International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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Volume 2- Issue 3, March 2013 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Thomas Kwaku Karikari

Abstract: - A career in the biomedical research path deserves a long-term commitment that centers around building rapport with the people who make substantial contributions to your professional growth and success. Succeeding as a research student requires effective collaboration with others. Your thesis supervisor, the post-doctoral fellow in your group, colleague students in the lab, the lab technician, the research assistant, the IT expert, the administrative secretary, the library staff, etc, are all very vital to the progress of your research training than you might envisage. There is therefore the need to be abreast with how to build and maintain good relations with such key people who matter in your training and beyond. This paper outlines the importance of these colleagues, how to establish good working relations with them regardless of your diversities, how to live with the people with whom you do not have a natural fit, and how to manage the difficult times in life as a research student. Creating a well nurtured, coordinated and managed relationship with your colleague scientists will go a long way to make life as a research student much easier for you.

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Dr.Syed Wali Peeran, Dr. Fatma Mojtaba Alsaid

ABSTRACT: - Platelet-rich plasma is an autologous concentration of platelets. Scientific data has shown that this tissue-engineering tool, platelet rich plasma can enhance wound healing. Its use in periodontal surgeries is relatively recent. This paper tries to sketch a complete picture describing the use of platelet-rich plasma in human periodontal intrabony defects.

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Enakrire Tega Rexwhite, Olorunfemi Yemisi Doreen, Emmanuel Ogaga Akpovoka

ABSTRACT: - This study investigates the use of databases in information storage and retrieval in some selected banks in Delta state, Nigeria. Variables to support the study were reviewed under the following areas: concept of information, concept of databases, concept of information storage and retrieval, role of ICT in information storage and retrieval, challenges of effective information storage and retrieval. A descriptive survey research method was used and data were collected through the use of questionnaire. 92 copies of questionnaire were administered and retrieved back from respondents and the use of statistical tool of simple percentage and frequency count was used for analysis. Research findings revealed that: Parent bodies of banks are the sole source of funding the use of databases in the selected Banks in Delta State, that there are adequate skilled ICT personnel for rendering services through the storage and retrieval of information/data at the banks, there are ICT software and hardware facilities used for storage and retrieval of data/information in the banking industry which includes telephone, finnacle, signature systems, Microsoft exchange, Microsoft excel, credit card management, and flexcable. Staff training in the use of database for information storage and retrieval in Delta State banking industries is mostly quarterly, the normal duration of the maintenance of ICT facilities is mainly on weekly and monthly basis depending on the level of usage, there are problems militating against the services rendered by staff to users/customers in the use of database for information storage and retrieval in the selected banks in Delta state. Recommendations were also made to include; Upgrading of databases by incorporating new innovations and technique in application in banking services and financial information management, proper time management will yield better results in managing information, bandwidth that will accommodate the number of bank staff and customers, an equipped IT department will assist in management of information, constant upgrading of anti-virus to guard against virus attack.

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Van-Dycke Sarpong Asare, Aboagye Menyeh

Abstract: - The geo-electrical resistivity profiling and vertical electrical sounding data were acquired from some small communities and their outlying areas within the Gushiegu and Karaga Districts of Northern Ghana, in order to study the aquifer characteristics and recommend hydro-geologically suitable sites to construct water supply boreholes for the communities. The research covered four small communities, namely, Zantele, Kanshegu, Nyengbalo and Zei. The Schlumberger electrode configuration was first used in the line profiling. Qualitative interpretation of the geo-electrical resistivity profiling data resulted in the identification of weathered regions. Vertical electrical sounding using the dipole-dipole array were then conducted with at specific points within the weathered zones. The spread length ranged from minimum of 12 m to maximum of 204 m to provide depth information. Interprex 1X1D v3 software was used to compute layered earth model of the subsurface beneath the sounding points. Interpretation of the one-dimensional inversion of the VES resistivity data provided the overburden and aquifer layering resistivities and thicknesses. The geoelectric sequence revealed predominantly a three subsurface layer which is largely congruous to the weathering profile above the fresh bedrock - thick top soil, the weathered and the variably weathered and fractured bedrock respectively. The geoelectic sections provide no evidence of a descent into the fresh bedrock. The geophysical target is a reasonably thick and extensive zone of saturated weathered rock beneath the overburden. On the basis of the perceived aquifer properties, sites were recommended for drilling water supply boreholes for the communities.

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Syed Zafar Syed Muzaffar, S. L. Atmapoojya, D. K. Agarwal

Abstract: - This paper deals with the study of variation in discharge with other parameter constant. In this paper the condition for the optimal trapezoidal round cornered Canal section having radius is less than depth of flow, considering the total cost of Optimal lined section per meter length has been developed. This method is based on trial and error numerical technique. Computer program is prepared in C language and the results are seen by variation in discharge with other parameter constant in two cases when r = f(y) and r = constant. For both cases graphs are plotted and results have been observed. The effect of cost of curve has been seen on the Optimal cost of section. When r = f (y) and r = constant it is observed that for the same values of discharge, cost of side, cost of base, cost of curve the optimal cost of section and b/y ratio is found high in case of r = f (y) as compared to r = constant. The methodology can be used very conveniently by the designers to design the optimal Canal Section.

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Evaluation Of Organochlorine Pesticides Residual Levels In Pepper (Capsicum Annuum L) Cultivated At Libga Irrigation Site In Nothern Region Of Ghana

[Authors have withdrawn their papers due to some issues.]

Abstract: Not available


Casius Darroux, Rudolph L. Boy

Abstract:: - After decades of continuous technological evolutions and advancement in all facet of life we stand at the cross road between maximizing the use of intellectual knowledge, talents and skill to bring about economic and innovative variations to business or ignore the many opportunities that exist from piracy within the global market. This paper will take a close approach as to how business can utilize the pirate community as a strategic partner for competitive advantage and bring profit to business, creation of legitimate ideas, piracy as a source for technological and strategic innovation to both existing and new industries. This paper will also examine how piracy can enhance business performance of organization that owns IP and how pirate help to create value to IP holders and the drive for legal version of the pirated products.

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Chinedu I. OSSAI

Abstract: - In this research, Monte Carlo Simulation and degradation models were used to predict the corrosion rate and reliability of oil and gas pipelines. Discrete random numbers simulated from historic data were used to predict the corrosion rate using Brownian Random walk while the mean time for failure (MTFF) was estimated with the degradation models. The Survivor probability of the pipelines was determined with weibull analysis using the MTFF. The result of the study shows that the degradation models and Monte Carlo simulation can predict the corrosion rate of the pipelines to an accuracy of between 83.3-98.6% and 85.2- 97% respectively.

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Sri Suhadiyah, Djamal Sanusi, Samuel Paembonan, Roland A. Barkey

Abstract: - A study of lead accumulation by leaves with abundant trichomes (Muntingia calabura L.) and leaves with rare trichomes (Mimusop elengi L.) in Makassar, Indonesia was conducted in August 2011 by using wet ashing method and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The objective of this study was to find out the influence of trichome abundance on lead accumulation in shade trees. Results from multiple regression analysis with interval level of 95% indicated a significant correlation between lead (Pb) absorption and Pb adsorption, trichome abundance and leave surface area in A.P. Pettarani street (R = 0.851) and Hasanuddin University College (R = 0.731). In AP Pettarani Street, correlation test between Pb absorption and each of the variable indicated a coefficient correlation (R) of 0.280 for Pb adsorption, 0.849 for leave surface area. In Hasanuddin University College, coefficient correlation (R) for Pb adsorption was 0.625, trichome abundance was 0.061 and leaves surface area was 0.243. In conclusion, the trichome abundance had an influence on Pb accumulation in leaves with abundant trichomes (Muntingia calabura L.) and leaves with rare trichomes (Mimusop elengi L.).

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Vineetha Mathai, K. Martin Sagayam

Abstract: - The channel estimation can be performed for analyzing effect of channel on signal by either inserting pilot tones into all of the subcarriers of OFDM symbols with a specific period or inserting pilot tones into each OFDM symbol. The block type pilot channel estimation has been developed under the assumption of slow fading channel. When the data is transmitted at high bit rates, the channel impulse response can extend over many symbol periods, it leads to inter symbol interference. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is one of the promising candidate to mitigate the ISI. This work improved various channel performance measures based on the comparison of various channel estimation algorithms and suggest a new technique which provides better performance.

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Nikolay Petrov Denev, Iliycho Petkov Iliev

Abstract:- The subject of investigation is a copper bromide vapor laser, generating laser emissions in the visible spectrum (510.6 nm and 578.2 nm). A statistical model has been developed based on experiment data. The goal is to analyze the state of existing lasers and to predict the behavior of new laser sources. A second-degree polynomial model has been developed to determine output laser generation in relation to 10 independent input laser characteristics. The model describes 96.7% of examined experiment data. An adequacy diagnosis has been performed on the obtained model. The model is applied to predict the output power of the laser source in relation to new data of the input characteristics.

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Rajak P. S., Ravishankar, Katharia N

Abstract: - Burns is a very critical area of medicine citing the doctors to be on their toes. The prognosis being lowest and treatment the hardest, this area has not cited much research. Largely these medico legal cases are accidental and rare around the world but Indian scenario is opposite. A rural set up here will admit a minimum of two burn cases a day, with 50% chances of it being an inhalational burn. Grave is the prognosis of these patients but attempts if made properly by trained indivisuals can help save life on the edge of death. Method: 52 patients were selected randomly from the casualty of PRH, Loni and were alternately allocated in two groups. The group with traditional approach was named GROUP A and had 16 Patients. The group with changed approach was named GROUP B and it also had 16 Patients. OF them 2 patients from group a died due to severe deep burns in wards, while one patient from group B was shifted to a other burn centre. This led to the final sample size to be 49. The group B received immediate chest physiotherapy as compared to group A which received the same treatment 3Days later. Result: Team approach and early physiotherapy i.e. immediately as the patient is stabilized and shifted to the burn ward, improves the chest condition, prevents post burn chest complications, facilitates healthy recovery and helps improve the prognosis. Conclusion; chest Physiotherapy in immediate Post Burn period is Important and plays a vital role in rehabilitating the patient. It also affects the survival rate

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K.Vaithilingam, Dr.S.Meena

Abstract: - A graph with vertex set V is said to have a prime labeling if its vertices are labeled with distinct integer 1,2,3-|V| such that for edge xy the labels assigned to x and y are relatively prime. A graph which admits prime labeling is called a prime graph. In this paper we investigate prime labeling for some Crown related graphs. We also discuss prime labeling in the context of some graph operations namely fusion and duplication switching, path union in Crown graph〖 C〗_n^*.

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Singh, D., Onyeozili, I.A.

Abstract: - Molodtsov in 1999 initiated the concept of soft set theory. Based on the work of Molodtsov, Maji et al. in 2003 introduced some of the operations of soft sets and gave some of their basic properties. Ali et al. in 2009 further introduced more new operations on soft sets. The algebraic structures of soft sets were studied by Aktas and Cagman who introduced the notions of soft groups and their algebraic properties, while Acar et al studied soft semi rings and their basic properties. In this paper, we discuss the notions of soft rings, soft sub rings, soft ideal of a soft ring and idealistic soft rings and some of their algebraic properties with some illustrative examples.

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A. Albani, M.Z. Ibrahim

The wind turbine is a technology which converting wind kinetic energy to electric power. Wind energy is easily accessible anywhere in the world and is one of renewable energy. However, some location such as in Kuala Terengganu, the lower average wind speed become one of the factors wind turbines has not been used widely as an alternative method for generating the electric power. Thereby, small scale wind turbine which can generate electric power in low wind speed must be designed. In this study, a Savonius type of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) has been designed, fabricated and its performances were tested. A simulate calculation also has been made to expect the power output generated by designed prototype. From the study, found that although low wind speed, small scale wind turbine still can perform its function and generate electric power. It proves that wind turbines can be as an alternative technology for generating the electric power in Malaysia especially in Kuala Terengganu.

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Dr. Rita A.Gharde**,Divakar T.Chunarkar*

Abstract: - There have been many contributors to the art of growing single crystals and varied ingenious techniques have been applied to the problem. Despite the substantial advance in the theory of crystal growth, in practice the growth of a large single crystal must still be approached from the empirical viewpoint. Crystal growth is seldom susceptible to observation during growth. This generally means that the proper growth conditions must be determine by trial, error and once determined means must be available for reproducing these optimum conditions whenever desired. The system must be stable since there is seldom any convenient away for the operator to observe the growing process and compensate for deviation from the ideal growth conditions. The shape of the grown crystal is a result of contributions from lattice force, surface tension, pull rate and temperature gradients in the crystal. The shape of the cross section perpendicular to the growth direction is determined by a balance between lattice force which tends to form equilibrium faces and surface tension which tends to make the cross section circular. The average diameter of the crystal is determined by the rate of pull and thermal gradient in the crystal. Growth from vapor has many experimental advantages to recommend it. If a suitable solvent can be found, crystal growing can be performed at temperatures well below the melting point of the crystal often at room temperature. These low temperature place much less demand on furnaces and power supplies. In addition the reactivity of the solute may be greatly moderate not only by the low temperature but also by the dilution with the solvent. The three techniques usually employed are change in temperature, evaporation of solvent, and addition of solute. The difficulty of controlling the temperature gradients in solution also means that a large volume of solution surrounding the crystal will be supersaturated and labile with respect to growth. The great caution is required in assuring that no spurious nuclei are present. In all subsequent show our growth the main features and study on crystal of this materials.

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Ola-Buraimo A. Olatunji

ABSTRACT : - Ditch cutting samples from an exploratory Nzam-1 well located in the northwestern part of Anambra Basin were subjected to lithological description and palynomorph enrichment and analysis through digestion with Hydrofluoric acid (HF) and floatation with Zinc Bromide (Zn2Br4). The study was intended to determine the relative geologic age and paleoenvironment of deposition of Awgu Formation through the application of palynologic tool. The lithostratigraphy of Awgu Shale is mainly shaley in nature and diagenized at different degrees within various stratigraphic levels. Palynological study revealed that the sequence is dominated by angiosperm pollen such as Monocolpites sp, Tricolpites sp and Retimonocolpites sp. Other diagnostic forms that characterize the formation include Zlivisporites blanensis, Peromonolites perireticulatus and Odontochitina sp. Thus, the Awgu Shale is dated Coniacian age. However, new forms of dinoflagellates appeared in the sediments that are suggestive of transitional environment of deposition.

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Novie Susanti Suseno

Abstract: - The purpose of the study is to analyze the influence model of independence and size of public accountant office toward audit quality and its impact on the reputation of the public accountant office. The methodology used is a qualitative analysis by examining the relationship between variables conceptually based approach to causal effectual analysis. The analysis shows that independence and size of public accountant office has a significant and positive influence toward audit quality and its impact on the reputation of the public accountant office.

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Mujtaba Ellahi, Yangzi Gao, M.Y.Rafique

Abstract:- Polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films were prepared by polymerization induced separation (PIPS) method with nematic liquid crystal (LC) content as low as 40 wt% and the electro-optical properties were carefully investigated. To accomplish this, epoxy curable monomers structure with different composition ratio of two mixtures was examined in PDLC films. The electro-optical properties and morphologies of the PDLC films were strongly influenced by the chemical structure of curable monomers di functional ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) and tetra functional Pentaerythritol tetraglycidyl ether (PTTGE). Higher driven voltage and contrast ratio were achieved when the PDLC films showed a reducing morphology with suitably distributed small holes of LC domain size. The detailed characteristics and morphology of polymer network of PDLC films were analyzed by employing liquid crystal device (LCD) parameters tester and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).It was found that the LC domain size of the polymer network could be regulated by adjusting the structure and composition ratio of curable epoxy monomers, then the electro-optical of PDLC films could be optimized; which is beneficial to decrease the total LC content in PDLC devices.

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Nweke I. A., Nsoanya, L. N.

Abstract: - The PH properties of the soils of the Peter Natter School of Agriculture Ugwuomu, Enugu state were investigated. Soil samples were collected from surface and subsurface horizons 0-20cm and 20-40cm respectively in seven different locations. The two different horizon depths are tagged x and y and soil samples of the same depth in the seven different locations were bulked together as composite samples for soil PH. The PH levels of the soils were analyzed and the characteristics of the soils described. The soils of the study area were predominantly acidic and PH range was 4.9-6.0. The soils of the two horizons depth were also acidic in nature both in H2O and KCl and the charge particles range from 1-3 positive. Generally the results of the soils were below the level adaptable to most of the arable and field crop production as well as nutrient uptake and availability and Microbial activities.

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Nweke, I. A., Ijearu, S. I., Igili, D. N.

Abstract: - A field study was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Education Experimental Farm at Institute of Ecumenical Education Thinker's Corner Enugu South Eastern Nigeria to investigate the effect of different sources of animal wastes on the growth and yield of Okra. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized complete Block Design (RCRD) with four replicates, Poultry manure (12KgPM/plot), Pig manure (12KgPG/plot), Goat manure (12GM/plot) and control that received no treatment (0Kg/plot).The result of the study showed that there were significant differences between the treatments in most of the parameters assessed. The poultry manure recorded the highest Value in all the parameters and was significantly (P=O.O5) different from the other treatments in fruit weight (11.63gm), number of fruits/plant (23.5) and number of flowers/plant. Goat manure performed competitively better than the Pig manure, in all the parameter measured, while the control plots showed least performance in this study with a yield of 4.48gm.

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Murali R, Johny Richards R, Manoj Ramesh Rao R

ABSTRACT: - This project deals with the application of the Dual tone multi-frequency(DTMF) technology used in telephones and mobile communication, in real time for controlling electrical appliances in our daily use. It uses a DTMF decoder along with a microcontroller (adruino) to control appliance from a remote location.

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Saranya. L, Prof. S. Arumugam

ABSTRACT : - The choice of flip-flop technologies is an essential importance in design of VLSI integrated circuits for high speed and high performance CMOS circuits. The main objective of this project is to design a Low-Power Pulse-Triggered flip-flop. Flip-flops are the major storage elements in all SOC's of digital design. They accommodate most of the power that has been applied to the chip. Flip-flop is one of the most power consumption components. It is important to reduce the power dissipation in both clock distribution networks and flip-flops. The power delay is mainly due to the clock delays. The delay of the flip-flops should be minimized for efficient implementation. Here three kind of conventional pulse-triggered flip-flop are designed. First, the implicit Pulsed Data-Close to output (ip-DCO) pulse-triggered flip-flop. Second, the Modified Version of Hybrid latch flip-flop (MHLFF) and third is the Single-ended Conditional Capturing Energy Recovery (SCCER) flip-flop. These three flip-flops are studied and designed. The comparison of low power pulse triggered flip-flops between SAL ,SVL logics is carried out and the best power -delay-performance is obtained. The simulation results are obtained with Tanner simulation tool.

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P.B.Khope, J.P.Modak

Abstract:: - This paper addresses the development and performance of a Human Powered Flywheel Motor (HPFM) operated forge cutter. This set-up is used to cut crop residues like maize stovers, sorghum stovers in dry condition. This cut stovers can be fed to cattle directly. The current practice by small livestock farmers is to cut stover manually by axe or machetes. The mechanized cutters also available which are hand operated as well as electric motor driven. But today there is severe power shortage in country like India, particularly in rural and remote area. It is convergent to the fact that the hand muscles are weaker than leg muscles. The concept of human powered flywheel motor is used to develop the pedal operated forge cutter. In this set-up flywheel is used as a motor or a store for energy. The operator pumps the energy into flywheel by pedaling bicycle- drive mechanism with a speed rising gear pair. After a one minute pedaling is stopped, and then flywheel shaft is connected to cutter shaft. The stored energy is enough to operate cutter effectively and efficiently. The test performance of developed cutter shows the remarkable improvements over hand operated forage cutter.

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Abstract: - Groundwater is a vital source that provides drinking water in rural areas of Belgaum district. People of rural areas depend on groundwater for all or most of their supply of their drinking water. Since ground water is the only source of drinking water, its protection and proper management becomes top priority. Further, this water being potable, it has a direct bearing on the health of those thousands of villagers. Hence, the present work is an attempt to investigate the physico-chemical variations and bacteriological studies of ground waters (bore wells & dug wells) collected from rural areas viz Halaga and Honaga, near Belgaum city. The water samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total solids, total hardness, total alkalinity, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride and iron and bacteriological study. Iron content showed high in 5 of 7 & 4 of 8 locations respectively in Honaga and Halaga villages. In 2 open wells of Halaga village TDS, TH & Chloride values are found to be high as compared with that of drinking water standards. In Honaga village out of seven, two sites are having E -coli and in Halaga village out of eight sites three sites are having E-coli. This study clearly indicated that the quality of ground water does not comply with both Indian and WHO standards for drinking purpose. Findings also reveal that almost 70 - 75% of the analyzed ground waters are found to be not useful for human consumption. After having enquiry with the representatives of the rural areas, some suggestions have been made.

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Sajjad Bagheri Baba Ahmadi, Yaser Ahangari Nanehkaran

Abstract: - In recent years, as for daily spread of communications in the world, there has been an increasing interest in protecting data and information against copy and counterfeit. For this we have to use solutions for controlling copy and counterfeit .The Watermarking method is one of the more practical ways of uphold the publisher's law . Generally, The Watermarking Method means hide the data in a cover for exert ownership right that only admissible people can extract this data. This paper will focus on and propose the way of protect ownership right based on the multilevel-residue number system (RNS).The aim of this study is protect publishers' law , with reusable ability via create a digital signature that after it's created , can be embedded in un-use positions of look-up tables of RNS-based designs. This type of embedding does not increase the area of the system .The paper also render a technique for extract digital signature. So, the issue is possible to recognize publisher's law without any disturbance in the system operation.

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Htet Ne Oo, Aye Moe Aung

Abstract: -In this technological and knowledge age, e-commerce related matters become popular. Electronic voting is one of these matters and it is able to provide convenient, less expensive, fast and secure facilities. Important basic properties of electronic voting are fairness, privacy, eligibility, receipt-freeness, coercion-resistance and verifiability. Current electronic voting systems satisfy only some of these properties. So, the proposed system aims to design and implement an electronic voting system which satisfies the required properties of electronic voting process. After implementing the system, it will be verified using mCRL2 language in order to prove the satisfaction of the security properties. The performance of the proposed system will be compared with the other existing e-voting systems.

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Aep Saepudin, Ai Marlina

Abstract: - Institution Service quality is the match of the use of the institution products to fulfill the customer's needs or satisfaction. Service quality is based on five aspects. They are Tangible, Empathy, Reliability, Responsiveness, and Assurance (TERRA). On the other head, students satisfaction is a condition in which their needs, wants, and expectations can be achieved through the services of institution they receive. This article discusses the results of research on the influence of the service quality of intitusion on the satisfaction of the students SMPN 3 Cibadak, Sukabumi. The descriptive quantitative method is employed in this research by using path analysis techniques. The analysis shows that the service quality of the institution of SMPN 3 Cibadak, Sukabumi, simultaneously gives significant effects on the students satisfaction.

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M Amarapathy, S Sridharan, R Perera, Y Handa

Abstract: - Purpose Patient safety is an important component of the quality of health care. As health care organizations improve their quality of care, importance of establishing patient safety culture arises. According to WHO, rate of adverse incidents of healthcare system is very high in developing countries. Sri Lanka, being a developing country, may encounter adverse events in healthcare system due to lack of infrastructure and equipment, quality and supply of drugs, poor performance of health care staff and severe shortage of essential financial investments. This will be helpful in patient safety improvements and developmental studies. Methodology This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to assess the current patient safety culture in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. This study was carried out using a self administered questionnaire with eleven dimensions of patient safety culture, on with 389 respondents including Administrators, Consultants, and Postgraduate trainees, Medical Officers, House officers and Nursing Officers. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the patient safety culture in the hospital by measuring correlation between overall patient safety and other independent variables. Findings This survey showed there is a positive response towards patient safety culture within the organization. Correlation between the overall patient safety and other variables are found to be significant. Prevailing patient safety culture seems to be in a reactive stage but, with strong "blame Culture". Originality/value This is a patient safety culture assessment, which was done in Sri Lanka, for the first time in government sector hospitals under developing country setting.

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Edris O.H.A., Dafalla M.S., Ibrahim M.M.M., Elhag A.M.H

Abstract: - Desertification is one of the main problems threatening the agricultural production in the Sudan. The major environmental hazard in this area is sand encroachment from the north direction towards the south directions. The study aimed at monitoring and assessing desertification in Al-Butana area, in addition to investigating the potential use of remote sensing and the geographical information system (GIS) in assessing and monitoring sand encroachment and vegetation degradation as desertification indicators in the semi-arid environment. Satellite imageries of the years 1987, 2000 and 2005 were used to measure the extent of sand encroachment and the vegetation deterioration during the above addressed periods. The study showed that there were four mainland cover classes in the study area namely: water, vegetation, sand and clay. In addition, there was change in areas covered by the four main land cover classes during the addressed periods. With reference to the year 1987, sand cover was decreased in year 2000 and then increased in 2005. It is worth to mention that, sand was encroached from northerly direction to the south part of the study area. Vegetation cover was deteriorated during the addressed periods. The study concluded that most of the study area watched a remarkable change due to sand movement and sand encroachment.

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Dr. Shri Krishna Mishra (Principal), Mr. Badri Yadav (Asst. Professor)

ABSTRACT: - The researcher has presented a brief review of related studies done in the field of teacher. This chapter deals with analysis and interpretation. The collected data on job anxiety and personality adjustment of secondary school teachers were analyzed by busing suitable statistical techniques in accordance with the objective of the present study. The objectives of the present study were. The researcher found out job anxiety of secondary school teachers by administering job anxiety scale. Then the researcher categorized these 60 sampled teachers into four categorizes. On the basis of the score obtained by teachers on job anxiety scale, the researcher also calculated the percentage of secondary school teachers in different category of job anxiety. The table no.4 rains category of job anxiety and number and percentage of secondary school teachers belong to different categories.

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Dalia H Al_Maamoury, Muhamad Bin Mansor, Ali Assim Al_Obaidi

Abstract: - This research presents a simulation modelling for the development of active power control for photovoltaic single-phase inverter grid- connected system. The inverter system model and its control strategies are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment, utilizing SPWM with bipolar switching scheme signals for switching inverter devices (IGBTs) to generate (50Hz) pure sine wave. Fuzzy logic controller is used to regulate the active power flow for both modes of operations namely isolated and grid-connected mode according to the load power demand. The inverter provides power not only to the local loads but also feeds the available excess power to the grid. The simulation was carried out to facilitate the real PV power transfer to the local loads and grid. With the excellent results of 2.07% in the total harmonic distortion (THD) of output voltage, suggests that the proposed control system exhibits a good performance. The simulation results waveforms such as AC output voltages, current and system power flow are presented to validate the efficacy of the control system.

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Khaing Thanda Swe, Myo Hein Zaw

Abstract: - Currently, RFID is a well-known topic for enhancing the authenticity of individual forms of verification. Most of the human beings in the developing countries are using on paper personal identification cards. These cards may make unlicensed card creation and forbidden card holder reading. The proposed system aims to overcome these limitations; card creation and card holder reading. The other objectives of this system are to give more precise, rapid transaction times and credibility. This system is divided into two parts. The first part is that RFID technology is used for ensuring either the id-card is genuine or not. The second part is that iris recognition is used to make sure the authenticated person. The whole system mainly aims to give the card validation and person authentication. Based on the experimental and theoretical results, better suited new solutions that overcome relevant privacy needs will be proposed.

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Methaq jasam, Dr.salman bin yussof

Abstract - Now days network is becoming an important part in varying area and demand of users, with the rapid development of the wireless device has motivated the emergence of the mobile ad hoc network. MANET (Mobile ad hoc Network). It is a collection of nodes that is connected through a wireless medium forming rapidly changing topologies. MANETs don't need of any centralized base station and can be set up anytime, anywhere. In MANETs, the nodes are mobile and battery operated. As the nodes have limited battery resources and multi hop routes are used over a changing network environment due to node mobility, it requires energy efficient routing protocols to limit the power consumption, prolong the battery life and to improve the robustness of the system. This research presents a comparison and evaluation study of Reactive routing protocols; Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), Proactive routing protocols; routing information protocol (RIP2) and Position-based routing protocol; Location- Aided Routing (LAR1). And the evaluation of their performance was based on energy consumption metric. The evaluation study performed using QualNet v5.1 simulator. This research showed that AODV has the best evaluation performance in energy usage in all most scenarios.

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Muaripin, Juhridin

Abstract: - This Research had purposes to know about student's motivation in English lesson between science and social class at senior high school. Usually, the social program students have good score in English lesson because the lesson contain of social material like accounting, history, English, secretary and etc. However, in Senior High School the Science class student have small score in the test because they have low motivation. So the writer try to find what problems cause this condition. This paper consist of six chapter as follow: in chapter I the writer analyzes the research material on the problem statement, Chapter II is the explanation about method and technique of the research. Chapter III the important of motivation, Chapter IV, the writer analyzes the data that had been collected, Chapter V discuss it in the summary of the data collecting. Chapter VI gives some conclusion relate to the problems which are appears that is shown in. From this research, the writer finds that social program need some support from their parents, teachers proficiency, students motivation, library, English club to practice their English.

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Pramod N. Kamble, Anil R. Kurhe, Gorakash M. Pondhe, Viswas B. Gaikwad, Erland Baath

Abstract: - The study of the macro and micronutrient status of soil of Pravaranagar area, District Ahmednagar was undertaken at 15 different locations to know their quantity and relationship with pH. soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth and used for determination of pH, Phosphorus (PO4), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Chloride (Cl) and micronutrient like Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu). It was observed that all soils were alkaline in nature. PO4-, Mn, Zn, Cl, Cu and Na and K had shown no significant relationship with pH while, only Fe had shown significant relationship with pH. This indicates that pH has influence on nutrient status of soil. However, it was observed that all nutrients were available in sufficient amount for Plant and other organism growth in Pravaranagar area.

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Prof. Geetika. Narang, Anjum Shaikh, Arti Sonawane, Kanchan Shegar, Madhuri Andhale

Abstract: - Privacy has become an important issue in Data Mining. Many methods have been brought out to solve this problem. This paper deals with the problem of association rule mining which preserves the confidentiality of each database. In order to find the association rule, each participant has to share their own data. Thus, much privacy information may be broadcasted or been illegal used. These issues can be divided into two categories: data hiding and knowledge hiding. This paper reviews the major method of privacy preserving on each category and chooses some of them to complete our system. At the end, an improvement of sensitive rule hiding is proposed to make it more accurate and secured.

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Sandi Winn Aye

Abstract : - Wireless networks have become an integral component of the modern communication infrastructure. Mobile database applications through wireless equipment e.g., PDAs, laptops, cell phones and etc. are growing rapidly. Respect to the limitations in mobile environments, it is strongly recommended to minimize number of connections and volume of data transmission from the servers. Caching data item at the client side is a solution. Moreover, the provision of location-dependent information for the same user at different locations is a challenging problem. In this paper, the performance issues of location-dependent queries is addressed, especially nearest-neighbour search. The system investigates a common scenario where data objects (e.g., restaurants and gas stations) are stationary while users/ clients that issue queries about the data objects are mobile. The grid-partition index is used to answer nearest-neighbour queries directly whereas the area within which the answer is valid can be computed. Moreover, a caching scheme (hybrid and semantic caching) is proposed to record a cache item as well as its valid range.

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Zarni Aung, Win Zaw

Abstract: - Mobile devices have become popular in our lives since they offer almost the same functionality as personal computers. Among them, Android-based mobile devices had appeared lately and, they were now an ideal target for attackers. Android-based smartphone users can get free applications from Android Application Market. But, these applications were not certified by legitimate organizations and they may contain malware applications that can steal privacy information for users. In this paper, a framework that can detect android malware applications is proposed to help organizing Android Market. The proposed framework intends to develop a machine learning-based malware detection system on Android to detect malware applications and to enhance security and privacy of smartphone users. This system monitors various permissionbased features and events obtained from the android applications, and analyses these features by using machine learning classifiers to classify whether the application is goodware or malware.

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P K Ryngnga, Bring B L Ryntathiang.

Abstract: - Land use/land cover change in urban area is a complex and dynamic process that involves both natural and human systems. At present, urban area in developing nation is experiencing rapid urbanization and undergoing physical transformation. It is therefore, essential that urban planners and managers understand the past and present land use land cover changes in order to predict its impacts on the society, economy and environment of the cities. This present study aims to explore and assess land use land cover changes in Shillong, India which has experienced significant increase of population during the last three decades mainly due to the growth in service and educational sector. The study monitored land use land cover changes since 1972 in order to assess the development of services activities and its impact on physical transformation. Urban built-up area is an uncontrolled phenomenon with unplanned nature of development. However, urban expansion intensity index in the study area revealed that high speed of land use land cover transformation also occurred sporadically throughout the outskirt of the tribal town also after the state bifurcation in 1972 that perhaps it is a cause of concern to planners.

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Phyu Thwe

Abstract: - Nowadays, the Web is an important source of information retrieval, and the users accessing the Web are from different backgrounds. The usage information about users are recorded in web logs. Analyzing web log files to extract useful patterns is called Web Usage Mining. Web usage mining approaches include clustering, association rule mining, sequential pattern mining etc. The web usage mining approaches can be applied to predict next page access. In this paper, we proposed a Page Rank-like algorithm is proposed for conducting web page access prediction. We extend the use of page rank algorithm for next page prediction with several navigational attributes, which are the similarity of the page, size of the page, access-time of the page, duration of the page and transition(two pages visits sequentially) and frequency of page and transition.

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Jagadish Parajuli, Dr. Sanu Devi Joshi

Abstract: - Spores of the fern Colysis latiloba reared in Knop's medium with various concentration of sucrose ranging from 0 to 6 % germinated after two weeks. Only 15% spores germinated in the medium without sucrose. Maximum spore germination 86% was observed in the medium with 1% sucrose. Pre-germination stages were almost similar in all the cases. This species exhibited bipolar germination. The gametophyte was thalloid, dorsoventrally flattened and spatulate. Sex organs were not observed up to 23 weeks, which indicates development of apogamous sporophyte.

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Subrata Kr. Debnath.

Abstract: - The process of stress accumulation near earthquake faults during the aseismic period in between two major seismic events in seismically active regions has become a subject of research during the last few decades. Earthquake fault of finite length of strike-slip nature in a viscoelastic layer over a viscoelastic half space representing the lithosphere-asthenosphere system has been considered here. Stresses and strain accumulate in the region due to various tectonic processes, such as mantle convection and plate movements etc, which ultimately leads to movements across the fault. In the present paper, a three-dimensional model of the system is considered and analytical expressions for displacements, stresses and strains in the model have been obtained using suitable mathematical techniques developed for this purpose. A detailed study of these expressions may give some ideas about the nature of stress-strain accumulation in the system, which in turn will be helpful in formulating an effective earthquake prediction programme.

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Authors Acra, E.J. Oloto, I. N. Asiegbu E. N. Chiaghanam O. I, Okengwu K. O

ABSTRACT : - The Upper Cretaceous facies of Enugu Area are part of the sequence in the Anambra Basin of Southeastern Nigeria. These include the Enugu Shale, Mamu Formation, Ajali Sandstone and Nsukka Formation. The deformation structures within the Upper Cretaceous in Enugu area were dominant to sandstones of the Marnu Formation. The white silty fine sandstone, muddy fine sandstone and heteroliths of this formation show various degrees of deformation which were penecontemporaneous with the deposition of the lithologies. The deformation structures include convolute bedding, load and flame structures, slump structures, gravity faults, water escape structures. Other sedimentary structures in the area are wave ripple lamination, hummocky cross stratification, parallel lamination, current ripples, flaser and lenticular bedding, channeling, water level marks, tabular and lenticular sandstone, mudcrack etc. The vertical, inclined and horizontal burrows of Ophiomorpha, Thalassinoides and Skolithos constitute the biogenic structures. Studies have shown that these deformation structures in the area originated from several processes which include the instability of the over steepened depositional slopes, overloading and unequal loading by sediment which produced both vertical and lateral movement (differential liquefaction and thixiotropic transformation) and rapid sedimentation under gravity. Diagenetic and textural studies indicate that the sandstones are now well compacted and lithified. The presence of these inorganic and biogenic sedimentary structures and the general stratigraphy of the area indicate that the sandstones were deposited in a storm dominated and low wave energy marine shoreline environments.

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Yikarebogha Y, Oloto, I. N. Soronnadi-Ononiwu, G. C Omoboriowo, A. O

Abstract: - The dinoflagellate cysts from the Upper Cretaceous succession penetrated by Mbeji-1 well in the Chad Basin, Nigeria were investigated. The investigation yielded biostratigraphically significant dinoflagellate cyst species recovered from interval 1600m - 3720m of the well. Based on the stratigraphic distribution of these bioevents, five informal dinoflagellate cyst assemblage zones from the Cenomanian to Maastrichtian are proposed. The zones in stratigraphically ascending order are as follows: Subtilisphaera inaffecta (Zone I), Odontochitina operculata (Zone II), Coronifera oceanic (Zone III), Exochosphaeridium muelleri (Zone IV) and Hystrichodinium pulchrum (Zone V). The ages of these zones based on stratigraphic positions and series of first occurrences of key species are: Cenomanian-Turonian (Zone I), Coniacian-Santonian (Zone II), Santonian (Zones III-IV) and Campanian-Maastrichtian (Zone V).

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Neha Mulani, Priyanka Bhosale, Prajakta Ovhal, Najneen Momin

Abstract: - Our goal is to provide the computer with a natural interface, including the ability to understand human speech for making it easier to use for the visually-impaired people. For this purpose, we propose a way to operate it and harness the power of the Internet with voice commands. It is an intelligent system which enables the user to instruct computer to perform actions through voice commands and also form repository of commands and map them to appropriate actions. At first, the user initiates a command by his voice through the microphone,and then the recognition software of the proposed system will take over to recognize the command. If the recognition is succeeded or matched with one of the given voice command then it will perform the operation according to speaker's command. The operations include downloading, parsing and reading RSS Feeds, downloading and reading user's emails, reading out text files on user's system and updating the user with latest news like live cricket scores, weather forecasts etc. In our proposed system we have used Microsoft's API called Speech Application Programming Interface for text to speech & speech to text conversion and various Java APIs for the underlying operation.

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Stephen Osahon Uwaifo

Abstract: - Purpose- The paper seeks to investigate the use of internet by librarians in university libraries in the South-South zone of Nigeria. Design/Methodology/Approach- The paper uses a survey research approach to carry out this investigation. Findings- The investigation reveals that the librarians make optimal use of a few of the numerous information resources on the internet. The librarians' level of internet use skills is only moderate although majority of them derive several benefits from the internet. However, several factors such as inadequate funds, poor electric power supply, inadequate localized software etc militate against their effective use of the internet. Practical implication- Generally, librarians, university authorities, system, administrators and ICT policy formulators will find this paper useful because it enlightens them about the fact that only a scanty use is made of the numerous internet information resources available and the librarians' level of skills for internet use is moderate. Even though the internet is beneficial to the librarians, several factors impede its effective use. Originality- The study offers new insights in the area of internet use by librarians in Nigerian universities. Because the study revealed that, though information professionals, librarians make scanty use of the numerous internet sources, coupled with their moderate skill in internet use, means that, it differs from other studies.

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