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International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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IJSTR Volume 10 - Issue 3, March 2021 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Muhja Abdeen Fakhruldeen

Reading is considered as the most important languages skills, because learning any subject involves reading. This study aims at investigating the promotion of reading skill through collaborative techniques, improving language learning processes through collaborative learning, providing the learners and teachers with the techniques and strategies of collaborative learning, evaluating group work and identifying the roles of teachers in dealing with group work. The majority of teachers at the secondary school level disregard the significance of collaborative learning as a technique for teaching EFL learners. Collaborative learning strategy affects student's interaction during language teaching processes, particularly in teaching reading comprehension skills. The study adopts the descriptive analytical method. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire which was given to 50 English language teachers at the secondary schools level. Then the data were analyzed by the (SPSS) program. The author figured out that EFL learners need to develop reading skills for good interaction. In addition , the study has figured out that Collaborative work directs learners to progress understanding the text cohesion and clarity as well as comprehension skill can be developed through intensive and extensive reading. EFL learners’ cultural background influences their reading skills. collaborative learning improves learners' speaking fluency, There is a positive relation between collaborative learning and the improvement of EFL learners reading skills.

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1-7  



Hariyati LUBIS, Zikri NOER, Ridwan Yusuf LUBIS, Irpansyah SIREGAR, Edi Sharman HASIBUAN

Lightweight Concrete (LWC) is a type of concrete has advantages over other types of concrete. The construction of technology continues to be carried out by researchers. The use of alternative materials is often used as a filler in concrete mixtures with the aim of increasing the concrete compressive strength test. The use of LWC which has a light mass but has a high compressive strength value. The addition of Coconut Shell (CS) activated carbon is an alternative material as a filler for making LWC. In this study, the effect of addition the CS active carbon to LWC has done. The method for preparation of CS active carbon with chemistry ZnCl2 with 25% solution and physical method T = 8000C. The SEM Image of CS active carbon showed not homogenous and high porosity and have the grain not uniform and have a porosity. The analysis of EDS of CS active carbon showed that the maximum element is Carbon and Oxigen. The maxiumum element of sample LWC filler CS active carbon x = 0% is Oxigen and Silicon, and x = 10% is Oxygen and Carbon. The maximum strength of sample is 14.325 MPa ( x = 5%), and minimum is 7.625 Mpa with x = 15 %.

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8-12  



Rosad Ma’ali El Hadi, Ari Yanuar Ridwa, Wawan Tripiawan

Garbage is a consequence of human activities, every human activity must produce waste, the amount or volume of waste is proportional to the level of human consumption of goods / materials used daily. Likewise, with the type of waste, it really depends on the type of material consumed, therefore waste management cannot be separated from the management of people's lifestyles. Waste problems have become a major topic, ranging from the smallest environment to the large scope, many things that cause this garbage accumulation, but certainly the individual factors are very influential in this. There are two types of garbage, namely organic waste (commonly referred to as wet waste) and inorganic waste (dry waste). One of them is inorganic waste. Telkom University, one of the educational institutions that donates paper waste is quite potential, whether it comes from former concepts, correspondence or ex-exams, especially semester exams which are not taken by students. The used paper contains cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, wax and miscellaneous, this content makes it possible to make art paper (fancy paper). Experiments carried out were scrap paper cut 3-5 cm in length with a cutting machine. Each batch uses 3 kg pieces of scrap paper heated in water with a ratio of 1: 7 ingredients and solutions with the addition of sodium hydroxide with variations of 10% and 20%, soaking time 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 hours. Furthermore, separation of black leachate with pulp is carried out thoroughly. The clean pulp is ground to form fibers (fibrillation) for 15-30 minutes, then filtered to determine the size of the pulp. The results of the pulp grinding process are brown, if the art paper will be colored it needs to be bleached before it is colored. The pulp is mixed with water in a ratio of 1: 20, then 1% tapioca is added. Finally, the pulp is printed in gauze molds of 150-200 mesh to the desired size, dried and the paper is ready to be used to craft art paper products. Some compositions between the weight of waste paper, soaking time, NaOH concentration, hot water and grinding time are intended to produce quality fancy paper. The optimum process conditions chosen depend on the fancy paper specifications desired to get thick fancy paper using a sample A process recipe with a composition of 10% NaOH, soaked for 3 hours and ground to pulp for 30 minutes, while to get thin paper with physical properties good enough to use a recipe for the K sample process with a composition of 20% NaOH, soaked for 3 hours and ground to pulp for 15 minutes.

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13-17  



Ammar Naser, Mahmoud Jazzar, Derar Eleyan, Amna Eleyan

In this paper, we discuss phishing as one of the attack types used in social engineering. Phishing attacks will be discussed by simulating a process between two different devices in two different networks. An experimental penetration test was performed on one of the local network devices to obtain data and information of the victim. The experiment involves sending fake email containing a link to a fake website in order to persuade the victim to enter personal data logs into the fake website. The experiment illustrates the ways in which an attacker may defraud the victim. In addition, the experiment contributes to the protection from and avoidance to exposure of this type of attack.

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18-22  



Hend M. Abd-Elaziz, M. A. Awad, Farid Tolba

The Integration of Process Planning and Job-Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) based problems is brought into a new scale with the smart manufacturing. Such NP-hard problem with high constraints mixed the categories of machine flexibility and the dynamic changing environment requirements of the manufacturing to be instant based on the current situation of manufacturing. The IPPS problem requires more objective oriented manner for better analyze. To obtain maximum beneficial as possible from the developed information based tools. With the aid of the common used meta-heuristic techniques in Process Planning and JSP based fields, the current study modifies a genetic based algorithm. The algorithm can be used with various objective situation

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23-28  



Joseph A. Tubil, Alexander S. Acosta, Imee C. Acosta, Mary Jane Alvero, Eduardo P. Malagapo

Assurance management is a vital part of critical asset management practices as it provides the belief that the asset will work as planned and its relationship between the actual performance and the expected efficiency. Thus, this phenomenological study uncovered the industry specialist's lived experiences employing in-depth interviews with purposefully selected industry experts as respondents. It has emerged three essential performance-related themes: generative process, competitive process, and preventive process. Musings, articulations, stories, reflections, and expressions of interviewees were transcribed from emic to etic and analyzed via cool to warm analysis. To ensure confidence of the results, the member's checking validation process was applied. The study revealed that the related factors that influence the performance of global industry were identified in ensuring structured and systematic implementation of the assurance management system for the critical asset. Stakeholders in the organization should focus on adopting the structured approach found in this study as the organization's guidance and best practices through the Cyclical of the Assurance Management System of Critical Asset (CAMSCA) process.

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Muhammad Tariq Bashir

Fire is normally caused by human negligence and violating the safety rules and regulations. International fire safety rules and regulations have been established to provide fire safety and prevention measures. The need is to implement and enforce those standards in order to work and live in a safe environment. Oil and gas industry is the most threatening industry with respect to fire. People working there are to be extra careful as minor negligence may lead to disastrous results. Uncontrolled fire may affect humans adversely by bringing many damages to human health and life as well as negatively affect the environment. That may ruin the shape of the planet and disturb the natural habitat of organisms living in water and on land. With the advancement of technology, many advance fire detection and alarming mechanism have been developed which help in locating the potential source of fire and saving lives. Those electronic fire alarms must be fixed at areas where heavy and uncontrolled fire may be expected especially at areas where people normally handle flammable and combustible liquids and gases. Fire alarms may help to some extent in notifying of any fire detected in such sensitive areas. The combustible and inflammable liquids and gases must be handled with extra care. Numerous internationally verified and recognized tools and techniques have been proposed and developed to handle such materials. Safety measures need to be implemented in every building especially at workplaces in order to provide safe working and living environment to people. The paper also discusses in details the fire protection and prevention mechanisms as being proposed by OSHA.

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Katherine Tian

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the most common form of heart disease, resulted in 12.3 million, or 25.8% of total deaths worldwide in 1990. This number rose to 17.9 million, or 32.1% of total deaths in 2015. Up to 90% of CVD might be prevented by a healthy diet, lowering blood pressure, decreasing non-HDL cholesterol, exercising, etc. One important measurement to prevent heart disease damage and to save lives is continuous heart monitoring. For acute heart diseases, real-time monitoring devices can detect the danger and send an alarm. For silent heart diseases, a monitoring device can find silent heart attacks, which account for 20% of heart attacks in the US. While various heart monitoring devices exist, a continuous monitoring device that measures and analyzes both Stethoscope signals and 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) signals does not exist. The goal of this project is to develop a smart vest with an embedded digital Stethoscope and 12-lead ECG for continuous heart monitoring. Thanks to the recent developments in sensor technologies, ultra-low-power electronics, and machine learning, the smart vest development is possible. The smart vest monitoring functions include digitizing the acoustic and electrical signals, detecting abnormal data, recording abnormal data, and generating alarm signals. Once successfully developed and applied, the smart vest will serve as a life-guard device, especially for people with a high risk of heart diseases.

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Elizabeth Ndichu Gitonga and Peter Wang’ombe Kariuki

The purpose of this study is to establish the influence of fintech investment financing mechanisms on performance of investment firmsin Kenya. Descriptive and explanatory research designs were used in this study. Fifty-seven financial managers, one from each of the investment firms in Kenya was issued with a questionnaire and one director from each investment firm was interviewed. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis technique while quantitative data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results revealed that fintech peer-to-peer lending practices, equity crowd funding practices, crowd lending platform and credit and factor scoring fintech services have a positive and significant relationship with performance of investment firms.The paper’s original conclusion is that fintech investment financing mechanisms may impact firm performance both in terms of financial measures and customer satisfaction. The study recommends adoption of fintech financing mechanism that include crowd investing and crowd funding in supporting investment project ideas. Peer-to-peer lending provide capital to entrepreneurs helping them gain access to investment funding. Crowd funding as a business model allows individuals to invest in a firm, typically a start-up or early stage business, in exchange for shares of that firm, or engage in other forms of investment.

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Bassam Mohammed Al-washali, Zheng Yifeng, Gao Xin, Chen Xiaoxu, Ahmed M. Al-washali

To prevent converting a cable-breakage threat into a catastrophe via events of cable failure (loss), which can be devastating for cable-stayed bridges due to the possible risks of incremental collapse after initial failure of cable stay. A cable-stayed bridge finite element (FE) model constructed according to Chinese code standards and Post Tensioning Institute, USA is statically and dynamically developed and analyzed with geometric nonlinearities. A detailed numerical analysis of cable loss incidents on a long-span cable-stayed bridge is carried out by focusing on post-breakage performance, based on an advanced finite element (FE)-based nonlinear dynamic simulation platform. The dynamic amplification factor (DAF) is measured for various structural elements, including cables, towers and deck’s cross sections. In addition, effects on the dynamic response of the longest cable of backstay lost position in damping level effect. Parametric experiments are performed to determine the effects of various important parameters relevant to the mechanism of cable breakage and service loads from stochastic traffic under investigated vehicle loads of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The results show that, DAF can take values less than two when single cable failure due to overloading vehicles traffic.

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Novi Azman, Luthfi Wahyudin, Mohammad Fathoni

Quadrotor equipped with a GPS (Global Positioning System) device can be used as a means of finding targets based on coordinates that have been determined autonomously. So that the plane can move autonomous to the intended coordinates. In this study, a quadrotor system with autopilot mode was built using the arducopter mode. The movement is based on input from the mission planner to the flight controller to determine the latitude and longitude on the GPS device which is called a waypoint by the quadrotor as the destination coordinates. To obtain this data, the Fixhawk PX4 is used as a flight controller, ESC (Electronic Speed Controller) as a motor speed control and supporting devices such as a gyro sensor, compass and flash card as a data logger. Integrated video sender system so that pilots can monitor from a ground control station. Manual mode system to find out if the quad-rotor system reads input and output from the ground control station. Meanwhile, the autonomous quadrotor system can reach the coordinate point of the destination automatically (AUTO mode) having a straight path from the starting point. When in AUTO mode, the quadrotor can reach waypoint points with an error radius at an average deviation of 0.63 meters for the whole test destination waypoint path.

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Novi Azman, Muhammad Aghil Wibowo, R. A. Suwodjo Kusumoputro

Problems arising from waste result from poor management systems. In practice, the cleaning service for the Environmental Service Office who picks up trash from public garbage dumps is still done manually. This can result in longer waste deposition if the cleaning staff forgets to pick up the trash because waste control is still done manually. A solution is needed to make it easier for cleaning workers to control waste so that there is no long garbage deposition in the trash. The system can monitor waste mapping, waste data in the form of weight and volume of waste. The working principle is that this recycle bin requires an internet connection to be able to send garbage data to the database. The data is then displayed on the web which can be accessed by a computer or smartphone via a browser. In addition, this trash system has an automation in the open-close system of the trash. From the results of system design testing, this system can work well with the percentage of error reading the weight sensor data of 1.33% and the percentage of deviation of the load cell sensor weight reading by 4%. Monitoring of sensor data readings was also successfully carried out.

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Md. Redwanul Islam, Joyjit Ghosh, Amit Chakrabortty, Tareq Iqbal

It is intended to establish a C programming for the purpose of removal of trash in an automatic way in carding machine. For selection of degree of cleaning, it has to be considered other process factors like fiber loss, fiber rupturing, neps generation etc. Higher degree of cleaning causes higher degree of fiber loss. Fiber loss causes great loss of money as raw cotton purchasing cost consumes 50% to 60% of total manufacturing cost of yarn in terms of Bangladesh. Abreast, fiber loss is affected the cleaning system because the system is designed for fiber cleaning, not for fiber loss. So, it is important to measure the performance of the system. For this reason, we have chosen two terms, ‘Cleaning Efficiency (C.E.)’ to measure the degree of cleaning & ‘Effective Cleaning (E.C.)’ to measure the performance of the system. In this paper, it is intended to describe a relationship between these two terms and establish a C programming. The ultimate result of this project is to establish an automated system for monitoring trash in carding machine.

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Paulo V. Opiña Jr, Reynaldo R. Corpuz

The Philippines is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, including, rising temperatures and increased frequency of extreme drought. Small Farm Reservoir (SFR) is a type of rainwater harvesting system used for supplemental irrigation. However, location suitability poses major challenges in implementing SFR. In this study, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), and Random Forest (RF) were utilized to conduct site suitability analysis and to identify suitable locations for SFR. The findings of this study indicated that the application of KNN and FR could be suggested for identification of suitable locations for SFR in other regions.

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Rio Bagus Syahputra, Ahmad Syathiri, Imam Asngari

The world of cooperatives in Indonesia began in 1896 according to Pachta (2008), cooperatives started with R. Aria WiriaAtmadja, who helped priyais who were entangled in usury and loan sharks. He pioneered the Savings Bank (HulpSpaarbank) which was recommended to be transformed into a cooperative and shift on the Lumbung Desa system for loans during the low season later upgraded to the Paddy Credit Cooperative. However, his efforts encountered obstacles from the Dutch. In line with the development of cooperatives, Indonesian cooperatives experienced difficulties and trials, even in some areas, they used cooperatives as party political propaganda. Until the end of 1946, there were 2,500 cooperatives are under government control. Cooperatives are business entities whose members are cooperative persons or legal entities based on the principles of cooperatives, and social-economic movement is kinship-based. Hence, it obliges its members to cooperate and help each other. In economic democracy implementation, it is necessary to further develop and increase the capability of cooperatives, and the formation and management of effective cooperatives, because cooperatives are an economic foundation that is suitable for the development and development of the people’s economic potential and the realization of democracy, unity and blood. Very important feature in economic life. Promote the welfare of members, especially all levels of society, and take part in the formation of the national economic order to build an advanced, just and prosperous society based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution. This study was to determine how the efficiency and productivity of members on the profit performance of boarding school cooperatives in OganKomering Ulu Timur Regency. Boarding school cooperatives in Ogan Komering Ulu Timur Regency has efficiency level at 13.7 percent. This figure shows that the efficiency level of the boarding school cooperatives in Ogan Komering Ulu Timur Regency is classified as efficient. The average member productivity level created by members of the boarding school cooperative in Ogan Komering Ulu Timur Regency, which is Rp. 1,772,092 per member. It shows that 1 cooperative member yield an output value of Rp. 1,772,092 per member. Profits in boarding school cooperatives in Ogan Komering Ulu Timur Regency can generate average profit among boarding school cooperatives in Ogan Komering Ulu Timur Regency of Rp. 32,589,773 million rupiah. Profits in boarding school cooperatives in Ogan Komering Ulu Timur Regency affected by internal factors, including member participation, total equity, management performance, amount units business owned, manager performance, employee performance. External factors include foreign loan capital, foreign consumers other than cooperative members, and the government. Based on the observed variables in terms of efficiency, member productivity and profit, we can conclude it that the profit of the boarding school cooperative in Ogan Komering Ulu Timur Regency is performing well. From the relationship between efficiency, member productivity and profit, the trend is positive.

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Mohamed Hossam, I. M. El-Aghoury, S. M. Ibrahim, Sherif K. Hassan

Using of sigma cold-formed steel sections is continuously increasing in industrial buildings due to their light weight. The sigma sections are characterized by their web stiffening effect which increases their buckling strength over the conventional C-section. This paper aims to answer the question of whether using the sigma section, as an alternative to the C-section subjected to bending moment, is feasible or not. A comparison was carried out between sigma and C sections having the same geometrical dimensions. Another comparison was conducted utilizing C-sections with increased thickness to attain the same weight characteristics of the sigma section. The results demonstrated the superiority of the sigma section over the C-section, especially when the web local or distortional buckling is the governing failure mode. In addition, due to the lack of investigations for the behavior of sigma beams, the Direct Strength Method hypothesized that the sigma beam is not a prequalified beam for the usage in the Direct Strength Method implementation and conservative safety factors are to be used in the design. As a result, the behavior of sigma beams is investigated by studying the relation between the nominal flexural capacity (Mn.) and critical buckling moment (Mcr.); therefore, a more economical design can be achieved.

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Tauseef, Rehman Akhtar, Shakir Azim, Rashid Nawaz, Imran Ahmad

The term risk is associated with likelihood and consequences. The aim of this study is to estimate the risk involved in the cement production process in industries of Pakistan. This research is basically consisting of two main portions. First portion is related to qualitative analysis, such as HAZOP. With help of HAZOP, a systematic approach is used to find out all the possible deviations from the standard operations and ensure the suitable precautions are taken or not. The second portion focuses on deploying a preliminary hazard analysis to find out quantitatively the severity rate and frequency of each risk. In Preliminary Hazard Analysis, a risk matrix is used, which gives risk priorities according to the severity and frequency of each risk. At the end of successful implementation of HAZOP and preliminary hazard analysis a combine result is obtained. About 30 different hazards were identified along with possible cause and consequences and rank it accordingly based on risk score. In order to control each hazard, the required action is also proposed. The HAZOP provide us the possible deviations from the design intent while the PHA shows us the risk priorities by using risk framework to bring information for detail operation plan. This research is carried out in Bestway Cement Kallar Kahar Pakistan other cement industries may want to improve their production process by taking this methodology as base model.

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Fida Hussain Khoso, Abdullah Lakhan, Aijaz Ahmed Arain, Kashif Mehmood

In the state of art new ground breaking technologies are being changed in day by day with new improvements. The number of researchers and scholars have presented various new ideas and concepts for research domain. The cloud computing is also new emerging, state of art and ground breaking technology for the purpose of store data on the cloud with privacy and security and any time we can retrieve that data on a single click with few seconds. With the help of cloud computing the most of industries and organizations have very easily store data, Scalability, security and complexity with the help of cloud computing and manage data with lot of volume required on the request of user or vendor. In recent years the usage of smart devices with latest operating systems are utilized widely in our daily life with the use of smart touch as android, iphone7 and windows phone. Some limitations and loop holes such as space, data security, privacy, data performance, and so in research have been noted and found out in these days. To overcome these problems new concepts have been introduced by different researchers that is Smart phone devices. With the help of mobile cloud computing any organization works with smartly and efficiently through the desktop computers or laptop computers and manage their problems and tasks easily.

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Aneela Pathan, Tayab Din Memon, Fareesa Sohu

FPGA comes with various mounts on DSP modules for direct hardware-based implementations of all arithmetic circuits. Various schemes, for example, of signed and unsigned multipliers on FPGA are observed in research. The problem arises when the large design like network on chip (NOC), or systems on chip (SOC) consumes all available resources and the options remain to completely translate the remaining logic on lookup tables only. This paper proposes the lookup table based architecture for an 8X8 signed multiplier, that consumes no builtin arithmetic models other than the LUTS. The architecture follows the shift and adds a scheme that in usual is unsigned in nature. Besides, the comparison of the proposed multiplier is done with the conventional signed Booth multiplication scheme implemented on arithmetic cores of Spartan-6 FPGA in general, which may further be used for any class of FPGA board. The implementation results show the functional verification of the proposed signed multiplier and also It is concluded that amongst the area speed trade-off, Booth performs well in achieved frequency, whilst consuming a few more look-up tables and no built-in arithmetic core, the proposed architecture also is a suitable choice for large DSP systems.

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Dr. Abdulah Aseri

In the present day, technology has transformed how human beings live and the processes they use to fulfill day-to-day activities. Buying and selling has been among man’s key activities and over the years, these activities have become more sophisticated to enhance the ease and comfort of the experience. The shopping experience, buying and selling has further transformed over the past decade with the inception of the internet. Online shopping, and e-commerce in general, have gained popularity and provide more convenient and less stressful options transacting online. Consumers can now enjoy accessing products from distant stores according to their preference, a factor that gives consumers the ability to choose without considering distance and long queues. While online shopping promises to be a better option to the consumer, the channel is susceptible to threats, referring to elements that have the potential to inflict serious harm on a user’s privacy leading to data breaches and a compromise of data security. As a consequence consumers are uncertain on whether to trust online shopping. This paper includes information on the threats of online shopping and highlights consumer perceptions, including negative consumer perceptions. The paper provides awareness on cyber security issues, including ways online shoppers and merchants can protect themselves from data breaches and attacks through methods such as phishing and adware.

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112-116  



Komang Krisna Heryanda, Ni Nyoman Yuliarmi

This literature review discusses the government's strategy in increasing agricultural yields so as to improve farmer welfare. The government's efforts include building infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and markets for agricultural products. The government also encourages improvement of farmer institutions both through farmer groups and organizations that overshadow farmers. Institutional improvements were also carried out by providing financial assistance through banks, cooperatives, and informal credit institutions. Improvements in agricultural systems are also continuously carried out by pressing the conversion of land functions so that agricultural production does not decrease. The government also encourages the use of technology that supports agriculture so that farmers can produce quickly and efficiently. Marketing of agricultural products has been pursued in various ways by the government, both regulating product quality, marketing networks and developing technology-based agribusiness marketing systems to facilitate the sale of agricultural products.

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Victor M. Mbachu, Anthony C. Igboanugo, Uchechukwu J. Alukwe , Modestus O. Okwu

The purpose of the exploratory research is to ascertain the possibility of improving the quality and quantity of biogas yield from anaerobic digestion of elephant grass (pennisetum purpureum), which has been considered a potential alternative to cow dung, using Liquid extract from plantain (Musa paradisiacal normalis) pseudo stem. The concept of comparative advantage and productive effect of synergy was adopted in trying to obtain biogas production of better yield and quality from the two feedstocks. Liquid extract from plantain pseudo stem; which previously was considered as waste, but recently have been found to have low biogas yield with high methane content; was considered useful as the mixing fluid instead of water. Six digesters were developed using 500ml conical flasks for the experiment with 3 duplicates runs. The first set contained elephant grass and water, the second contained elephant grass and liquid extract from plantain pseudo stem, while the third is loaded with liquid extract from plantain pseudo stem only. The pH of the substrates was improved through partial decomposition prior to digestion. The digesters were then monitored for 36 days, measuring the biogas yield and the ambient temperature. All the trials produced biogas after 3 to 4 days of inoculation as observed and confirmed using flame test. The digesters containing combination of elephant grass and liquid extract from plantain pseudo stem gave the highest yield, as well as the best quality – in terms of methane content. The results from the experiment shows a 45.95% and 33.95% improvement in biogas yield and methane content respectively when the liquid extract from plantain pseudo stem was used to mix the elephant grass instead of water. Although, biogas generation from elephant grass has been widely reported in literature, but at relatively low methane content (43.4 to 64.3%). Hence, it requires more post-production upgrading effort to bring the methane content to the value admissible into internal combustion engine. The findings of this research provides efficient means of improving the methane content of the produced gas to 72.97 ± 3.8 %, using liquid extract from plantain pseudo stem. The research thus found productive use for the liquid extract from plantain pseudo stem, as well as possibility of having better yield from anaerobic digestion of elephant grass. This research is purely original.

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Alexei Arina, Alexei Anatolie

The Covid-19 pandemic had a major impact on the organization of studies in higher education institutions (HEIs). Distance learning was the only possibility to continue the educational process, since March 2020. Cloud computing, online learning platforms and video conferencing applications, whose use was quite limited in HEIs, in the conditions of the pandemic with Covid-19, have become the main assets for conducting online studies. Thus, the risk of DoS / DDoS attacks, cross-site scripting, spoofing, unauthorized data access and infection with malicious programs, but also the theft of personal data has increased dramatically. The research was based on identifying the classes of attacks with major impact, on the assets, but also making recommendations for increasing cyber security in e-learning conditions. Common recommendations include updating systems and managing security patches, implementing access policies at the application or resource level, classifying information, and using cryptographic protocols.

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128-133  



Naema Ali Ebrahim Ali

Using by-product materials, west and recycle material should be widely used for economic and environmental reasons. Steel Slag Aggregate (SSA) can be used to control the highly problematic soft cohesive deposit soil to be adequate to support engineering structures. Laboratory study is carried out to investigate the geotechnical characteristics of soft cohesive deposit soil by Atterberg limits tests, the optimum moisture contents (OMC) the maximum dry densities (MDD) and California bearing ratio (CBR) and strength properties, the unconfined compressive strength test (UCS), vane tests (VT), before and after mitigate. Experimental results of using different gradation of crushed (SSA) to improve the soft cohesive deposit, it was mixed with various percentages, (15%, 25% and 35%) of dry weight of deposit soil are carryout. Soft cohesive deposit and various mixtures are examined for its geotechnical properties and its strength parameters. The results of soft cohesive deposit at different partially replacement percentages were compared to conclude the overall best gradation and optimum percentage of that particular material, (SSA) added to soft cohesive deposit soil based on modified the geotechnical characteristics of these deposit soil. Also, field plate load tests program was developed and conducted on improved soft cohesive deposit soils. The results introduce the development of practical, economical and environmentally safe geochemical methods for soft cohesive deposit soil stabilization and mitigated its low bearing capacity and eliminated its excess settlement risk about 50%.

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134-139  



Ambreen Shoukat, Umair Baig, Batool Hussain, Dr. Nazia Abdul Rehman,Drr. Khurram Shakir

Recently a major boost up in consumers converting to green consumption has been observed due to accelerating sustainable development. Subsequently, the purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of consumption values on green purchase intentions with the mediating role of green trust that has remained unexplored and unversed in emerging economies like Pakistan. This study attempts to discuss the theory of consumption and evaluates the relationship between consumption values, green trust, green image, and purchase intentions. A quantitative research method was used. A questionnaire was used to survey 400 consumers to collect information. This study applied the structural equation model (SEM) using Smart PLS. The research reveals that emotional, functional, and social and price values have a significant impact on green trust and witnessed that green trust and green image are essential mediators between consumption values (emotional, price, function, and social) and green purchase intentions. Hence, this study implies that organizations must retain their green trust by making efforts to maintain consumption values that eventually would help organizations to leverage green purchase intentions.

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Dhivya Rajamanickam, C.G. Devadason

Lead (Pb) is the most important heavy metal that causes bioaccumulative toxicity in fish and other aquatic organisms. Histopathological evidence is a highly efficient and accurate way of detecting the adverse effects of heavy metals inside the internal organs of fish. Adults of Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to the 0.32mg/L Pb as lead nitrate (Pb[NO3]2) for 21 days. After 21 experimental days, the histopathological sections of gills, liver, and brain tissues were observed under a bright-field microscope using different magnifications (×40, ×100, and × 400). Dilation, complete destruction, severe congestion, hemorrhage, and complete lamellae fusion were exhibited in the primary and secondary lamella of lead-exposed fish gills. Examination of liver tissue revealed hepatocyte hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolation, focal area necrosis, indistinct cell boundaries, and pyknotic nuclei. The cerebellar cortex of the fish brain showed inflammation, vacuolation, atrophy, hemorrhage, and degenerated cells. In conclusion, the heavy metal lead nitrate can cause significant histopathological alterations in the gills, liver, and brain of Oreochromis niloticus.

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149-153  



Alfred Maroyi

Medicinal herbs are an important component of the indigenous pharmacopoeia in South Africa. This study was aimed at providing a critical review of the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of South African herbs. Documented information on the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of South African herbs was collected from several online sources such as PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Medline and SciFinder. In addition, complementary information was obtained from pre-electronic sources such as books, theses and scientific articles obtained from the University library. This study showed that South African herbs are mainly used as protective and love charm, ethnoveterinary medicine, and traditional medicine for cancer, fever, gastro-intestinal problems, headache, malaria, pain, respiratory problems, skin problems, sexually transmitted infections, sores, urinary problems and wounds. Phytochemical compounds identified from the species include alkaloids, anthocyanidins, anthraquinones, coumarins, essential oils, fatty acids, flavonoids, glycosides, homoisoflavanones, lactic acid, lactones, phenols, proanthocyanidins, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Pharmacological research revealed that the crude extracts and compounds isolated from some of the documented species demonstrated numerous biological activities.

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154-160  



Elizer M. Rebucas, Jeramie S. Pilayan, Ivan Ray P. Ramos, Miles Angelo A. Molina, Ces Mar M. Dugos

Communication has been faster, easier, and better than ever, thanks to the technological advancements in the twenty-first century. Online Media has gotten a go-to stage for various purposes, including information seeking, communication, entertainment, and socializing. This phenomenological qualitative research sought to know the experiences, struggles, coping, and insights of 12 digital immigrants of Tagum City in using social media; the participants were purposefully selected using snowball sampling. While this is a common thing for digital natives, digital immigrants who belong to the generation where these things are not yet developed find it hard to understand how these things work, and the younger generation doesn't understand why their parents or grandparents are slow in learning these technologies. The results of this study show the reasons why they use social media, how they learn to cope up with this innovation in communication, as well as their insights. It also showed that even if it is hard in the beginning, they also have the urge to learn because they know the advantages of social media.

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161-166  



Haroon ur Rashid Kayani, Fatma Hussain, Saba Zulfiqar, Hafiz Burhan Ul Haq, Aftab Ahmad Malik

The main objective of healthcare stakeholders is to control vector-borne infections such as Malaria. For this purpose, the utmost possible resources are continually being utilized, including computer-aided models to identify infection and its spread. These models offer precise, quantifiable estimates of epidemiological results of different control measures. The complicated life cycle of the causative agent, parasite density, vector infectiousness, and environmental factors often limit computer-based malarial models' efficacies to predict transmission, morbidity, and mortality. Sophisticated algorithms translate the effects of numerous conventional therapeutic interventions and cohesive management plans. This review highlights the application of computer simulation models, data mining, artificial intelligence, and other algorithms in malaria monitoring, prediction, and treatment that are adopted in the epidemic scenario. These predictive and stimulatory models with variable characteristics have performed a crucial role in malaria eradication.

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167-171  



Athanasios Zisopoulos, Georgia Broni

Modern Agriculture evolved in an interdisciplinary science with ecology zero eco footprint and biological productions, marketing, finance and methodical trade. At a more detailed level we evaluated parametric Insurance, Aquaculture Indemnification, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Economically Motivated Adulteration (EMA) avoidance and Quantum Marketing. All these are integrated profitably with recent patents production line. Two just submitted patents for “Water Recirculation Aquaculture Platform” and “Airborne self-regulating” share the agro-production vision with older but current patents. All patents principally feature is to produce agricultural products with certain associated methodologies. Four advanced case studies-examples are given; LCA, new insurance model; Bio monitor for contamination beehive sampling and Consumer-driven new Apicultural Products development. The future is today, tomorrow and next year with developments like: computer, farmer, marketer and insurer integration; quantum marketing and advertisement redefinition and Quantum Index Insurance new definition.

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172-178  



Agus Faturohim, Jonna Estudillo

Dynamic studies on conditional cash transfer-focused (CCT) poverty in Indonesia have not revealed whether Program Keluarga Harapan (PKH) has had a significant amount of impact on household poverty. This study aims to properly investigate how PKH affects the household poverty status in Indonesia and whether it has had a positive impact on the Foster, Greer, and Thorbecke (FGT) indices. PKH has been associated with the increase in the level of PCE of beneficiary households by 1.46% and the decrease in the probability of becoming poor by 0.36%; nevertheless, it is not statistically significant. PKH has also been related to declines in the headcount ratio, the poverty gap index, and the severity index in most provinces. Overall, the two-year implementation of PKH has more likely provided the poor households with long-term benefits rather than short-term ones, which is limited to only six provinces.

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179-183  



Sunardi, Jamrud Aminuddin, Kartika Sari, Wuryatmo Akhmad Sidik

Based on previous studies, a low-speed water pump was developed, and assessed through a river flow test. The designed water pump consists of 5 wheels, 2 pistons, and 1 valve. The 5 wheels are arranged in the same axis and chain. The first axis consists of the 1st and 2nd wheels, namely, 1. The 2nd wheel is connected in the same chain, with the 3rd in parallel zone as the 4th, 2. The 4th is connected to the same chain as the 5th wheel, namely 3. Furthermore, the 4th wheel is arranged in the same axis with the piston activator. In the pump system, there are 2 pistons for triggering the lifter, from the lower to the higher position. The size and dimension of the whole component used in the pump system, are developed from the previous computational studies. The testing of the converter and pump system performance, has been carried out based on the water flow condition (v), radial speed of wheels (1, 2, 3), water lift height (h), and discharge of pumped water (q). The result showed that the selected size and dimension have significant effect in some water flow conditions. However, the flow force is very influential in decreasing the pump system performance, and in lifting water from the lower to the higher position

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184-188  



Abdul Rauf Kashif, Shumaila bibi, Muhammad Imran Farooq, Anum shafiq, Zaib un Nissa

since the development of the Pakistan stock market on 10 March 1949, corporations have been able to substitute equity for debt more freely. This research was conducted to know the effect of the debt and equity mix, as measured by financial choices, on a firm’s financial performance. It focuses on profitability, specifically in the Pakistan capital market. This study was developed to extend understandings in the literature that how financial choices operate in a stressed based financial system, and how it may affect financial performance. This research examined 15 publicly trading banks listed in the Pakistan stock market between 2015 and 2020. This study is centered on the data about firm financial choices that have been composed of the banking sector. We involved all firms of the banking sector, predominantly 15 banks listed at Pakistan stock exchange (PSX), in our analysis for the period of five years (2015-2020). This research explores that the Pakistani banks do have the possibility for the increment of their profitability while managing their behaviors about debt and equity.

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189-193  



Hanan H. Eltobgy, Emad Darwish, Mohamed A. Aboshok

Welded circular hollow section joints subjected to cyclic loads are prone to crack propagation contributing to failure at the welded toe due to the fragile stiffness of the chord joint at its radial direction. The tubular chord connection equipped with a brace can be reinforced by a doubler plate to increase the chord stiffness and avoid such failure. In this research experimental and analytical investigations were carried out to justify the efficiency of doubler plate in strengthening CHS T-joints against cyclic loads. An experimental study was performed on four full-scale specimens, two with doubler plate, and the others without the reinforced plate. The joint capacity of hysteretic curve plotting was extracted from the experimental results. A finite element analysis study was conducted using the ABAQUS software package and results were in favorable agreement with the experimental findings. The effect of chord stiffness α on the joint capacity required the extension of a numerical study with an additional Finite Element Model (FEM). The current research justified the improvement of joint positive capacity by 40%, and enhancement of negative capacities by 70%. The relation between capacity and α is expressed by an empirical equation Enhancement in energy dissipation was confirmed with the existence of doubler reinforced plate.

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194-207  



Wanda Aulya, Vivi Mardina, Mulia Safrida Sari

The S. trilobata flowers grow thro ughout the year, so they are rarely used and eventually wasted. S. trilobata flowers contain metabolite compounds that have potential as antioxidants. Antioxidants are useful for reducing free radical activity which can cause degenerative diseases. The purpose of the study was to determine the antioxidant activity of S. trilobata flower extract in n-hexane and ethyl acetate solvents and to measure the value of antioxidant activity of n-hexane extract and ethyl acetate extract of S. trilobata flowers expressed by IC50. Extraction of S. trilobata flowers used the maceration method and measurement their antioxidant activities were carried out by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl) method with a spectrophotometer UV-Vis at a wavelength of 517. The results exhibited that the n-hexane extract had weak antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 410.18 µg / mL, while the ethyl acetate extract had strong antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 249.50 µg/mL.

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208-211  



Ari Yuniastuti, Yasinta Ayu Widyawati, Aditya Marianti, Wulan Christijanti

Gembili tubers are a type of inferior tuber whose consumption has decreased or even decreased. People do not know that Gembili tubers (Dioscorea esculenta) contain useful inulin. Reducing triacylglycerol and preventing degenerative diseases such as coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus. This study was to determine the effect of giving inulin content to gembili tubers on serum of hypercholestrolemic wistar rats found in gembili tubers. This research is included in a laboratory study conducted on white rats aged 2- 3 months, body weight 150-180 grams. Rats were divided into 6 groups, namely the positive control group, the negative control group, the group treated with simvastatin induction, the treatment group with doses of 100,200 and 400 mg / kgBW and the treatment of high cholesterol fat feed induction for 14 days along with the administration of inulin extract. On the 15th day, the rat's blood sample was taken via retroorbitalis, then the Triglyceride level was tested using the GPO-PAP method. The data were then analyzed statistically using the SPSS statistics application with a standard significance value of p <0.05. The results showed a significant difference between the inulin extract dosage of 100mg / Kg / BW, inulin extract of 200mg / kg and showed no significant calculation results between mice treated with the inulin extract dose of 400mg / KgBW and the group of mice induced with simvastatin . This can be concluded that the inulin content in the extract of the gembili tuber which has a dose level of 400mg / kgBW can reduce Triacylglycerol levels in the body. inulin extract of 200mg / kg and showed no significant calculation results between mice treated with the inulin extract dose of 400mg / kgBW and the group of mice induced with simvastatin. This can be concluded that the inulin content in the extract of the gembili tuber which has a dose level of 400mg / kgBW can reduce Triacylglycerol levels in the body. Inulin extract of 200mg / kg and showed no significant calculation results between mice treated with the inulin extract dose of 400mg / kgBW and the group of mice induced with simvastatin. This can be concluded that the inulin content in the extract of the gembili tuber at dose level of 400mg / kgBW can reduce triacylglycerol levels in the body.

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212-216  



Khusainov Shamsidin Yalgashevich, Muratov Muzaffar Shermamatovich, Normaxmatov Ilxom Zayniddinovich, Sattarov Karshiboy Narqulovich, Axmedjanov Shuxrat Boltayevich

This article deals with physical culture, which should be considered as a special kind of cultural activity, the results of which are useful for society and the individual.In social life in the system of education, upbringing, in the sphere of work organization, everyday life, healthy recreation, physical culture manifests it’s educational, educational, health-improving, economic and general cultural significance, contributes to the emergence of such a social trend as physical culture movement, i.e. joint activities of people to use, disseminate and enhance the values of physical culture.

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217-220  



Yuli Patmawati

Indonesia is one of the countries that has large coal reserves in the world; 67,198,300,021 tons/year of low-rank coal such as lignite production in East Kalimantan. Coal is divided into four classes: lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous, and anthracite. The use of low-rank coal (lignite) is still limited for briquettes and as fuel for electricity generation. This study aims to determine the effect of aktivators on chemical activation process of low-rank coal into activated carbon. Low rank coal which has been prepared -100 +120 mesh is carbonized at 6000C for 3 h, then after cold it was activated using 2.5 M concentration of HCl, H3PO4, NaOH and NaHCO3 with a ratio of 1: 4 (w/w) for 8 h. Then the washing is carried out until the pH is neutral and dried at 700oC for 2 h. Furthermore, an analysis of activated carbon refers to Indonesian National Standard (SNI 06-3730-1995) was carried out including moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon and iodine absorption number. The best results were obtained by using HCl with activated carbon characteristics such as a moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon and iodine absorption number respectively as follows 5.23%, 11.72%, 8.85%, 74.20% and 660.40 mg/g.

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221-224  



Athal AL-jawazneh, Jamal Bani Salameh

Cloud computing provides a framework for supporting end-users who easily connect powerful services and applications through the Internet. Currently, the biggest obstacle in the adoption of cloud by most organizations is its security. One of the security issues is how to minimize the impact of denial-of-service (DoS) or distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks in this environment. These attacks reduce system performance drastically. To protect user data and cloud resources from harmful activities, the intrusion detection system (IDS) in cloud networks plays a very important role as the active security defense against intruder. Thus, it is necessary to adopt a powerful IDS to detect malicious activity with high detection accuracy. In this research, we proposed a cloud-based intrusion detection model by using a Feature Selection Algorithm called Temporal Constraint and a C4.5 decision tree algorithm. We used CIDDS-001 (Coburg Intrusion Detection Data Sets) external server dataset to be the data input for our proposed model. The design process for the proposed model consists of four stages; input data pre-processing, feature selection, classification and testing. Input data pre-processing is a stage to process the traffic that was recorded in the external server environment over a period of four weeks. Feature selection and classification are the core sub-processes in our model. We used temporal constraint based feature selection algorithm to select the most relevant feature selection to improve the classification accuracy. After that, we split the dataset into 70% training and 30% testing test. Decision tree algorithm is used for classifying data into normal and malicious. We using part of unclassified input data for obtaining the results. We implemented and tested our model by using Python 3.6.8. Several experiments have been carried out to validate the proposed model. Using a combination of temporal constraint algorithm and decision tree classification algorithm have a positive impact in detecting intrusion on cloud environment. The results show that the proposed system’s overall accuracy in predicting malicious and normal data in CIDDS-001 dataset is 100%, and the misclassification rate is 0%. The recall of the system in detecting malicious is100% and the false positive rate is 0%; these results were derived from the confusion matrix that were designed to characterize the performance of the classification model in the proposed IDS.

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225-233  



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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - April 2021 - Volume 10 Issue 4