International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Contact Us

IJSTR Volume 5 - Issue 3, March 2016 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

IJSTR Terms and Conditions

Mehdi Tahmasbi, Saeed Givehchi, Mahnaz Nasrabadi

The study of Emergency response plan designing is one of the most important prevention approaches in crisis management. This study aims to design emergency response plan based on case study ERP regulations in Ilam gas refinery. On the basis of risk assessment and identification techniques such as HAZOP and FMEA in Ilam gas refinery, the risks have been prioritized and then according to this prioritization, the design of possible scenarios, which have the highest rate of occurrence and the highest level of damage, has been separated. Possible scenarios were simulated with PHAST software. Then, emergency response program has been designed for the special mode or similar cases. According to the internal emergency response plan for Ilam gas refinery and predictable conditions of the process, special instructions should be considered at the time of the incident to suffer the least damage on people and environment, in the shortest time possible.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Sumedh Mhatre, Nikhil Vartak, Anuradha Pandey, Ankita Jathar

Liquid Nitrogen is one of the major substance used as a chiller in industry such as Ice cream factory, Milk Diary, Storage of blood sample (Blood Bank) etc. It helps to maintain the required product at a lower temperature for preservation purpose. We cannot fully utilise the LN2 so practically if we are using 3.75 litre LN2 for a single day then around 12% of LN2 (450 ml) is wasted due to vaporisation. A pressure relief valve is provided to create a pressure difference. If there is no pressure difference between the cylinder carrying LN2 and its surrounding it will results in damage of container as well as wastage of LN2.Transmission of LN2 from TA55 to BA3 is carried manually .So care must be taken for the transmission of LN2 in order to avoid its wastage. With the help of this project concept the transmission of LN2 will be carried automatically so as to reduce the wastage of LN2 in case of manual operation.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Afon, A. O., Alwadood, J. A.

This paper examined the growth and development pattern of Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria over a period of 39 years with a view to identifying its physical planning implications. The study employs the use of Remote Sensing data and GIS technology. Data used for the study include; Landsat Imagery of 1973, 1990, and 2001 and NigeriaSat-1 of 2006 and GeoEye image of 2012 and the population data for 1963, 1991 and 2006. The data was used to determine the pattern of growth, rate of growth, land consumption rate and land absorption efficiency of the study area. The study established that Kaduna metropolis have been increasing like most cities of the world of which the highest growth was witnessed between 2006 to 2012 with 13.4% growth rate per annum. It also revealed that the pattern of growths witnessed were along the major routes. The study also revealed that there is a relationship between population growth and urban growth in Kaduna metropolis The study concluded that the need for available data is vital to the understanding of the dynamic of the urban environment. More commitment had to be done on the part of government and research to ensure that the gap is closed.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Vimala Devi Seenivasagham, C. Rose

The strain which produces protease was originally isolated, characterized in Biotechnology laboratory at CLRI and was maintained. The microorganism was growned on several proteolytic media and the maximum activity was observed. The characterization of enzyme was analysed for different pH, temperature, size of inoculum, inhibitors, age of the culture. Then the enzyme was observed for the unhairing of skin and the disadvantage in chemical treatment was studied. The conformation of unhairing was studied using histology studies. The tannery waste (solid fleshings) as it is cannot be directly disposed off to the environment. It was treated with the microbial proteases. The hydrolysis of waste was done using proteases. The solid waste was converted to protien, fat and the salt matter. Future work is to optimize the cheap media for the production of the enzyme for large scale applications in various industries.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Hesborn Mutoro Chonge, Esther Njeri Kiaritha, James Ololo Otieno

Since the introduction of Special education in Kenya in 1946, numerous special schools have been established. However, there has been a move toward integration and later inclusion of students with disabilities in regular schools. Inclusion has its own challenges. Kenya, as a rapidly developing country, is undergoing drastic social, economic and cultural changes. Consequently, learners with disabilities in inclusive schools experience a number of challenges. These challenges bring into focus the need of reinforcing various modifications especially in classroom environments in learning institutions to counteract challenges brought about by the change from integration to inclusive education. With this realization, the study sought to examine the classroom curricular preparedness of inclusive schools for the pupils with physical disability. Adaptations that ought to be made under classroom curricular category should ideally aid in lessening these challenges and impact positively on the pupils with physical disability and enhance their learning activities. The study utilized mixed method research approach, where both Phenomenology and Descriptive survey research designs were made use of. The findings indicate that there are adequate classroom curricular adaptations for inclusion of pupils with physical disability

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Ian Phil Canlas

This study attempted to find out university students alternative conceptions on circular motion. An 18-item researcher-compiled and content-validated questionnaire was administered to twenty-six (26) students taking up a program in Bachelor in Secondary Education-Physical Science in their second year enrolled in a course on mechanics. Results revealed that majority of the students possess alternative conceptions on circular motion specifically along velocity, acceleration and force. Moreover, results showed the inconsistencies in the students’ understanding of circular motion concepts.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Rini Rafika Dhamayanti, Happy Nursyam, Anik Martinah Hariati

This study was conducted to determine of use Hydrilla verticillata fermented meal which optimize growth and digestibility in Tilapia. This study based on completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Four treatments using Hydrilla verticillatafermented meal into feed formulation: P0 (0%), P1 (10%), P2 (20%), P3 (30%) and P4 (40%). The main parameter is absolute growth rate, feed conversion and digestibility of Tilapia (Oreochiomis sp.). The results showed that utilization of Hydrilla verticillata fermented mealhas been significant effect on the rate of growth and digestibility parameters. P1 treatment has given the best results with an absolute growth of 1.56% BW / day ± 0.03, 1.61 ± 0.03 feed conversion and digestibility of 79.46% ± 0.53.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Shaikh Sayed Ahammed, Sadia Tasfina, K. Ayaz Rabbani, Md. Adbul Khaleque

Buriganga river is used for bathing, drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes and is considered to be the lifeline of Dhaka city. The water quality of Buriganga has become a matter of concern due to serious levels of pollution. The objective of the study was to determine the water quality of the selected section of Buriganga river which passes through Dhaka city. The water quality parameters were sampled during different seasons (summer, winter and autumn) and in 10 different sampling points along the river along the banks of the Buriganga River. The water quality parameters studied for this study were dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrate and phosphate. The results showed that DO, BOD, COD, TDS, turbidity, nitrate and phosphate are at an alarming level and a discussion on the possible sources of the pollution are presented.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Hikmawati Mas'ud, Siti Nur Rochimiwati

Outcomes indicator on food service in hospitals include nutritional intake and food that is not spent on patient. The hospital provides food to meet the nutritional needs of patients hospitalized. The Ministry of Health sets of minimum food service indicator is ≤ 20% of the food that is not spent. This study was conducted to determine the nutritional intake and leftovers of patients in Dr. Tadjuddin Chalid Hospital and General Hospital of Makassar. The study is designed with a descriptive approaches with a number of subjects were 35 patients in Class III and received regular food. Data intake of nutrition and leftovers collected from interviews using the patient satisfaction questionnaire. The nutritional value of food were analyzed manually using DKBM. The results of this study obtained both hospitals has been serving quality food with good nutrition with energy 2632.1 kilocalories, protein, 73.58 grams, 67.84 grams of fat and 419 grams of carbohydrates each day. Intake of nutrients in patients reached 81.1% and the rest of the food was not spent 19.9%. Based on a sample comparison test between the standard and the intake of nutrition and leftovers obtained by p-value = 0:00. Both hospitals have provided food service and achieving minimum standards as provided herein for the intake of nutrition and leftovers. It is advisable to provide nutrition education to patients that want to spend their food and modify processing and variety of foodstuffs.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Nur Zeina Maya Sari

The Level Effectivenes Decision of university university is often pursued by many factor non technical which do not be drawn up education university. Started from preparation people, cultural, organizational mechanism, tekhnologi, technical system even its conservancy. Do not forever SIM being based on Information Tekhnologi and communications can improve performance management of academik administration and student value, when university only assuming that Tekhnologi implementation and information for the administrate system of academic (SIAK). This Research aim to to check Information information technology effectiveness contribution, cultural of information tekhnologi and Communications, availibility of facility, and quality human resources to System Information Management and implication university performance.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Muhammad Sofyan, Abdul Rahman M, Muh.Jobhar Bima, Syamsu Nujum

The civil servants as the element of state apparatus in executing the nation programs are in charged to do their function and task as the servants of the nation and society. The civil servant should also be able to uphold the officialdom dignity and imagery for the sake of society and nation. However, in reality there are still found many civil servants not realizing their task and function which leads to the imbalance in doing their job and resulting over disappointment among the citizen. This study aims to analyze the career development and working discipline towards the satisfaction and performance, also career development towards officer performance on the influence towards the employee working satisfaction in the regional office of the Ministry of Religious Affairs in South Sulawesi. This study took sample of 665 respondents. The data was analyzed using SEM (Structural Equation Modeling). The results of this study is theoretical findings suggesting that there is positively direct and significant effect of career development towards performance through working satisfaction, while the effect of working discipline towards satisfaction, career development towards performance and working discipline towards performance are not significantly correlated.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Nicholas A. Tetteh, Joseph Osei, Harry B. Essel

Teaching and learning is fundamentally a two-way affair: the teacher transferring knowledge and the learner making meaning from the knowledge. Teaching becomes complete when the learner acquires the knowledge transferred and applies it appropriately to real life situations. However, in Ghana, teaching and learning has undergone a lot of alteration coupled with both negative and positive effects. In Wa Polytechnic, teaching and learning has seen little or no improvement, with regards to information and communication Technology (ICT), making it difficult for students to acquire 21st century skills and be part of the digitally connected ecosystem. Active classroom participation and engagement, information sharing, communication collaboration coupled with large class sizes have been a problem for teachers and students in Wa Polytechnic; hence, the need to conduct a study to identify productive solutions that enhance students’ participation and engagement in the classroom. The study investigates the role of ICT in augmenting active participation and engagement of students in the classroom via open-ended response systems. The study was conducted using Educational Design Research (EDR) methods. A critical analysis was done by studying the responses of the respondents which identified three forms of students’ classroom participation and engagement: verbal classroom participation, non-verbal classroom participation and after classroom teaching and learning activities. Smart phones, laptop, tablet, iPad and regular cellular phone were the predominant devices used by students for other purpose rather than teacher-led class activities. When students were made to actively participate in the classroom using the devices as open-ended response system, students’ engagement and their ability to contribute during lectures appreciated comparatively. It was, however, evident that open-ended response system was effective tool to manage large class sizes as students who were timid could contribute creatively in class which altered their character of learning.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Alum, Eucharia Akanele, Urom, Scholastica Mgbo Otu Chukwu, Ben, Chukwu Mary Ahudie

Food growers, handlers and consumers, beware! Food, the basic need of man can cause devastating impacts if contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms/microbial toxins. The reliable supply of safe food that is free from harmful contaminants is important for the people’s general health and daily life, economic development and social stability and the government and countries’ image. One way to protect a population from all the detrimental impacts of food microbiological contamination is to spread information and knowledge about the sources and routes of transmission of pathogens into food. This paper review thus addressed the microbiological contamination of foods including the mechanisms of microbiological contamination, microbial contaminants and their commonly associated foods, impacts of microbial contamination of food and their prevention and control. The paper also gave some hints on certain foods to avoid in order to evade food poisoning. Stay alert, follow proper procedures and enjoy your food, health and food business.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


L.S Danahap, D.L Wonang

The antinematicidal efficacies of exudates of four common weeds: Crotalaria breviflora, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria retusa, and Crotalaria spectabilis were carried out against Meloidogyne incognita. The young actively growing seedling of the common weeds were uprooted and taken to the laboratory for analyses. The root exudates of test plants were prepared by growing the young actively growing seedlings in test tubes wrapped with black carbon paper for five days under lighted florescent bulbs. Root exudates of Crotalaria breviflora, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria retusa and Crotalaria spectabilis exhibited nematicidal properties against the Meloidogyne incognita. The effects varied with concentrations of the exudates (P<0.05) using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The effects also differed among test plants with Crotalaria retusa topping in terms of reduction in nematode population. This was followed by C.breviflora, C.juncea and C.spectabilis respectively. The results thus confirmed that all the test plants are potentially viable trap weeds, and can be used for the control of Meloidogyne incognita and should be employed as such.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]



This study aims to determine the effect on the quality of experience and accountability of internal audit. Supervision over the local government carried out gradually from district / city level, provincial level up to the Independent. in this study is the experience and accountability. While the dependent variable in this study is the quality of internal audit. it is based on several studies literature and the results of previous research studies, the results of this study show that the experience and accountability have a very strong role in determining the quality of internal audit, and if someone does the same job repeatedly or continuously, it will be more faster and more professional work in completing the internal audit well, this is because the auditor has to really understand the technique or how to complete the audit properly and be careful in completing the audit as expected, therefore experience of auditors and internal auditors to perform the audit can improve the quality of internal audit.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Nazia Perveen, Nazir Ahmad, M. Abdul Qadoos Bilal Khan, Rizwan Khalid, Salman Qadri

Facial expressions communicate non-verbal cues, which play an important role in interpersonal relations. Automatic recognition of facial expressions can be an important element of normal human-machine interfaces; it might likewise be utilized as a part of behavioral science and in clinical practice. In spite of the fact that people perceive facial expressions for all intents and purposes immediately, solid expression recognition by machine is still a challenge. From the point of view of automatic recognition, a facial expression can be considered to comprise of disfigurements of the facial parts and their spatial relations, or changes in the face's pigmentation. Research into automatic recognition of the facial expressions addresses the issues encompassing the representation and arrangement of static or dynamic qualities of these distortions or face pigmentation. We get results by utilizing the CVIPtools. We have taken train data set of six facial expressions of three persons and for train data set purpose we have total border mask sample 90 and 30% border mask sample for test data set purpose and we use RST- Invariant features and texture features for feature analysis and then classified them by using k- Nearest Neighbor classification algorithm. The maximum accuracy is 90%.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Manumpak Sianturi, Farida Pattitingi, Juajir Sumardi, Sri Susyanti Nur

This research aims to identify and understand the level of legal certainty of land title certificates that can support the investment made by the investor. This research is an empirical law. The technique of collecting legal material conducted through interviews, questionnaires to respondents and the study of literature, ie by collecting various documents in the form of primary legal materials and secondary legal materials and tertiary legal materials. The results showed that the legal certainty of land title certificates issued by the BPN Bekasi is the main hope for investors who invest in Bekasi. Legal certainty will be determined by the quality of the implementation of the registration of land rights and acquisition of certificates held by the Bekasi District Land Office. To be able to produce the quality of land registration that ensures the legal certainty of land title certificates it has contributed to the success is determined by the attitude and commitment of forces Bekasi District Land Office to carry out the work as stipulated by laws and regulations applicable. In addition, the certificate of legal certainty desired by the investor also determined by the role of the Land Deed Officer (PPAT) in carrying out their duties on the transfer of legal land rights through the deed of transfer of rights made.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Claudia Chiorean

Affectivity is an essential, dynamic and energetic component of the human psyche. It reflects either as subjective, internal feelings or as social behaviors, how man can adapt to the objective reality he lives in. And since man lives nowadays in a dense media environment, his adaptation to the objective reality is decisively influenced by the media system, which is sometimes masterfully represented by a photo release. The print of the media reality man is exposed to can be found both in the cognitive system as well as in the emotional, volitional, motivational one, etc. Each of emotions and feelings can mark fundamentally both the individual and common existence of a bigger or smaller social group. Media plays an essential role in causing social emotions, including press photography which occupies a priority position.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Mahbub Ullah Miyan, Md. Nuruzzaman

There is no compromise about our heath. The researcher want to create awareness among students, faculties, and staffs of a university and make them habituate to use washroom properly where about fourteen thousand are using washroom. Naturally we human need to use washroom but if it is an unhygienic condition; then what about our health condition; yes; we are talking about health and hygiene.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Adithya Guru Vaishnav.S

This paper aims at providing a theoretical framework to find an optimized route from any source to destination considering the real-time traffic congestion issues. The distance of various possible routes from the source and destination are calculated and a PathRank is allocated in the descending order of distance to each possible path. Each intermediate locations are considered as nodes of a graph and the edges are represented by real-time traffic flow monitored using GoogleMaps GPS crowdsourcing data. The Page Rank is calculated for each intermediate node. From the values of PageRank and PathRank, the minimum sum term is used to find an optimized route with minimal trade-off between shortest path and real-time traffic.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Antonis Constantinides, Panayiotis Michael

Interference is a very important factor in the planning of digital and analog VHF terrestrial radio services. The most common cause of interference in band II & III occurs under line of sight conditions and thus many times can be skipped. Nevertheless, a more complicated case of interference occurs when an unwanted signal travels beyond the horizon due to atmospheric refraction based on specific weather conditions. A case of such abnormal propagation mechanism has been examined in the Mediterranean Sea during the months June, July and August 2015 due to the radio interference which plaguing the southern coast of Cyprus for years. The model based on which calculations were made is the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF-ARW version 3.4). Furthermore, this study utilizes real world measurements in Band II based on current overseas radio transmissions monitored beyond the horizon in clear spectrum during the hot dry months of the summer. The focus was specifically on the field strength variations versus the type of duct favoring the radio waves in Band II, allowing them to travel between the Middle East to beyond the horizon in Cyprus, since line of sight conditions do not exist between the two regions.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Ikhlas Kitta, Salama Manjang, Wihardi Tjaronge, Rita Irmawaty

Currently, many operated the coal fired power plant to meet the energy needs of the world's electricity. But the coal fired power plant produces waste that can pollute the environment, such as fly ash and bottom ash, so requires management to not cause environmental problems, because coal fly ash classified as a hazardous waste. Fly ash has a particle size that is very smooth, and of some literature research done previously, fly ash coal containing silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), titanium dioxide (TiO2), magnesium oxide (MgO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are potentially as filler that are likely to be used as a mixture of silicone rubber and epoxy resin for electrical insulators. So this research theme was engineering insulation materials by utilizing waste coal fly ash. The purpose of this study was to obtain performance characteristics of waste coal fly ash as filler in silicon rubber and epoxy resin. To achieve these objectives, the activities that have been done is examined the effects of the use of fly ash as filler in silicone rubber material and epoxy resin. Parameters measured were dielectric strength and relative permittivity. The result of this research is the dielectric strength of silicone rubber rose with increasing quantity of fly ash. Conversely in epoxy resin, dielectric strength decreases with increasing quantity of fly ash. Furthermore, the measurement results relative permittivity, where the value of the relative permittivity of silicon rubber swell if it is filled with fly ash, as well as epoxy resin which has a value of permittivity relative to the concentration of fly ash filler material is linear.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Teng Berlianty, Abrar Saleng, Irwansyah, Suriyaman Mustari Pide

This study aims to gain an understanding of the essence of the rights of communities around post-mining, corporate responsibility towards the fulfillment of the rights of communities around post-mining, as well as government policies to protect the sustainability of the post-mining communities around the mining business. This type of research is a normative legal research methods using primary legal materials, secondary and tertiary. With the approach of sociolegal through down the field in Gebe to get data concrete. Data were analyzed with qualitative analysis. The results showed that the essence of the rights of communities around mining operations after the mine in the form of the right to a decent life (welfare), the right to social security in the form of employment, the guarantee of free education and healthcare for the local population as well as the right to a good environment and healthy as a guarantee of the continuity of human existence and future generations. These rights have not been fully realized post-mining. Corporate responsibility in accordance with Article 74 of Law No. 40 of 2007 on the fulfillment of the rights of communities around mining operations after the mine in the form of welfare responsibilities (clothing, food and shelter, especially electricity and water) have not been met, then the social responsibility to empower communities around the mine as stakeholders, as well as environmental responsibility. Legal policy such as the empowerment of communities around the mine in order to be self-sufficient after the post-mining, public service policies in education and health as a form of existence of government using existing programs nationally and subordinate to the PT. Antam. as well as environmental protection policies in the form of post-mining reclamation formulated in the company's liabilities.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]

125- 131  

Anup Badhe

Everyday lot of people take a road trip to travel between two points. Each road trip involves driving directions provided in some form by many applications but an essential component to that is food, which is sadly missing from all of those. The proposed system tries to encompass the food element into driving directions based on the driver’s food preferences

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


M.S. Garko, I.B Mohammed, A.I. Yakubu, Z. Y. Muhammad

A field experiment was carried out during 2012 rainy season at the Research Farm of Bayero University, Kano (110 58’ N, 80 26’E and 475m above sea level) and National Horticultural Research Institute Bagauda sub-station Bebeji local Government area of Kano State (110 33’N 80 23’E and 481m above sea level) to find out the performance of varieties and weed control treatments on growth and development of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The experiment consisted of two groundnut varieties (SAMNUT-22 and SAMNUT-23) and 12 weed control treatments (Metolachlor at 2 levels of 1.0 and 2.0kg a.i. /ha, Fluazifop-p butyl at 2 levels of 1.0 and 1.5 kg a.i. /ha at pre or post-emergence, or combined with hoe weeding at 15 days after sowing or supplementary hoe weeding at 30 days after sowing while weed free check at 15 and 30 days after sowing and weedy check were included as control. The treatments were laid out using split plot design with variety assigned to the main and weed control to the sub plot. The result showed that SAMNUT-22 out yielded SAMNUT-23 and exhibited superior growth and yield components such as stand count, canopy height, number of branches, leaf area index, plant dry weight. The application of Metolaclor at 1.0 kg a.i. /ha followed by Fluazifop-p butyl at 1.0 kg a.i. /ha as well as Metolaclor at 1.0 or 2.0 kg a.i. /ha followed by supplementary hoe weeding produced significantly higher number of pods per plant, and pod yield per hactare. Leaf area index and number of pod per plant were significantly and positively correlated with pod weight. Thus, SAMNUT-22 can be recommended for the two study areas. Similarly application of Metolaclor at 1.0 kg a.i. /ha followed by Fluazifop-p butyl at 1.0 kg a.i. /ha and Metolaclor at 1.0 or 2.0 kg a.i. /ha followed by supplementary hoe weeding could be recommended for weed control in groundnut in the study area.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Aized Amin Soofi, Irfan Riaz, Umair Rasheed

In today’s world the amount of data that is exchanged has increased in the last few years so securing the information has become a crucial task. Cryptography is an art of converting plain text message into unreadable message. Encryption algorithms play an important role in information security systems. Encryption is considered as one of the most powerful tool for secure transmission of data over the communication network. Vigenere technique is an example of polyalphabetic stream cipher; it has various limitations such as Kasiski and Friedman attack to find the length of encryption key. In this paper an enhanced version of traditional vigenere cipher has been proposed that eliminates the chances of Kaisiski and Friedman attack. Proposed technique also provides better security against cryptanalysis and pattern prediction.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Kiljamilawati, H.M. Arfin Hamid, H. Sukarno Aburaera, H. Mustafa Bola

The presence of renewals in Islamic law, resulting in the emergence of various changes in the social order of Muslims either in relation to ideology, political, social, cultural and so on. It later brings new challenges that must be answered, and therefore ijtihad must be continuously made to find a solution to the various problems of new law which is required by Muslims. The type of research is a normative-juridical and empirical research. Normative research is trying to examine the problem of law invention by the judge in the Religion Courts with a case approach. Ijtihad has a very urgent role in efforts to carry out duties as law enforcer and justice by digging, follow and understand the legal values that live and develop in the peoples and accommodate the developments of Islamic law. The method of ijtihad by judges in the Religion Court use maqashid al-sharia and maslahah and istihsan method. At the practical level, so characteristic inherent in the religion courts persists, then should any verdict must include argument of Islamic law sources.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Okan Evans Onojasun

Appropriate application of geophysical techniques is required to effectively explore through the cover sequences that will allow the discovery of deep seated orebodies within the 1-3km depth range. Whilst potential field methods that are traditionally used for Cu-Au exploration seems effective, they lack the expected resolution required to detect deeper mineral deposits under >500 m cover. Seismic reflection techniques offers a distinct advantage over all other geophysical techniques because of its ability to penetrate deeper into the subsurface without losing its resolution. We present in this report modelling results from magnetic and seismic responses to Cu-Au deposits when located within 100-1000m depth range. In the case of magnetic modelling, we apply upward continuation filters which calculate the potential field that would have been recorded at (100m, 250m, 500m and 1000 m) levels by filtering away shallow anomalies from the initial data. For seismic modelling, simple but realistic geological model with varying cover thicknesses (100m, 250m, 500m and 1000m) were created, and then populate these models with petrophysical data. Simulated synthetic seismic responses from the models was processed using basic processing flows to obtained depth migrated images. Results show that for shower depths (0-100m), good correlation exist between the magnetic and the seismic responses. From 100-250m depth cover, though we can still see some magnetic anomalies within the target zone, its effectiveness decreases with depths whereas seismic responses was maintain within the depth range. From 500m to 1000m magnetic response becomes spear or fuzzy as much useful information is practically missed out. Similarly, high resolution power of seismic was ably demonstrated as the depth of even 2km did not degrade its resolution. Thus, both magnetic and seismic methods are very useful for shallow investigation but at greater depth, seismic method appears to be a more valid exploration tool to find Cu-Au deposits.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Dr. Saleh Issa Khassaf, Dr. Laith Jawad Aziz, Zainab Ahmed Elkatib

In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of the weir geometry of a Piano Key Weir (PKW) type B on the discharge coefficient under free flow conditions. Experiments were conducted in a 15m long, 0.3m wide and 0.45m deep rectangular glass-walled flume. The experimental work includes testing of fourteen PKW models which results 290 tests to cover the effects of weir length and height, up-and downstream key widths, upstream apex overhangs length, dam height and noses length on the weir flow discharge coefficient as well PKW with outlet stepped key were considered in the analysis. Considering the experimental data, the dimensional analysis allowed the development of relations between discharge coefficient and the shape of the PKW and gave a good agreement. Experimental results showed that the most influential parameters for the tested PKW models are the Relative length L/W, Key widths W_i⁄W_o , PKW Height B/P, and Overhangs length B_o⁄B. The effectiveness of Piano Key Weir at low heads ratio (H/P=0.25) is up to 400% relative to Creager weir at the same head.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


M. Manikandan, Jayasubha R Y, Dr. S. Krishna Kumar

Observing fetal health is very important for mothers and the fetus well-being. Most of the conditions can be monitored via ECG, so Fetal ECG extraction plays an important role. Extracting Fetal ECG implies filtering maternal ECG and other artifacts and due to the presence of reference signal which is mothers ECG from chest adaptive filter is used much often. This paper proposes adaptive noise cancellation technique using LMS algorithm and heart rate detection algorithm. The method can also be used for a model based design to achieve result on hardware platform.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Bashir Muhtar, Manal M. A. Albayati

In this research project, Manning’s and Chezy’s constant were determined and compared, using four different notches with different coarse aggregate beds. The coarse aggregates sizes used are 10mm sized coarse aggregate, 20mm sized coarse aggregate, 40mm sized coarse aggregate, and 50mm sized coarse aggregate. Notches that were used in this experiment were the rectangular notch, trapezoidal notch, 90° V-notch and 60° V-notch. The experiment was carried out in the open channel Laboratory by using hydraulic bench, It was seen that, discharge coefficient varies indirectly with actual discharge. Chezy’s constant is directly proportional to discharge While Manning’s constant in inversely proportional to actual discharge. The Manning’s and Chezy’s roughness coefficient of different aggregate sizes were determined using the various notches. The experimental value of Manning’s coefficient with the standard value of aggregates given in Manning’s roughness table was evaluated. And also, the relationship of Manning's n with flow velocity, bed slope, and hydraulic radius were studied. The flow rate was measured straightforward since the procedures are obvious. The challenging phenomenon was determination of points where depth develops. The coefficient of resistance is more adaptable and accurate in manning’s constant.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


R. M. Mishra, J.S.P. Rai

The present investigation is aimed to prepare polyetherimide (PEI)/silicone rubber nanocomposites reinforced with various amounts of loading (phr) of modified nanosilica using melt mixing process with the help of co-rotating twin screw extruder. Microstructures of the developed nanocomposites have been studied by XRD and SEM. Thermal properties of the developed nanocomposites have been analyzed by TGA. Developed nanocomposites have shown remarkable improvement in mechanical, thermal and morphological properties due to better interfacial adhesion between nanosilica and polymer matrix at 3 phr loading of nanofillers. The addition of nanosilica in polymer matrix has enhanced the thermal stability appreciably at 3 phr loading. This might be attributed to excellent interfacial adhesion and interaction between the nanosilica particles and polymer matrix. SEM micrographs reveal that the entire surface of developed nanocomposites is smooth and has no voids and cavities. It is also evident from SEM images that there is excellent dispersion of nanosilica throughout the entire polymer matrix. Mechanical properties results demonstrate that there is significant in modulus, strength, hardness, impact etc. due to its uniform and homogeneous dispersion of nanosilica in polymer matrix.

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


Nusaiba Fadul Mustafa Ahmed, Tayseer Elamin Mohamed Elfaki, Mohieldin Elsayid

The study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of Giardia lamblia/ Helicobacter pylori co-infections in Khartoum State, Sudan. A cross-sectional study was carried out during the period between May to December 2015. A total of 100 subjects were included in this study, the age ranging between (1-80) years, the mean age was (29± 19) years old. Stool samples were taken from all subjects included in the study, in addition to; clinical and parasitological data were obtained and recorded. Out of 100 subjects, (14 (14%)) were positive for G. lamblia by using direct wet mount and (22 (22%)) were positive by using formal ether concentration technique (FECT) (p=0.000). Out of 100 subjects, (30 (30%)) were positive for H. pylori when detected by using H. pylori antigen test. The study showed that the prevalence of G. lamblia was higher in females (11 (11%)) than in males (3 (3%)) (p=0.193). Also, H. pylori prevalence was higher in females (17 (17%)) than in males (13 (13%)) (p=0.390). The prevalence rate of G. lamblia was higher (5(5%)) in the age group (16- 25) and (46-65) years old by using direct wet mount (p=0.053), while the prevalence rate of H. pylori was higher (9 (9%)) in the age group (1-15) years old (p=0.424). The study revealed that the prevalence rate of G. lamblia and H. pylori co-infections were (5%), (9%) by using direct wet mount and formal ether concentration technique respectively. This study indicated that the prevalence rate of G. lamblia and H. pylori in the study area were (14%), (30%) respectively and co-infection was (5%), with no significant value for co-infection (p=0.615).

[View Full Paper]   [Download]   [References]


ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - January 2022 - Volume 11 Issue 1