Chaudhary,Sanjaya Kumar Singh

This paper will describe the reliability of switching component of inverter used in the electrical vehicles. Inverters are made up of semiconductors and capacitors, so it is important to assure the reliability of these components. The use of power electronic components in automobile applications is increasing day-by-day. Due to this it becomes important to determine the reliability of power electronic components used in automotive applications. Paper will compare reliability of IGBT and diode under different switching condition.

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Akbar Bemana

in this paper we propose an approach for query optimization in Sensor networks that cause increasing of network life time. Proposed approach reduce network consumption energy via executing operators with optimized order and optimized method for executing aggregation functions that sensor nodes do not sent unimportant data to their parents. But other existing methods such as PA and PM are sent all data to base station and base station filters data.

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Akbar Bemana

Several studies have shown that about 40% or more of the energy consumption on embedded systems that are based on microprocessor relates to cache. In technology with micrometer scaling, dynamic power was the primary contributor to total power dissipation of a CMOS design, but in technology with nanometer scaling, the share of leakage power in total Power consumption of energy continues to grow. In this paper we concentrate on the selection of optimal cache size for low energy consumption embedded systems. Our study is based on three different technologies on embedded systems. Results show that cache size should change for minimizing energy consumption in different technologies due to the increase of leakage power and decrease of dynamic energy as technology is shrinking. Our studies reveal that cache size changes depend on the rate at which cache miss increases when reducing the cache size. Our experiments show that through technology-aware cache configuration selection, we can reduce the energy consumption by 54% in average and maximum 75%.

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Akbar Bemana

Simulation of a Full Adder (FA) and 16-bit adder are represented in this paper. Ripple Carry Adder (RCA) and Skip Carry Adder (SCA) are used to simulated 16-bit adder. SCA is simulated for different structures such as 2, 4 and 8-blocks. Simulation results show that SCA is faster than RCA. Further more, 8-block SCA is faster than 4-block SCA and 4-block SCA is faster than 2-block SCA too.

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P.V.K.Murthy,M.V.S.Murali Krishna,K.Kishor,A.V.S.S.K.S.Gupta,S.Narasimha Kumar

Experiments were conducted to control the exhaust emissions from two-stroke, single cylinder, spark ignition (SI) engine, with alcohol blended gasoline (80% gasoline, 20% methanol by vol; 80% gasoline and 20% ethanol by volume) having copper coated engine [CCE, copper-(thickness, 300 μ) coated on piston crown, inner side of cylinder head] provided with catalytic converter with different catalysts such as sponge iron and manganese ore and compared with conventional engine (CE) with pure gasoline operation. A microprocessor-based analyzer was used for the measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) and un-burnt hydro carbon (UBHC) in the exhaust of the engine at various magnitudes of brake mean effective pressure. Aldehydes were measured by DNPH (dinitrophenyl hydrazine) method. CCE with alcohol blended gasoline considerably reduced emissions in comparison with CE with pure gasoline operation. Catalytic converter with air injection significantly reduced pollutants with test fuels on both configurations of the engine. The catalyst, sponge iron in comparison with manganese ore reduced the pollutants effectively with both test fuels in both versions of the engine. Methanol blended gasoline effectively reduced pollutants in comparison with ethanol blended gasoline.

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Akhilesh kumar,Anil Chaudhary

In order to have flexibility in transmission system, wireless systems are always considered better as compared to wired channel. Having known the drawbacks of the Single Input Single Output system, and having computed the advantages of Multiple Input Multiple Out, several techniques have been developed to implement space multiplexed codes. In wireless MIMO the transmitting end as well as the receiving end is equipped with multiple antenna elements, MIMO can be viewed as an extension of the very popular smart antennas. In MIMO though the transmit antennas and receive antennas are jointly combined in such a way that fading will decrease and the bit transfer rate will increase so the at receiving end we will get high signal to noise ratio. At the system level, careful design of MIMO signal processing and coding algorithms can help increase dramatically capacity and coverage.

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Mahmud Hasan, Kamruddin Md. Nur

In modern communicative and networked computing, sharing and storing image data efficiently have been a great challenge. People all over the world are sharing, transmitting and storing millions of images every moment. Although, there have been significant development in storage device capacity enhancement sector, production of digital images is being increased too in that proportion. Consequently, the demand of handsome image compression algorithms is yet very high. Easy and less-time-consuming transmission of high quality digital images requires the compression-decompression (CODEC) technique to be as simple as possible and to be completely lossless. Keeping this demand into mind, researchers around the world are trying to innovate such a compression mechanism that can easily reach the goal specified. After a careful exploration of the existing lossless image compression methods, we present a computationally simple lossless image compression algorithm where the problem is viewed from a different angle- as the frequency distribution of a specific gray level over a predefined image block is locatable, omission of the most frequent pixel from the block helps achieve better compression in most of the cases. Introducing the proposed algorithm step by step, a detailed worked out example is illustrated. The performance of the proposed algorithm is then measured against some standard image compression parameters and comparative performances have been considered thereafter. It has been shown that our approach can achieve about 4.87% better compression ratio as compared to the existing lossless image compression schemes.

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Inamullah Khan

The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of future customer\\\\\\\'s relationship using customer satisfaction, and customer retention on customer loyalty in telecom industry of Pakistan. Questionnaires were distributed through electronic mail and self administered for data collection and regression analysis was used. The results show that customer satisfaction has significant while customer retention has insignificant impact on customer loyalty. The implications of the study are that a company should better manage their relationships with the customers as a competitive policy in mobile telephone marketplace. The weak side of the study is that it is limited to a single industry of mobile telecommunication.

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