International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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Volume 3- Issue 3, March 2014 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Mohamed S. Zaroug, Eldur B. Zahran, Abbasher A. Abbasher

Abstract: Mistletoe of the genus Tapinanthus(Loranthaceae) is a stem hemiparasite causing damage on citruses and guava trees in central Sudan. The objectives of this study were: to evaluate the distribution, incidence, , severity and host range of the parasite. Surveys were conducted in 20102013 in four States along the Blue Nile banks in an area extended about 492 km. Results indicated that the parasite is widely distributed along the Blue Nile banks from Al-Rusayris (12ْ 21' 4" N and 34ْ 22' 14" E) to Hisahisa (14 44' 47" N and 33° 17' 43" E). The highest incidence of the parasite (69%) occurred in Blue Nile State, followed by Sinar state (66.3%) with highest incidence (100%) reported in Singa Province. While Kamlin province (Northern Gezira state) and Khartoum state were seemed to be free from the parasite. The highest percentage of mistletoe infection was found on lime (Citrus aurantifoliaSwingle ) and guava (Psidiumguajava M.) in Western and Eastern Sinar, respectively, with disease severity index range between 74.2%- 90.6% in both localities. The parasitic weed appears to have a wide host range, attacking 22 species belonging to 14 families. The most affected trees were citruses, guava and Ziziphusspina-chriti. In conclusion the results reflects the epidemic situation of mistletoe along the Blue Nile banks, despite the lack of quantitative data concerning losses in fruit production of infected plants. It also revealed that mistletoe could parasitize a variety of host plants, with special preference of potential suitable hosts.

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Sabbir Tahmidur Rahman, Dr. Md. Zakir Hossain, Mohammad Mahmood Riad

Abstract: In Bangladesh, migration across the national boundary is not far behind from migration within the country. This study has made an attempt to compare and contrast between these two types of migration and drag out the determinants of migration towards internal and international destination based on their household characteristics. The study found considerable differences between internal and international migration according to present age of the migrants, age at migration, sex of the migrants, educational status of the migrants, purpose of migration, relationship of the migrants with the household head, pre-migration occupation of the migrants and job informants at the time of migration. Multiple binary logistic regression models and Poisson regression models have been developed separately for determining the predictors of internal and international migration at household level. Two different techniques were adopted to do same thing in order to check whether predictors vary according to techniques and find out the common determinants. Both the techniques were almost identical in predicting the determinants of internal and international migration as the results indicate that landholding, education of the household head, age of the household head and household size have had significant effect on the decision of internal migration. On the other hand, occupations of the household head, annual income of the households and economic status of the household were found to have significant impact in case of international migration.

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Erisi Mafuratidze, Kurai Chako, Heather Phillipo, Danai Tavonga Zhou

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and is the most prevalent non communicable disease in the world. Progressive kidney damage is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus and has significant mortality and morbidity. The aim of our study was to analyze renal function in Type II diabetics that have been on treatment for more than 12 months. Our laboratory based cross-sectional study was done on 239 patients who have been diagnosed as Type II diabetics for more than 12 months, who routinely attend the Parirenyatwa Diabetic Clinic. Serum sample were used for urea and creatinine analysis. Of the 239 patients studied, 65 (27.2 %) were found to have elevated values of creatinine and/or urea. Creatinine is usually elevated when the kidneys have lost about 50% of their function. Therefore, the prevalence of impaired renal function found in patients attending Parirenyatwa Diabetic clinic was approximately 27.2%. All patients with impaired renal function were hypertensive. Males had a greater percentage of elevated urea and creatinine levels compared to females. Age and period on treatment were found to be significantly associated with impairment of renal function.

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HajoElzeinElhassan, AbdelWahab HassanAbdalla, El Busra El Shiekh El Nur

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chromium on enzymatic activity of sorghum genotypes grown under polluted conditions. Ten sorghum genotypes, (Tabat, Wad Ahmed, L4, L7, L12, L14, L16, L25, L32 and L34) were obtained from the Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture University of Khartoum, grown in Polyethylene bags filled with 2 kg soil (clay and sand, 2:1). Two weeks after sowing, seedlings of grown plants were irrigated with eight levels of chromium (Cr VI) concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/l.) for 15 days. Samples of plants were taken three times (at 8th, 12th, and 15th days) after chromium application to measure the enzymatic activity, namely, malate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase. The results revealed that the level of enzyme activity increased significantly with increase in chromium concentration. Also the rate of increase in enzymatic activity, depend mainly on genotype and age of the plant. These findings suggest that, the activity of antioxidant enzymes of sorghum play a significant role in plant defense system.

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Dr. Qazi, Raza Ur Rehman

Abstract: Purpose of this study was to assess the IT utilization higher education in by employees of the Establishment (Idara) department at the IMAMU. In this study focus was on Personal Computer technology utilization. The study was based on the "Technology Acceptance Model" (TAM), developed by Davis in 1986 [1]. According to Davis, "A key purpose of TAM is to provide a basis for tracing the impact of external factors on internal beliefs, attitudes, and intentions" [1]. In TAM, two fundamental variables, "Perceived Usefulness" and "Perceived Ease of Use" were tested [1]. These two variables determine the usage and acceptance of a system [1]. This study will test all the paths of original TAM, along with new factors (perceived personal utility) incorporated in the extended model developed by Dr. Qazi, Raza Ur Rehman (2007) [2]. Factors like organizational culture, individual factors including level of education and duration of training as external factors were also tested. The study results are based on data collected from the employees of the establishment department (Idara Office) of Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, KSA. Furthermore, in this study data are collected from employees (both male and female) who have used the Personal Computer technology at work for at least one year. The results of this study indicated an overall positive association between all the constructs of the factors being tested except the association between the level of education and the actual computer use at job. Similarly negative association was found between organizational culture and actual use of PC at job. Detailed analysis is presented in the analysis section.

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Deblina Maiti, Subodh Kumar Maiti

Abstract: This study investigated the usefulness of grass-legume mixture as an initial cover species to initiate ecorestoration process on a hazardous waste dump, produced by the wastes from an integrated sponge iron plant. During production of sponge iron huge amount of solid wastes are generated, which is considered as hazardous material, with alkaline pH; composed of dolochar, coal fines, slag and fly ash; posing serious threat to the surroundings. The area occupied by waste dump was approximately 5 ha and surface area; 3.4 ha was located inside forests. The average dump height varied between 40-50m with a steep slope greater than 70o. Before ecorestoration work, dump was blanketed with a thick layer of topsoil (1-1.2 m) and slope was covered by coir-mat followed by sowing of grass-legume seed mixture before monsoon onset. Dominant grass species was Pennisetum pedicellatum; drought tolerant and quick growing; while legume seeds consisted of Stylosanthes hamata, Sesbania sesban, and Crotalaria juncea. S. hamata is perennial, whereas C. juncea, S. sesban completes their life cycle within 5-6 months and their dead aerial parts contributed nitrogen rich litter to the soil. Dry subterranean parts of the annual grass P. pedicellatum acts as mulch. In a whole, it has been observed that grass-legume growth initiated nutrient cycling in hostile conditions, which was corroborated by analyzing rhizospheric soil samples of grass-legume cover at an interval of six-seven months. Study concluded that hazardous waste dump with steep slopes can be restored by application of grass-legume mixture, topsoiling and coir matting that leads to a sustainable plant soil interaction.

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Tharanitharan Venkatesan, Nagashanmugam Bommannan, Kannan Kulanthai, Srinivasan Krishnamoorthy

Abstract: Adsorption efficiencies of activated carbons prepared from oil cake of Sesamum Indicum by thermal and sulphuric acid activation were investigated for the removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Various parameters as a function of contact time, initial pH, initial adsorbent dosage and metal ion concentrations were studied. The optimum time required for the maximum removal of Cu(II) was found to be 1 hr for TAGOC and 2 hrs for STGOC. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms showed that activated carbon has high affinity and sorption capacity for Cu(II) with monolayer sorption capacities of 44.92 mg/g for TAGOC and 35.97 mg/g for STGOC. The kinetic studies indicated that the pseudo-second order rate equation better described the adsorption process. The adsorbent efficiency was also tested for the removal of Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from synthetic electroplating wastewater. The results indicated that the prepared both activated carbons are efficient (99.9%), alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) and other metal ions from wastewater..

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Vivek Kumar Singh, Rajeev Kumar, P L Ravi Teja

Abstract: This paper investigates the research and development carried out with bio-gas energy technologies. Its describe the Bio-gas technologies that are commercially available technologies and performance evaluation in real in-situ term periodical gas pressure monitoring of gas holder and also carried out the experimental study of gas consumption in a Controlled cooking test (CCT). The World Cow Research Center (WCRC) cow generates about 10 to12 kg of dung per day, On the basis of these we also calculated the economics of a biogas plant involves the calculation of annual profit cost for the LPG equivalent of dung. The use of bio-gas technology has benefited the country in improving health, environment, economy and energy conservation.

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Madan M. Jagtap, Dr.Bipin B. Shrivastava

ABSTRACT: The main objective of this paper is to form source equation for cavitation.Mathematical analysis of physical phenomenon gives an ease for the study of parameters. Cavitation phenomenon critically affects several applications of hydronautics and hydrodynamics. cavitation shows losses in several turbines as well as pumps. Inception of cavitation over a surface caused due to fall in pressure below atmospheric. Pressure difference in flow gives rise to spherical bubbles. For physical interpretation one can think for coefficient of pressure as threshold value for inception of cavitation. Deciding parameters for range of operation of rotodynamic machines and performance of same can be decided with mathematical equation. Simulation of Mathematical equation on computer will give cost efficient experimental base for designing machines

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Abubakar Ado, Ahmed Aliyu, Zhongwei-he

Abstract: Online health systems have become more popular in recent years by means of incorporating modern computer and telecommunication technologies into health system and objectives to facilitate patient need. In this paper we develop a web-based application that will minimize all paper works and manual records keeping, therefore allowing doctors and staff ease in keeping track of patients medical record, reducing patient's waiting time and increasing the number of patients served and also we presents a study on the assessment of the acceptability of implementation of an online health system in Nigeria's health sector. The evaluation utilized questionnaires to collect information from doctors, Staff and users. The system is design using B/S structure and JSP technology which are frequently used in web-based applications, and discuss how to program in JSP to implement the system in detail, especially the method of database access and data storage in a typical online health system. Practices prove that our online health system works well which is fully automated, user-friendly, time effective, efficient and improved content.

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Prachi Kewate, Pranali Suryawanshi

Abstract: The Research and development of brain-controlled robots have received a great deal of attention because of their ability to bring back to people with devastating neuromuscular disorders and improve the quality of life and self- dependence of these users. BMI (Brain Machine Interface) systems are viable for motor disabled person who cannot move their limbs or are paralyzed. For such people BMI can serve as a boon as only by just thinking about the task it can be done with the help of EEG based robots. An automation system where humans will interact with the system through EEG signals using BMI concept.BMI uses brain activity to command, control, actuate and communicate with the automation system directly through brain integration with peripheral devices and systems. A brain actuated wheelchair will serve beneficial to the motor disabled person for moving from one place to another. Signals from brain will be acquired with the help of dry electrodes and those signals are processed in the system processor. The processed signal will be then applied to the Wheelchair depending on the instructions given by the person sitting on it.

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M.Boufettal, H.Aitbenali, Y.Mhamdi, M.Kharmaz, F.Ismael, M.Mahfoud, A.EL Bardouni, M.S.Berrada, M.EL Yaacoubi

ABSTRACT: The radial head fractures are common lesions estimated one third of fractures reaching the elbow, their mechanism is most often indirect, and their diagnosis are clinical and radiological. The treatment can be surgical or orthopedic; the surgical treatment is characterized by the variety of techniques and approaches, whence the difficulty to choose the appropriate treatment and to pose the right indications. Several authors have been interested in this type of fracture and especially their treatment, as well detailing the different surgical techniques and their evolution over time, by demonstrating that the choice of treatment is not the only prognostic factor of these fractures. We report in this study a series of 52 patients treated for the radial head fracture, with a precise analysis of the various techniques used and the results obtained.

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Sara Khalafi, Alireza Bagheri, Mohammad Mansoor Riahi Kashani

Abstract— Covering the set of points with a geometric shape is an important problem in computational geometry. In this problem, given a set of points in the plane of total size n and a geometric shape, covering the points with the geometric shape with minimum perimeter or area is the goal. The points may have different colors or divided into desirable and non-desirable points. On the other hand, in the separability problem, it is required that all of the desirable points lay inside the geometric shape and all of the other lay outside it. There has been a fair amount of work on different kinds of separators such as rectangles, squares, circles, etc. In this paper, a new algorithm based on genetic algorithm is presented for finding the maximum monochromatic polygon, which contains the maximum number of desirable points while avoids non-desirable points. Finding the maximum monochromatic polygon is an important problem in computational geometry which has many applications in different fields. Also, another algorithm is introduced based on triangulation of blue points, which has O(n2(logn+m)) time, where n represents the number of blue points and m represents the number of red points. Both algorithms are evaluated and compared to optimal solutions. Both algorithms are near-optimal, i.e. their solutions are close to optimal solutions, but they are not necessarily optimal. Of course, in some cases they yield optimal solutions.

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Dinesh.K, Gowtham Raj.R, Naresh.M, Rakesh.N, Sriram.R

Abstract: In recent year's usage of energy is very high. Researches are being done to find alternative sources for energy. There are many ways by which modifying existing techniques will help to reduce the usage. The paper proposes the way to build and utilize the low cost Stirling engine for the green energy applications. The research on Stirling engine is being increased, many inventions reveals the suitability of engine for low power applications that includes an alternative for motors in industries. As it knows that Stirling engine has closer theoretical Carnot cycle efficiency. This theoretical efficiency of engine provides an alternative for various industrial low duty applications. Finally this paper will outline theoretical background of Stirling cycle; various design parameters, innovative use of fabrication works and industrial implementation ways. The design process involves the design of cylinders, its mass flow rate, amount of heat addition, heat rejection, efficiency and many more. These sub design parameters helps in finding out power outcome of the engine. The fabricated work involves usage of available materials in and around effectively. As a result final assembly of the engine meets the objective.

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K. Hema

Abstract: Neutron interactions with matter can be either scattering or absorption reactions. Scattering can result in a change in the energy and direction of motion of a neutron but cannot directly cause the disappearance of a free neutron. Absorption leads to the disappearance of free neutrons as a result of a nuclear reaction with fission or the formation of a new nucleus and another particle or particles such as protons, alpha particles and gamma photons. Most materials have an absorption cross section that varies inverse with neutron velocity. Artificial neural network technique would be a perfect tool to determine the impact parameters from the experimental observables. One has only to train the network by theoretical simulations and then to feed the trained net work with experimental observables in order to obtain the impact parameter as the output of the network. Feed-forward networks have proven to be valuable tools for data analysis (classification of events, particle identification, function approximation, pattern recognition). The advantages of feed-forward nets are: the highly parallel algorithm, the flexibility because of their trainability, the capability to solve high-dimensional problems and the deterministic behavior.

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Iliycho Petkov Iliev, Snezhana Georgieva Gocheva-Ilieva

Abstract: The subject of this study is the construction of the breakdown curves of a RF discharge in hydrogen. Based on previously developed by the authors breakdown criteria, the breakdown curves of a discharge in hydrogen were analytically constructed for the first time. Very good coincidence between the proposed analytic breakdown criteria and known in literature experiment data is obtained. A comparison is made with other breakdown criteria, developed earlier. It is found that the positive and negative electric fields occurred in the discharge influence each other.

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Dr. Omar Zubi

Abstract: Universities and educational institutions always thinkabout providing better learning opportunities for all kind of learners, right from primary education to the higher education. Additionally, students or learners in the Middle East also seek easy and economic ways for learning. The E-Learning is the main mode of choice for everyone.It is a technology based learning, economical, 24X7 available, time saver and easy. Current Technologies like Internet, Intranet, Extranet, and artificial intelligence offer the promise of reinventing education with quality and distance by supporting interactive and inquiry based learning. The technology based learning or E-Learning widened the way of learning.It extends from primary to research level andbecomes more popular amongst adult learners. It also widened access to education and other trainings forthose personswho once excluded due to working hours and family commitments and involvement in business. Furthermore, it gets attached to the physically challenged learners due to advancement in the technology. Thosewho havenot completed their education due to various reasons can take access by just opening one or two websites with thecourse ofinterest. This paper will shed light on adopting TBL (Technology Based Learning) or E-Learning along with natural flavor of class room learning or face-to-face learning for all level of learners. Feedbacks from educators, trainers and professors showed that they have already adopted the E-Learning or information communication technology, using Internet, blogs, audio conferencing, video conferencing, chat, social media applications, and LMS (Moodle, Blackboard, and ERA) programs. Even their involvement in technology based learning they share their experience that the E-Learning tools nowadays will not provide the same flavor of face to face learning. Current technology is 100% appropriate for secondary learners those who know language and technology (more on next pages). Mixed teaching approach or blended learning incorporates interactive and face-to-face methods to satisfy the learning preference for the majority of learners in the class. Therefore this paper show some effort to bridge the traditional way of learning with technology based learning with the usage of moreelectronic-devices.

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Chaitanya Velhal, Mrudula Sant, Surojit Das, Chandrashekhar Kulkarni

Abstract: Production of pullulanase was carried out from I. batatas, P. vulgaris, E. crassipes and P. stratiotes using A. pullulans. The fermentation reactions were carried out in minimal basal media at 28°C. E. crassipes and P. stratiotes as substrates produced more pullulanase than I. batatas and P. vulgaris. The highest enzyme production from Pistia stratiotes was of 9.3 U/ml after 72 hours of incubation at 28°C and Eichhornia crassipes showed most enzyme production of 4.65 U/ml after 48 hours of incubation at 28°C. The two novel substrates, E. crassipes and P. stratiotes, could successfully be used for the production of pullulanase and are a promising resource for large-scale production of the same.

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Budy Rahmat, Rudi Priyadi, Purwati Kuswarini

Abstract: The study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of anaerobic digestion on the reduction on municipal waste. The study was carried out using the batch type biogas digester. This study employed the experimental method with the complete randomized design, involving three instruments of digesters A, B and C. The digester A was filled with 300 g of food waste, the digester B was loaded with 200 g of food waste + 100 g of cow dung and the digester C was charged with 300 g of cow dung as the control. Before placing into each digester, each treatment was mixed with water with the ratio of 1:1 to give the slurry. The results showed that food waste was the main component of municipal waste (50.19%). The rests were plastic (32.71), paper/wood (16.37) and metal (0.71%). The highest daily biogas production was achieved at the first five days as the food waste contained organic compounds which could be converted into the biogas. The highest total biogas production during the retention time of 20 day from 8 L of substrate was achieved by the digester B (56.068 cm3), followed with the digester C (51.431 cm3) and A (32.433 cm3). The digester A might reduce the total solid (TS) from 119.100 into 22.500 mg/L during less than 20 d. The digester B might reduce the TS from 135.200 into 18.400 mg/L and the digester C might reduce the TS from 125.000 into 22.400 mg/L.

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Ahmed Aliyu, Abdulaziz Bello, Usman Joda Mohammed, Ibrahim Hussaini Alhassan

Abstract: Today's integrated circuits (ICs) are vulnerable to hardware Trojans, which are malicious alterations to the circuit, either during design or fabrication. The interventions of human in production of Hardware resources have given room for possible modification of hardware components, so as to achieve some malicious aims. This modification help with possible loop holes in the hardware component for later attack. Due to the increase in popularity aim of attacks using embedded Trojan horse programs into chips, attacker are more likely to suppress them with malicious program, also notwithstanding the increase in disintegration of the design and manufacturing process of our microelectronic products (ICs), we should not only concern about inclusion of unplanned, undesirable hardware features ("bugs"), rather about inclusion of planned malicious hardware features: "Trojan Horses," which act as spies or guerrillas. This paper presents a Model of the fundamental attacks and possible detection techniques of Hardware Trojan. The result of the research has shown a great significance in education and for further researches.

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Asante OB, Yanful E (Prof.), Yaokumah EB

ABSTRACT: Hospital waste management is an imperative environmental and public safety issue, due to the waste’s infectious and hazardous character. In recent years, hospital waste management has become a growing issue of concern with the increasing evidence suggesting health hazards related to health care waste (HCW) inflicted upon the service providers, patients and the community as a whole. Ghana, a developing country, has little information on the healthcare waste generate, how it is handle, and its disposal. The study analysed the healthcare waste management practices in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. The study involved 120 healthcare centers in the region. A total of 150 healthcare estate officers and waste management workers. Site visits, interviews, and survey questionnaires were implemented to collect information regarding different medical waste management aspects, including medical waste generation, separation, collection, storage, transportation, and disposal. Results from the study shows 8221.2kg waste per bed per day {1.2kg bed-1 day-1 *6,851 beds} are generated. An analysis per the population size of Ghana (25million) as against a projection estimate by 2025 shows that, healthcare waste will increase greatly, hence the need for strategic focus on it management as accepted internationally. Comparing the finding of the waste generation rate to other studies Greater Region of Ghana has a much higher generation rate of healthcare waste. In conclusion, healthcare centres in the Greater Accra Region do not abide to the accepted healthcare waste management policy of Ghana. It is recommended that laws of best standard of healthcare waste management should be passed and enforced by the Ministry of Local Government, to improve the current situation and to protect the environment and human health.

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Audrey Masizana, Gobusamang Oscar, Harriet Okatch, Barbara N. Ngwenya, Keitseng N. Monyatsi, Mbaki Muzila, Kerstin Andrae-Marobela

Abstract: Botswana is a landlocked country with diverse ethnic groups amounting to a population of around 2 million. Batswana like all the other African nations have a strong sense of culture which is expressed and strongly felt through the language, Setswana, traditional food, traditional healing and the music which form part of various indigenous knowledge systems (IKS). However, the way indigenous knowledge is or should be documented properly is subject of intense debate. Hence research projects are coming up with various methods and tools to contribute to the documentation. The Ethnosurvey Research project at University of Botswana's Centre for Scientific Research Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CesrIKi) set out to contribute to IKS documentation by collecting and documenting the country's traditional medicinal plants in Botswana. This paper presents the findings of conducting a data mining process on the collected data to uncover patterns and trends emerging from the data through a data mining technique.

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Onuke Oscar Sunny

ABSTRACT: The study started by first developing an organizational structure for the manpower system. Attempt was made to show how manpower system should be structured as a basis for efficient management and matching of skill development to needs. Having developed the organizational structure for the manpower system, number of skilled personnel were estimated and filled into the system by time phasing according to manpower demand. The phasing process is vital for the efficient development and deployment of required skills in any industrial set-up such as petroleum refinery.

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Ahuchaogu, C. E., Ojiako, F. O., Kabeh J. D.

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted at the Department of Crop Science and Technology Research farm, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, during 2010 cropping season. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design. The plant extracts were tested at four rates (0.00, 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 ml/ plot), and Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic 25 E. C) at the rates of 1.25, 2.50 and 3.75 ml/ plot. The plant extracts were mixed with 300 ml of water, and Actellic 25 E. C was mixed with 1 litre of water. Result of the experiment indicated that J. curcas seed oil together with Actellic 25 .E. C. reduced the number of tested insect pests (Aphids crassivora, Maruca testulalis and Megalurothrips sjostedti). Number of pods produced were increased significantly together with total grain yield/ plot compared with the untreated plots. Result on germination test showed that the treatment materials had no significant effect on the viability of cowpea seeds after three months of storage. Generally, the results indicated that the seed oil of Jatropha curcas gave significant protection of cowpea seeds against field insect pests of cowpea. They also increased pod number and total grain yield more than the root extracts.

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P.A. Ejegwa, S.O. Akowe, P.M. Otene, J.M. Ikyule

Abstract: We present a brief overview on Intuitionistic fuzzy sets which cuts across some definitions, operations, algebra, modal operators and normalization on Intuitionistic fuzzy set.

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Samadhan Waghmode, Chandrashekhar Kulkarni, Sneha Shukla, Priyanka Sursawant, Chaitanya Velhal

Abstract: Biosurfactants are amphiphilic compounds produced by various bacteria and fungi which reduce surface and interfacial tension. In this work, the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis strain isolated from soil samples was characterized and its properties compared with commercially available chemical surfactants. Bacillus subtiliswas used for the production of biosurfactant and its activity was tested against crude vegetable oil. The crude biosurfactant was produced using four different substrates and its emulsification activity was compared against sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The results showed that the isolated bio surfactant from coconut waste showed the highest emulsification activity even more than sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) which is a commercial chemical surfactant. Furthermore its antimicrobial activity was checked against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas and Salmonella typhimurium. The study concludes that coconut and soyabean waste are the most ideal substrate for biosurfactant biosynthesis, which may have potential industrial applications. Keywords: Biosurfactant, Bacillus subtilis, Emulsification, Waste Management

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Mu’minah, Henry Kesaulya, Baharuddin, Muslimin Mustafa

Abstract: This study aims to (1) determine the effect of organic matter and planting systems , the production of potatoes and physical properties and chemical properties of the soil (2) know how much difference the productivity in the system of planting potatoes. The experiment was conducted in the village of Pattapang , District High Muzzle,Gowa. This study used a randomized design Separated (RPT). The first factor was the system of planting as main plots consisting of 2 treatment system that cut slope and direction of slope. The second factor was the dose of organic chicken manure as a subplot consisting of 4 levels of organic material that was no,10 tonnes/ha (8 kg /plot), 20 tonnes/ha (16 kg/plot) and 30 tonnes /ha (24 kg /plot). Thus there are eight treatment combinations,each combination was repeated 3 times and obtained 24 experimental plots. The results showed that the system does not affect the production of planting potato crop and soil physical and chemical properties. but a dose of organic material 30 tons / ha (24 kg/plot) shows the real effect on the physical and chemical properties of the soil. There was no interaction slope cutting and planting system in the direction of the slope with a dose of organic matter. Average productivity of the system of planting cut slope number of tubers per plant 11 bulbs, bulb weight of 38 tonnes/ha, while the direction of the slope system planting number of tubers per plant 9 bulb, tuber weight of 30.68 tonnes/ha. The usefulness of this study may be material information for farmers and policy makers. Advised farmers planting potatoes raised bed model with tilted 450 with consideration water use efficiency for potatoes.

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A.L. Rantetampang, Anwar Mallongi

Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the environmental risks of Total Mercury (THg) accumulation in Sentani Lake, Papua, Indonesia. THg was assessed around the Sentani Lake. Sampling survey for Water column, sediment, bivalve, pelagic and benthic fishes samples were collected in one time collection. Furthermore and potential environmental and health risks were determined using hazard quotient (HQ) and target hazard quotient (THQ) equation. Results revealed the concentration of Hg in water column, sediment, bivalve, pelagic and benthic fishes were ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 µg L-1, 115 to 184 µg kg-1 dw, 0.024 to 1.678 µg kg-1 ww, 0.017 to 1.265 µg kg-1ww and 0.139 to 1.845 µg kg-1ww, respectively. The elevated values of Mercury concentrations were observed in sediment and benthic fish (at the maximum concentrations of 1.678 µg kg-1dw and 1.845 µg kg-1ww), respectively. The magnitude of environmental Hazard Quotient for water and sediment showed that 0.001 – 0.038 and 0.66 – 1.06, respectively. In addition, the high values of target hazard quotient (THQ) for water column, bivalve, pelagic and benthic fishes were in the range of 0.004 to 0.252, 0.005 to 0.190 and 0.024 to 0.277, respectively. All those levels have not exceeded the limit standard or < 1 for potential health risks which mean safe for consumption. This study suggested that the magnitude of Hg concentration in Sentani Lake is generated primarily by the atmospheric fall down from some industries and amalgamation process where some people burn the gold ore. This area is surrounded by major number of Hg from industry and home scale industry directly emitted their waste to Sentani Lake. In case of health risks assessment by comparing with PTWIs and THQ, (based on the bivalve and fish consumption, for 70 years life span of 60 kg body weight), it indicated that people who consumed bivalve and fish from Sentani Lake were not at risk, however, they might be posed a risk due to the long and continual period of consumption.

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Ibrahim U. Haruna, Ishaq Musa, Muhammad I. Tikau, Unwaha J. Ibrahim

Abstract: The realization of thermal comfort through the use of refrigerated-based air conditioning systems is largely impeded by poverty and epileptic power supply. Furthermore, the use of some refrigerants has negative effect on the environment. Evaporative cooling systems are viable options for achieving thermal comfort because, apart from their low cost and power requirement, they are environmentally friendly. This paper attempts to determine the viability of using direct evaporative coolers to achieve human thermal comfort in several West African cities characterized by different climates using the feasibility index method. Employing the concept of the feasibility index reveals the suitability of using evaporative coolers in Agadez, Bamako, Diffa, Jos, and Nema while Conakry, Gagnoa and Port Harcourt are not recommended for the use of evaporative coolers. Evaporative coolers are therefore suitable alternative to refrigerated-based air conditioning systems for achieving human thermal comfort in these areas and in similar areas with high evaporative cooling potentials.

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Ibrahim U. Haruna, Maksha Yerima, Abalis D. Pukuma, Ibrahim I. Sambo

Abstract: The supply of drinking water is a growing problem especially for developing countries. Solar stills have been considered as one of the viable options of converting brackish or dirty water into distil water. Basin water depth is one of the design and operating parameters that determines the performance of solar still. Therefore, three identical simple basin single slope solar stills A, B, and C were constructed and their performance was experimentally investigated under the same conditions at basin water depths of 5mm, 10mm and 20mm respectively. The distillate productivity, solar intensity, and the temperatures of the basin water, glass cover and the ambient of the three stills were measured and their relationships were investigated. The heat losses as well as the experimental and thermal efficiencies of the stills were estimated. The results reveal that still A demonstrates high performance followed by still B. This however indicates that the performance of a solar still is high at lower basin water depths.

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Lateef L. Akintunji, Ibrahim U. Haruna, Bello S. Momoh

Abstract: Thermal comfort has a great influence on the productivity and satisfaction of indoor building occupants. In some developing countries like Niger Republic, poverty and epileptic power supply are the twin problems impeding people from the use of refrigerated-based air conditioning systems to achieve thermal comfort. Also, the use of some refrigerants has adverse effect on the environment. Evaporative cooling systems are viable options for achieving thermal comfort especially in hot and dry climates. These systems, apart from their low cost and power requirement, they are environmentally friendly. This study attempts to determine the viability of using evaporative coolers to achieve thermal comfort in Niamey using the feasibility Index Model. The computed feasibility indices of Niamey in the months of January through December are -3.6, -4.4, -4.3, 2.8, 6.6, 11.2, 13.7, 17.0, 16.0, 9.8, 0.7 and -5.6 respectively. Employing the concept of the feasibility index (FI) model reveals that comfort cooling can be achieved in the months of January, February, March, April, May, October, November and December while relief cooling can be achieved in the months of June, July and September. The method also reveals the unsuitability of evaporative cooling in the month of August. Considering both the comfort and the relief cooling periods based on the FI model, evaporative coolers can therefore be a suitable alternative to refrigerated-base air conditioning systems.

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Ibrahim U. Haruna, Ishaq Musa, Muhammad I. Tikau, Maksha Yerima.

Abstract: Thermal discomfort experience in a built environment is a thing of concern since the quality of man depends on the quality of his indoor environment. This discomfort experience in an occupied space lowers the emotional and physical health of the occupants. This paper attempts to explore the thermal comfort scenario of the residential buildings in Mubi metropolis with the view of proffering measures to improve the comfort of people in their homes. To achieve the desired result, 240 structured questionnaires were distributed to eight wards in the study area. The study reveals that the exacerbation of thermal discomfort in Mubi are attributable to some factors among which are : epileptic power supply, high cost of air conditioning systems, use of good heat conducting materials in buildings, poor building design and use of high heat emitting lighting devices. This however indicates that majority of Mubi residents are thermally uncomfortable in their homes. Based on the findings, effective manipulation of shading devices, micro-climate, ventilation, infiltration, lighting, electric appliances and building design will enhance the realization of the desired thermal comfort in residential buildings in the study area.

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Dewi Susilowati

Abstract: Conventionalaccountinghas limitationsin responding tothe impact ofexternalitiesgenerated bythe operations ofthe company. This was the background of social and environmental accounting study. Externalitiesthat are notrespondedpositivelywillaffect thelegitimacy ofthe business, so thatthe continuity ofthe company's operationsdisturbed. Therefore, notonlyfinancial informationis neededbutmore comprehensiveinformation. Inthis research, thedisclosure-scoring methodologybasedoncontent analysistomeasure thesecondary data obtainedfromannual report.As for theunitof analysisisthe top eightoil and gascompaniesarethe largestproducerof oil and gasproductionin Indonesia.The results ofthe measurementofsocialand environmentaldisclosure, socialand environmentalperformance, environmentalexposure,andenvironmentalcontent, using disclosure-scoring, usedfordescriptiveandstatisticalanalysisto determine the relationshipand its effect oneconomicperformance. The research provesthat theimpact ofthese externalitiescanaffect thesocialandenvironmentalperformance, social and environmental disclosureandeconomic performance.

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M. O. Wankhade, H. S. Lunge

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the changes in the weights (w+ik, w-ik) of the deviational variables (ni, pi, ni+pi) in the achievement function of the Weighted Linear Goal Programming Problem (GPP). If the weights of the deviational variables associated with priority levels are increased/decreased Lee’s Modified Simplex method showed that an achievement level of unachieved priorities are decreased/increased respectively and the values of decision variables remain unchanged. While the standard simplex method showed that if the weights of the deviational variables are increased/decreased, an achievement level of the priorities are decreased/increased respectively, the values of decision variables remain unchanged for some weighting structures and there exist some other weighting structures for which the solution of GPP is changed. Thus Standard simplex method can be used for solution and sensitivity analysis of a particular class of WGPP.

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Abdulaziz Bello, Ibrahim Muhammad Kilishi, Muntaka Musa Bari, Usman Abubakar

Abstract: The direct torque control theory has achieved great success in the control of BLDC motor and PMS Motor. Many researches was carried out to apply the idea of DTC of BLDCM to PMSM since 1990's.The DTC is applied by choosing the appropriate voltage vector based on the switching status of inverter which was determined by the error signals of reference flux linkage and torque with their measured real value acquired by calculating in the stationary reference frame by means of simply detecting the motor voltage or currents. Aiming at the DTC in PMSM Drives, this research presents the theoretical basis of the DTC for PMSM firstly. Then the difference between the application of DTC to PMSM and to BLDCM, their model on the rotor reference frame with their respective motor equations was explained and presented.

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Okogbue Blessing C., Hart A. Ibitoru., Ansa Ebinimi J., Ikpi Gabriel

Abstract: Most agro-based inorganic chemical are heavily employed today in lots of environmental remedial activities apart from their core use in agriculture. The dangers of over use of these products have necessitated toxicological investigations using bio-indicators to assess potential impacts on aquatic life. Calcium carbonate was tested on the brackish river prawn, Macrobrachium macrobrachion in a completely randomized design to determine its long term effect on the prawns. The experiment was conducted for two weeks and afterwards the body tissues were extracted and prepared on glass slides for photomicrography. The results showed that the toxicant did not negatively impact the muscles and carapace as there were no degenerations of the cells and tissues. This revealed that the agricultural lime is non-toxic to the juvenile brackish river prawns and also showed that it is safe for use in prawn culture as source of calcium for proper growth and development. Also the correlation was significant at P< 0.05 confidence level. The water quality parameters occurred at permissible ranges for prawns and the relationships between parameters did not influence destructive impact on the test organisms. It has also created an avenue for further research on this product use as nutrient supplement in prawn culture

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Philemon Kasyoka, Waweru Mwangi, Michael Kimwele

Abstract: This paper presents a framework for aggregating and retrieving relevant maize information using Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency and Term Proximity. The framework aggregates information from agricultural websites and blogs through the use of RSS technology. Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency is able to retrieve relevant documents from the aggregated RSS feeds however; the presence of a query term within a retrieved document does not necessarily imply relevance. Documents with same similarity score do not necessarily have the same level of relevance. To mitigate that problem we implement a term proximity scoring approach that will be able to improve relevance in the top-k documents returned by TF-IDF. The approach for term proximity score uses both the span-based method and pair-based method to ensure effective proximity scoring. User preference profile is based on keywords which form user query while text documents are composed of RSS description content and RSS title tag content. Stemming is applied on query and document terms for better precision. This framework will ensure maize farmers get the most relevant information from online sources.

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Rayees A. Wani, Tanveer H. Malik, A. R. Malik, Jahangir A Baba, N. A. Dar

Abstract: Ladakh, the land between earth and sky, is known for its remoteness, difficult terrain and short agriculture season. Nearly 50% of its total land lies between 16500 and 19500 feet above mean sea level. It is virtually unfit for human life and vegetation. The experiment was undertaken with an objective to investigate the effect of various concentrations of plant growth regulator (GA3)) under cold arid conditions to standardize the procedure for seed germination of Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) so as to increase the dearth of apple seedling plants which can easily acclimatize under these tough conditions with better survival for maximum benefit to nursery growers and orchardists. One of the effects of cold arid conditions is the reduction in seed germination, seedling establishment (survival) and seedling growth but research reveals that pretreatment with growth regulators improves some aspects of seed germination and seedling establishment. Hence to investigate the effect of pretreatment with Gibberellic acid on the seed germination and survival of apple seedlings as well as to standardize the technique under cold arid conditions, the experiment was conducted in Horticulture research field of High Mountain Agriculture Research Institute Leh, Ladakh India. The study clearly indicated that apple seed treated with GA3 500 ppm for 40 hours gave best response regarding seed germination, better growth of seedlings and survival of saplings.

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Sheikh Naunehal Ahamed, Mohammed Mushraffuddin

Abstract: In general thick cylindrical structures have radial, axial, circumferential and extensional modes and some of these free vibrational modes exists within the machine operating frequency range and can lead to potential resonance. One way to avoid the resonance is to shift the system natural frequencies away from the machine operating range. In case of turbo-generators the forcing function, which is combination of various deformation stresses that deforms the structure into an oval shape. Our research explains how to shift oval mode frequencies using topology optimization scheme in the context of a finite element (FE) approach. The key challenge involved in FE is that one should be able to retain the mode of interest throughout the cycle of optimization. During the optimization scheme, there will be a progressive change in the geometry and material, which may cause removal/shifting of the mode of interest. The optimization is carried out using conventional artificial boundary condition of a missile ring stiffeners oval mode.

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Dr. Hakim Saeed Muhammed, Dr. Karim Radhi Obead, Anwar Sabah Abd Alameer

Abstract: The main causes of nonlinearity are the large deformations attained to a structural member which is related to the geometrical shape of that member. This is called geometric nonlinearity whilst the other nonlinearity is due to material behavior under load application. In this study a submarine pipelines are taken into considerately. The two mentioned nonlinearities are facing workers in structural pipeline analysis. The present paper focuses on the effect of material nonlinearity. It was tested though the use of OFFPIPE famous software. The effect of material nonlinearity was studied through the obtained bending moments, deflections and stresses when the pipe exposed to depth variation, diameter variation, tension variation and thickness variation. It was noted that if material nonlinearity is taken into consideration the governed maximum bending moments were less by about two times compared to linear approach.

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A. Benabdeslam, M.A. Berrady, M. Khermaz, M. Mahfoud, M.S. Berrada, M. Elyaacoubi

Abstract: .Surgical site infection in orthopedic surgery is a serious complication with serious consequences. Economic, social and psychological cost is very high. Its treatment is long and difficult; it requires perfect knowledge of the pathophysiology of bone infection and causative organism in order to optimize treatment. We conducted a retrospective study of 142 cases of deep surgical site infection. All of these infections have had a profound sampling done in the operating room. A study of antibiotic susceptibility was performed.The average age of our patients was 52.08 years with a sex ratio of 1.15 (H / F). We identified 85 post- traumatic infections (59.9%), 42 prosthetic joint infections (29.6%), 7 following orthopaedic surgery (4.9%), 6 following a tumour surgery (4.2 %) and 2 after an arthroscopic instrument (1.4%). Infections were monobacteriennes in 76.8% of cases, polybacteriennes in 16.2 % of cases and negative levy in 7 % of cases. Germs found were 56.3% for Gram positive Gram negative 36.7 %. Hundred and sixty germs were identified. There was a predominance of Staphylococcus aureus (33.1 %) and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) (16.9 %). A study of the distribution of seeds by surgery was performed, and a study of their sensitivity to antibiotics has established memoranda of antibiotics. The prescription of antibiotics is a deliberate act that must be the fruit of a collective collaboration between surgeon, bacteriologist and infectious diseases.

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Akinola, Oluwatoyin O, Okunlola, Olugbenga A, Obasi , Romanus A.

Abstract: Physico-chemical characteristics and industrial potentials of lepidolites from Ijero-Aramoko pegmatite fields were investigated . Systematic mapping indicates that the lepidolite is associated with steeply inclined pegmatite intruded into the basement rocks of gneisses and schistose assemblages that are in places pulsed with isolated Pan-African granite. The lepidolite has a layered structure, a perfect unidirectional cleavage and equigranular texture. Thirty lepidolite samples were collected from the pegmatite fields and anaylsed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) method .in the Activation Laboratories, Ontario Canada. The results of the analysis indicate that the silica (SiO2) content in the lepidolite ranges between 49.43 and 50.16% in Oke-Asa, 49.49-50.43% in Oke-IgboAba and 57.87-57.81% in Ijero-Ekiti mineralized areas . Average Al2O3 contents in these three areas are 27.83%, 23.02% and 28.34% respectively. In the same trend, K2O has the following average values 10.06%, 9.41%, and 5.86% while MgO, CaO and TiO2 values are generally less than 0.3% in all the samples. Trace element composition reveals higher Li, Be, Cs and Rb contents relative to Ta, Nb and Sn. The average Li values of 1859 ppm, 1778 ppm, and 1656 ppm are recorded for Oke-Asa, Oke-Igbo Aba and Ijero Ekiti respectively. The high contents of SiO2, Al2O3, and K2O as well as the unusual amount of lithium and microcline reveal the general geochemical characteristics of the lepidolite on which its industrial applications are based. Lithium compounds form sources of raw materials in the pharmaceuticals and in the making of energy lithium batteries and serves as an alloy of aluminium, magnesium and zinc.The physical tests reveal high specific Gravity (2.69-2.80; ca. 2.74), compressive strength (45.84-50.14; ca. 48.93) N/mm2, wet density (2.30 to 2.65; ca. 2.39) g/cm3, and less water absorption capacity (0.21 to 0.35; ca.0.26) %, . These physical characteristics make the lepidolites suitable for use in various industrial areas where lithium compounds are employed.

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Ermis Suryana

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between religion teachers' educational qualifications and working period to their efforts in developing students' religiosity at Junior High School 21 Palembang' Indonesia. Research methodology used was quantitative analysis using inferential statistics and regression equations and ANOVA analysis. Research respondents (census) were 63 religion teachers with civil servants status. The results showed that there is no positive and significant effect of religion teachers' educational qualifications and the length of their working period toward their efforts in developing students' religiosity.

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Abolfazl Saeidifar

Abstract: William J. Tastle and et al. (Proc ISECON 2005, V22 (Columbus OH)) presented a new consensus measure for ranking sets of Likert scale data (ordinal data). In this paper we extend the consensus measure to the fuzzy sets. This measure called the strength of consensus is a modification of both the Shannon entropy, an equation common to the foundation of information theory, and the standard consensus measure.

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A. A. Sagung Dewi Afiati, Apip Amrullah, Akhmad Syarief, Rudi Siswanto

Abstract: This study discusses about the synthetic fuel made from plastic waste using gasification method. The instrument used is a simple one phase distillatory. Sample has been tested and analyzed at PT. Pertamina RU V Balikpapan laboratory and Department of Transportation Banjar District. The result shows that this fuel is more alike to diesel fuel type according to its Final Boil Point and density. The smoke result shows that synthetic fuel has 19.73% and diesel fuel has 29.67%. The gas analyses also showed the carbon monoxide of synthetic fuel is 0% and the carbon monoxide of diesel fuel is 0.01%. Both of smoke and gas analyses test of synthetic fuel are less than diesel fuel. Since the distillation process has been done for four to five hours, and the ratio of plastic bucket waste (PP) and plastic bottle waste (PET) is 3:1 (PP:PET) so the pressure vessel capacity is 800 grams. 4000 grams of plastic waste is required to produce 1000 mL of synthetic fuel. The cycle time was approximately 20 hours. The sample testing using ASTM D.1298 method showed that the fuel condition is good and the density 15oC of temperature of 0.8031 g/mL. The result using ASTM D. 85 method shows the Initial Boil Point (IBP) is 60°C, and the Final Boil Point (FBP) is 345oC.

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Sheedhal Thomas, Shruthi Prabhakaran, Snehal Salunkhe, Pallavi Kakade, B.S.Khade

Abstract: Suppose Alice owns a k-anonymous database and needs to determine whether her database, when inserted with a tuple owned by Bob, is still k-anonymous. Also, suppose that access to the database is strictly controlled, because for example data areused for certain experiments that need to be maintained confidential. Clearly, allowing Alice to directly read the contents of the tuple breaks the privacy of Bob (e.g., a patient's medical record); on the other hand, the confidentiality of the database managed by Alice is violated once Bob has access to the contents of the database. Thus, the problem is to check whether the database inserted with the tuple is still k-anonymous, without letting Alice and Bob know the contents of the tuple and the database, respectively. In this paper, we propose two protocols solving this problem on suppression-based and generalization-based k-anonymous and confidential databases. The protocols rely on well-known cryptographic assumptions, and we provide theoretical analyses to proof their soundness and experimental results to illustrate their efficiency.

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Shruti Adhav, Sagar Tambe, Sachin Korde

Abstract: typically for executing the program of any language basic necessity is that particular language compiler must be installed on machine. Now for executing programs of different languages it becomes overhead of installing each compiler. How good it would be if all these compilers are installed centrally and could be accessed using various mediums, from these evolved an idea of hybrid compiler which is described in these paper, hybrid compiler in the sense describes the idea of integrating the compiler of different languages under one roof and making them accessible through various mediums like sms, Bluetooth, internet etc. also an android application of same compiler is implemented so that we can execute the program remotely and receive output or any error message on the mobile itself.

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Peter K. Nyarko,Christiana C. Nyarko, Rita E. Appiah, Harriat A .Dwamena

ABSTRACT: Hypertension and diabetes is causing affliction to the lives of most people in the world including Ghana as well as the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi. Records available at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) shows that about two-thirds (2/3) of diabetic patients are hypertensive as well. This paper used statistical analysis to conduct a case study on the characteristics of those diagnosed as having diabetes with hypertension and diabetes without hypertension at the diabetic clinic of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi. The main objectives were to verify if there is significant difference between the clinical indicators and risk factors of people diagnosed as having diabetes with hypertension and that of those diagnosed as having only diabetes and to test for association between the risk factors as well as the lifestyles of these two medical conditions (diabetes with hypertension and diabetes without hypertension).The research has achieved its objectives by seeking to contribute and educating the masses on the need to take preventive measures, where possible, against the development of diabetes and hypertension by bringing out clearly the factors responsible for the incidence of such conditions. The study has also helped to identify people with risk factors for developing diabetes and hypertension thereby reducing the incidence of these two medical conditions.

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Lateef L. Akintunji, Ibrahim U. Haruna, Bello S. Momoh

Abstract: Coconut coir is an agricultural waste that is produced in reasonable quantities in some developing countries of the world like Nigeria. This waste is used in some evaporative cooling systems as cooling media. This paper therefore attempts to analyze the performance of coconut coir pad as a media in direct evaporative coolers. In this study, the average condition of 39.9 0C dry bulb temperature and 8.1% relative humidity of Kano is selected for the analysis. The primary air mass flow rate considered varies between 0.16 kg/s to 0.54kg/s and the performance of the coconut coir pad is analyzed based on the saturation efficiency, leaving air temperature, relative humidity, cooling capacity and water consumption. The results of the analysis of the coconut coir based on the air flow rates considered reveal that the saturation efficiency decreases from 64.7% to 55.9%, the leaving air temperature increases from 25.20C to 27.10C, relative humidity decreases from 46.4% to 38.2%, the cooling capacity increases from 8230kJ/h to 24055.kJ/h and the water consumption increases from 3.57kg/h to 9.72kg/h. These results show that the coconut coir pad performed better at lower air mass flow rates where lower leaving air temperature and relatively higher relative humidities are obtained.

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Yogeswaran Nagarathinam, Dr. Nor Fazlida Mohd Sani

Abstract: Upon to the evolvement of technologies, electronic commerce and other online businesses are exposed to vulnerability hence invoking damages and untraceable fraud to the end users. Software engineers in the moment by moment, tracks the design and the analysis so that they can ensure the safety of the overall process from the root itself. Besides that we have proposed model checking to check on the behavior of a design. Thus our research has identified and differentiate the best of two methods of model checking which is Finite State Automata and Non Deterministic Pushdown automata. For the purpose of simulation, UPPAAL tool has been used over a part of Online Shopping system case study.

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Dr. Ashoke Hazra

Abstract: Conductance of Li-Picrate was measured in different temperatures (250C, 350C, 450C). The limiting equivalent conductance (0) and the ion-association constant (KA) for Li-Picrate in ( PC+THF ) solvents at different percentage were evaluated using Debye-Huckel Onsager equation. It is observed that the limiting equivalent conductance increased linearly with the increase in temperature and the association constant values decreased with rise in temperature. Thermodynamic parameters (i.e, G0 , H0 , S0 ) are estimated from the temperature dependence of the ion-association constant . The positive values of S0 and positive values of  H0 indicate the ion-association process occurred spontaneously as well as endothermic at all respective temperature. Supported by absorbance data from this primary study, it may be concluded that room temperature solubility of Li-Picrate in mixed ( PC+THF ) solvents at different percentage is higher than the higher temperatures. Conductivity data helps us to concluded that if we go from room temperature to higher temperature conductance increases for Li-Picrate in ( PC+THF ) solvents at different percentage. It is due to the switch over of ion-pair to ionic dissociation of Li-Picrate salt.

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Ezennaya O. S., Isaac O. E., Okolie U. O., Ezeanyim O. I. C.

Abstract: with increasing dependence on agriculture, industries and day-by-day household comfort upon the continuity of electric supply from PHCN systems in Nigeria, the forecast of electrical demand have assumed a great importance. For electricity supply not to be an cog in the wheel of progress of the Nigerian economy and perhaps a snag in the attainment of the millennium development goal MDGs load forecasting must be performed to coordinate electricity demand and supply. This research work focuses on Nigeria electricity demand forecast from 2013-2030 towards vision 2025 using Time Series Analysis on past load demand.

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Arundathi Ravi, A.Ramesh Babu

Abstract: In this paper, three stage high step-up interleaved boost converter with voltage multiplier cells(VMCS) and three state switching cells(3SSC) is proposed. The new method has been examined under various scenarios, including the loss of switches, ripples and stress. In the proposed topology an additional stage of voltage multiplier i.e, three stages is added which will increase the voltage gain and efficiency, reduces switching and conduction loss, voltage and current stress across switches and ripples. Another important feature of this converter is the lower blocking voltage across the controlled switches compared to similar circuits, which allows the utilization of MOSFETs switches with lower conduction loss. The simulation of proposed converter was done using MATLAB and the stimulation result was validated.

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Roberto B. Barba Jr., Ruben P. Tablizo

ABSTRACT: One of the major constraints in obtaining good quality fruits and better harvest in bittergourd production is the infestation caused by fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) known to inflict damages in cucurbits, thus, rendering the crop unfit for human consumption. Field experiment on the bio-efficacy of different coco-based organic attractants was carried out to determine the behavioural preferences of fruit flies among food sources designed in a trap-and-killed approach. As revealed by the body coloration and distinct marking patterns on the dorsal (i.e. back) part of the thorax and the forewings (i.e. presence of infuscation); three (3) discrete species were identified under genus Bactrocera, including melon fruitfly (BactroceracucurbitaeCoq.) which was predominant than the oriental fruitfly (BactroceradorsalisHendel) and Bactrocera tau Walker observed in the study site. The cocosugar solution (1:1v/v) exhibited a significant fruitfly population count, number of species attracted and is generally preferred by both female and male fruitfly but relatively selective to non-target organisms. The bio-efficacy of the cocosugar solution was observed until 2-3 weeks compared to the other coco-based attractants and the control treatment (i.e. plain water). More female fruitflies were observed than male across cocobased attractants. Behavioural preference of the female fruitflies is outright directed to a sucrose-enriched diet (i.e. cocosugar; 1:1v/v) but sustained preference over the cocobased treatments might be implicated to a coconut toddy as a natural complete food affecting behavioural choices of fruitfly among food sources. However, the use of cocosugar solution obtained 30% better harvests than plain coconut toddy. Similarly, the marketable yield is enhanced up to two-fold relative to the control treatment. Yield reduction due to fruitfly infestation had reached 42% when no control measures were employed, of which only 26.18% and 50% of the totallosses (i.e. relative to without control measures) due to incurred damage are accounted by cocosugar and plain coconut toddy, respectively. Hence, infusion of sugar into the treatment has rendered the solution to twice as effective as plain coconut toddy in abating fruitfly infestation. Results were discussed in reference to its significance of obtaining a simple, low-cost yet effective organic-based control of tephritid fruit flies.

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S S.Patil, A N.Patil, N P.Patil, J D.Dhongde, B S.Khade

Abstract: In this modern age in which we are living, digital images play a vital role in many application areas like social networking websites, for example, Facebook. But at the same time the image retouching techniques has also increased which forms a serious threat to the security of digital images in Facebook. To cope with this problem, the field of digital forensics and investigation has emerged and provided some trust in digital images. In this paper we present a new algorithm to detect digital image forgery based on cellular automata and data embedding in spatial domain. The original JPEG image which the user upload's initially on his/her profile will be partitioned into some regions. We use region-based segmentation to specifying the desired regions of interest from the input image. First we extract the visual attributes of the original image and achieve the statistical information for the selected region and save it in the database. Then we apply linear cellular automata rules to create a robust cipher key from these values. We embed the cipher key into the spatial domain to authenticate and validate the original image. The proposed algorithm is applied on 100 numbers of grayscale images (size 800 x 600). The results have demonstrated the robustness and stable time complexity of the proposed method.

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A. Saiteja, C. Suresh

ABSTRACT: The aerodynamic characteristics of a simple rectangular wing of NACA0012 airfoil with slotted tips, which is mostly used in MAV's and UAV's at low Reynolds number has been analyzed using FLUENT. UAV's fly at low Re and have smaller dimensions, low AR, and fly in similar environmental conditions as compared to biological fliers of similar weight. In the present study wings with slotted tips are modeled and analyzed with and without slots at different angles of attack for Reynolds number regimes of 300000. It is observed that the drag coefficient has been decreased consistently with small increment in lift to drag ratio. The current analysis is done for 8,10,12,14 and 16 degree of angle of attack and results seems to be good at 8 degree angle of attack

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Ezeliora Chukwuemeka Daniel, Ogunoh Arinze Victor; Umeh Maryrose Ngozi, Mbeledeogu Njide N.

Abstract: The research work is to study the queuing system in Shoprite shopping plaza in Enugu State. The technique used for the analysis is an infinite single-line multiple channel technique. The used of the existing single-line multiple-channel models were absolved to analysis the data. From the result, it was observed that the number of servers needed to utilize the queuing system is five servers. The result was also recommended to the case study establishment.

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Janani Balraj, Kiruthika Pannerselvam, Angayarkanni Jayaraman

Abstract: During the past two decades research on marine bacteria has highlighted the tremendous potential of these microorganisms as a source of new bioactive secondary metabolites and it is reported that most of the marine bacterial pigments exhibited antimicrobial activity. In the present study, Pigmented marine bacteria were isolated from water samples collected from Marina beach (Chennai), Rameshwaram, Tuticorin and Cochin which constitutes the South east (Bay of Bengal) and South west (Arabian Sea) coastal regions of India. Out of 19 distinct pigmented bacteria isolated, only one strain showed potent inhibitory activity against bacterial pathogens. Based on morphological, biochemical, physiological characteristics and 16s rRNA gene sequencing, it was conformed that the strain belonged to the genus Exiguobacterium sp. The pigment was extracted using diethyl ether and subjected to preparative HPLC for purification. Purified pigment exhibited antagonism towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Pseudomonas sp, Bacillus sp, Proteus sp, Klebseialla sp, Shigella sp, and Salmonella sp. In case of DPPH radical scavenging assay, the pigment showed higher radical scavenging activity with IC50 value 51.38µg/mL. The UV absorbance profile indicated that the pigment was probably a derivative of carotenoids. GC-MS analysis revealed that the pigment may be interlinked with methyl ester group.

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Dr. Mohammed F. Al Ajmi, Shakir Khan, Irfan Khan

Abstract: Cloud computing is rising speedily with applications in approximately any area, together with pharmaceutical education. E-learning systems generally need several hardware and software resources. There are a lot of educational institutions that cannot have the funds for such investments and cloud computing is the most excellent answer for this. This paper provides the optimistic impact of using cloud computing architectures based on e-learning system development. It spotlights on the payback of cloud computing for e-learning solutions and the e-learning development organization confronts when this architecture is utilized.

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Dr. Hakim Saeed Al-Kurayshi

Abstract: Analysis of single pipeline project had been studied by many authors in last decades. In this study two(dual) pipelines are taken into consideration to transport oil separately. They are taken to be laid one beside the other or they may be one over the other. The other condition which studied was taking an equivalent pipe simulating the two pipes. An example was taken to study this analysis. A software called OFFPIPE was used to find out deflections, bending moments and bending stresses. The results show that the useful method in laying two pipelines is by installing them one beside the other (horizontal accumulation) because the obtained results of moments of this method for many values of tensions were one third of the results of other methods.

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Baidyanath Kumar, Ameetha Sinha

Abstract: Cyanobacteria are well recognized for their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. This group holds significant as a major natural food source for cultural forms. But, a significant number of them are also known for their nuisance value on account of their ability to produce potentially lethal toxins. The population density of Microcystis aeruginosa accounts for bloom like situation in fish culture ponds. The population density of M. aeruginosa was found to be maximum in HP, followed by DP and MP. Bloom like situation was recorded during summer and was observed only when its population density was > 2.5x104cells/cm3. Ochromonas danica, a golden brown Chrysophytean alga engulfs and digests Microcystis aeruginosa colonies, a situation observed during survey of MP, when water sample was examined microscopically. The population density of M. aeruginosa in BRL-III medium inoculated with different concentration of culture suspension of Ochromonas danica was studied. In vitro results related to biological control indicated that a population density of 9.9 x 104 cells/cm3 (1.5 ml) to 16.5 x 104 cells/cm3 (2.5 ml) of O. danica caused a rapid decline in the population density of M. aeruginosa to almost nil only after 6 or 9 days of incubation. Investigations related to growth response of toxic strains of M. aeruginosa in BRL-III medium supplemented with different concentrations of Copper sulphate, Potassium permaganate, Quinine, Urea, KMnO4, Ammonia, Simazine, Calcium hypochlorite, Ferric alum and Cupricide indicated that CuSO4, KMnO4 and Quinine were more toxic to M. aeruginosa in comparison to urea and ammonia. Copper sulphate and potassium permagnate caused a rapid decline in population density of M. aeruginosa to almost nil following 15 days of incubation; the same concentration of quinone brings this effect within 6 days. Quinones was more toxic to Microcystis aeruginosa followed by copper sulphate, potassium permagnate, urea and ammonia. Among calcium hypochlorite, ferric alum and cupricide, calcium hypochlorite showed maximum inhibitory effect on the growth of M. aeruginosa.

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I. Yusuf, N.G Obaje, B.Jibrin, M.T Tsepav, H.M Liman

Abstract: Sedimentary basins are suitable to a different degree for CO2 geological sequestration as a result of various intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics. This paper screened and ranked the Iullemmeden Basin of Nigeria sector based on Bachu (2003) ranking and screening criteria; evaluating factors such as tectonic setting, basin size and depth, geology, hydrogeology, hydrocarbon potentials, climate, geothermal, existing resources and industry maturity in respect to these criterion. The results shows to rank the Basin to have Rk score value of 0.41 against the fi, n = max (fi) value equal to 1 as highest value of the function characterize the best in terms of suitability for the criterion in which this ranking are based upon. The paper also reveals as findings of some intrinsic characteristics such as; poor intercalated geologic formation, shallow aquifer systems within sedimentary pile in the basin which make the basin not suitable CO2 sequestration and when other parameters in future are favoured; it would possess the risk of CO2 leakages and groundwater contaminations in the geological storage media. Regional screening and ranking of the adjoining basins are recommended, while detailed local site characterisation of the basin is needed to assess its overall suitability for CO2 sequestration potentials in Nigeria.

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Maryglen F. Gargantiel, Mafel C. Ysrael

Abstracts: The present study aimed to: establish a preliminary phytochemical profile and investigate the antioxidant and hypoglycemic potential of the crude methanolic extract of A. ghaesembilla Gaertn (Phyllantaceae). Limit test for acute toxicity (OECD 423) was performed on Sprague-Dawley rats which showed no mortality and is nontoxic up to 5000mg/kg.Scavenging activity revealed an IC5 0of 113 ppm (µg/mL) for DPPH radicals and IC50 estimates of 1724 µmol TEAC/100g DW for ABTS assay. Reducing power of the crude MEAG showed lower activity compared with the standard, Ascorbic acid. Hypoglycemic study showed a percentage decreased in mean glucose level of 56.65%, 55.06% and 54.47% following administration of the crude extract at doses of 400mg, 100mg and 1000mg/kg BW, respectively for 21 days. The data demonstrated that the effect of the extract is not dose-dependent.

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A. Benabdeslam, M.A. Berrady, M. Khermaz, M. Mahfoud, M.S. Berrada, M. Elyaacoubi

Abstract: Fractures of the upper end of the humerus that interrupt the blood supply to the humeral head may justify a prosthetic replacement. A rigorous analysis of the patient's condition and the type of fracture is a prerequisite before rejecting an indication of orthopedic treatment or fixation. The result of a hemiarthroplasty is mainly conditioned by compliance with technical rules whose purpose is to obtain anatomic and stable fixation of the tuberositis around the prosthesis to restore normal shoulder function. We report the case of a complex fracture-dislocation of the upper end of the humerus treated with a humeral prosthesis.

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Himali. S. Chaudhari, Deepak. P. Kadam

Abstract: This paper describes the super conducting magnetic energy storage SMES based dynamic voltage restorer to protect consumers from the grid voltage fluctuations. DVR can be effectively provide a fine solution to power quality related concerns. As per the PQ issues sag is the mostly happen problem. By the Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) technology based DVR the sag is mitigated a0nd real power is restored and thus wastage is overcome, providing protection to consumers from grid voltage fluctuations. . Due to the characteristic of high energy density and quick response, a superconducting magnet is selected as the energy storage unit to improve the compensation capability of DVR. This paper analyses the operation principle of the SMES based DVR, and designs the DVR output voltage control method using MATLAB SIMULINK, the models of the SMES based DVR is established, and the simulation tests are performed to evaluate the system performance.

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P. Vijetha, K. Kumaraswamy, Y. Prasanna Kumar, N. Satyasree, K. Siva Prasad

Abstract: The present work mainly concentrates on biosorption studies of Cu, Zn and Pb by Eichhornia crassipes. The biosorption data of Cu, Zn and Pb by Eichhornia crassipes were fit on the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms at 297 K. The CU and Zn solutions were adjusted to pH 4.0 and the Pb solution was adjusted to pH 3.0. The correlation coefficient values indicated that the data fit better the Freundlich model. The maximal capacities (KF) were found to be 5.75 * 10-2 , 3.20 * 10-2, and 1.10 * 10-2 mol/g for Cu, Zn and Pb respectively. Similar results were obtained using the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevick equations. Thermodynamic parameters calculated from the Khan and Singh equation and from the qe vs.ce plot show that the equilibrium constants for the biosorption of the metals follow the same order of the maximal capacities. The negative Gibbs free energy values obtained for Cu and Zn indicated that these ions were biosorbed spontaneously. The mean free energy values calculated from the Dubinin-Radushkevick equation (10.75, 9.40, and 9.00) for Zn, Pb and Cu respectively suggest that the binding of Cu, Zn and Pb by Eichhornia crassipes occurs through an ionic exchange mechanism.

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Tanweer Hussain Malik, S. B. Lal, Nasir Rashid Wani, Deelak Amin, Rayees Ahmad Wani

ABSTRACT : A field trail was conducted during rainy season at crop research farm Allahabad agriculture institute (Deemed university) to evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen on growth and yield attributes of different varieties of Basmati Rice (Oryza Sativa L.). The varieties which was evaluated were Haryana Basmati-1 , Basmati -370 and Pusa basmati -1 under three different fertility levels viz; 100 , 120 and 140 the combinations was replicated three times in factorial 3˛ (RBD). The varietal trial indicates that Pusa Basmati- 1 at nitrogen -120 level was significantly different from all the parameters measured which include plant height number of tillers/hill , dry weight , length of panicle , number of filled grains / panicle , straw yield , biological yield , harvest index, benefit cost ratio and grain yield of 4.66 tonnes / hectare at level nitrogen level-120 , 3.10 tons / hectare at nitrogen level -120 were maximum and minimum in Pusa basmati -1 and Basmati -370 respectively .

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H. Fagouri, M. R. Hafidi, K. Guelzim, I. Hakimi, J. Kouach, D. R. Moussaoui, M. Dehayni

Abstract: The diagnosis of benign cervical that does not rely on imaging, but the clinical and histological examination. Indeed, the main question is: is it a benign or malignant lesion? Among the benign lesions, the variety of lesions that may be encountered is important. However, knowledge of the typical aspects of the most common injuries helps confirm a diagnosis and avoid unnecessary explorations. Lipoleiomyomas are uncommon benign neoplasms of uterus and are considered to be a variant of uterine myomas. Their reported incidence varies from 0.03 to 0.2%. We report this case of cervical lipoleiomyoma because of its rarity, and we emphasize the difficulty of making the diagnosis of malignancy and benign cervical lesions.

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Mysara Eissa Mohyaldinn

Abstract: Different operation scenarios generate different thermal and hydraulic conditions of pipelines. The most important concept describing the hydraulic condition of any pipeline is the hydraulic gradient line which is defined as the pressure head loss for every unit of length of the pipeline. Emerging the hydraulic gradient line with the pipeline profile provides a real description of the pressure transverse between pump stations which turn in good evaluation of the transportation system (pump stations and pipeline) in term of the capability of the pump stations to transport the oil with a desired throughput. In This paper pressure transverse between pump stations of Fula pipeline at different operation scenarios has been analyzed using simulation results. The analysis has been done by using a computational model developed by the author. Thermal/hydraulic mathematical models have been employed to the computational model to take into account temperature dependency of fluid parameters.

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Bijay Kumar Kandel, Srikant Das

Abstract: This empirical study explores the relationship between trust and the Internet from the retail bank’s perspective. The overall aim of this study is to develop a conceptual framework systemically measure trust for the adoption of internet banking as a delivery channel in retail banking industry. By doing so, future retail banks can decide when the time is right for them to adopt Internet banking. This theoretical study should make a significant contribution to our understanding of factors that influence retail banks trust in Internet baking, specifically the role of the role of perceived risk and perceived benefits for an adoption of internet banking as a delivery channel.

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Romeo Ekoungoulou, Xiaodong Liu, Suspense Averti Ifo, Jean Joel Loumeto, Fousseni Folega

Abstract: The research was aimed to estimate the carbon stocks of above-and below-ground biomass in the secondary and gallery forest of Lesio-louna (Republic of Congo). The methodology of Allometric equations was used to measure the carbon stock of Lesio-louna natural forest. We were based precisely on the model II which is also called non-destructive method or indirect method of measuring carbon stock. We used parameters such as the Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) and wood density. The research was done with 6 circular plots each 1256m2, with a distance of 100m between each plot, depending on the topography of the site of installation of these plots. The six studied plots were divided into two sites, which are: Inkou Forest Island (Secondary forest) and Blue Lake Forest (Gallery forest). Thus, in the 6 plots with 77 trees, there were three plots in Inkou Forest Island site and three plots in Blue Lake Forest site. The results of this study showed that the average carbon stock in 6 plots of the study was 130.9908333 t C /ha for above-ground biomass (AGB) and 30.78283179 t C /ha for below-ground biomass (BGB). In this forest ecosystem, the average carbon stock of AGB was more important in secondary forest compared to gallery forest with respectively 135.9763333 t C /ha against 126.0053 t C /ha. Also, the average carbon stock of BGB was higher in secondary forest (31.9544076 t C /ha) compared to gallery forest (29.61126 t C /ha). This study shows that the species density is higher in the secondary forest (3 plots with 44 trees) compared to the gallery forest (3 plots with 33 trees). This research indicates that, the forests component in the study area could appoint as an important carbon reservoir, and can also play a key role in climate change mitigation.

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