International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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IJSTR Volume 2- Issue 6, June 2013 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Bolarinwa, J.ALABA., Olorunfemi, Doreen Yemisi

ABSTRACT: This paper examined the foreign governing policy of the ruling system of Africa or the black race of the less privileged that has come to stay in Nigeria. It is a new fashioned policy politically and socially designed from the past system to shape the future of the Nation. Information therefore is employed as catalyst for the developmental process that will stabilize the foreign policy. The type of governance and political policy practiced in the past is fading away hence the need for its visitation. The practitioners of the alien policy had narrated the beauty of the policy and the benefit of its practice and application. The implication of Information is to support the foregoing highlights in balancing the old governance and the present one. The practical application of the policy in an African context vis-à-vis the Western World may as well make us think whether Information will be adequate to keep up the task of continual re-shaping of the policy. This study used the historical research approach to assess scholars view with relation to alliance of democracy and information divergence in a democratic system of governance. The research findings revealed that: The social media (social networking) are a means of the liberalization of the media milieu by ICT;Democracy has become the secret for peace and development; information mustbe publicise and documented since human rights practices are a deterrent against human rights abuse; Librarians and professional resource persons must include the understanding of the processes of intellectual democratic values and interrelationships of academic knowledge into political principles within the complex social organization. From the findings above, the following recommendations were made: That there should be a well standardized Public Libraries, stocked with information materials on democratization process. There should be a monitoring team working in terms of intermediaries between the members of the parliaments, the custodian of the information (Librarians) and the public.

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Alexander Boateng, Dr. K.A. Danso, Dr. C.P.K. Dagadu

Abstract: Tangential Radiographic Technique (TRT) principle was explored for evaluating deposits and corrosion attacks across the inner and outer walls of an insulated steel pipe using Iridium-192.The research was performed on a designed test piece to simulate corrosion attacks and deposits on industrial pipes. Pitting corrosion measurements based on TRT were more sophisticated, and therefore magnification factor and correction were used to establish the estimated pit depth on the film. From the relationship curve drawn between the radiographic film density and the thickness of the pipe, the attenuation coefficient of the insulating material was negligible compared to the concrete deposit. The TRT method overestimated the degree of penetrated corrosion attack in the tangential position in the neighbourhood of 9% and was within an accuracy of ± 0.37 mm. This tolerance limit is 5% less than the wall thickness of the pipe. From the results obtained, effective corrosion monitoring of insulated pipes can reliably be executed by the TRT without the costly removal of insulation material.

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Masime Jeremiah O, Wanjau Ruth, Murungi Jane, Onindo Charles

Abstract: Increased cases of deaths as a result of taking home made brews/spirits have been a major concern in our country. Recently, many lives have been lost due to the ignorance of the brewers and their patrons. This study was carried out to determine the levels of nitrate in home - made brews, home - made spirits, raw materials and water. Four hundred and forty (440) home - made alcoholic beverages, one hundred and ten (110) water and eighteen (18) raw materials samples obtained from various parts of Nairobi slums and its environs were analyzed for nitrate. UV-visible Spectrophotometry was used in the research. Some samples contained analyte values above limits set. The concentrations of nitrate varied from non detectable (ND) to 46.3 ± 1.404 mg/l. The recommended maximum contamination levels set by KEBS/WHO for nitrate in alcohols is nitrate 50 mg/l. Most of the home made brews and spirits analyzed in this study had values slightly lower than the levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Values of nitrate were observed to be generally high in the brews/spirits and the raw materials used. The raw materials may have contributed in elevating the levels of these pollutants in the brews. These findings are therefore useful since they provide a justified cause for the Kenyan Government to fight the selling of local alcoholic beverages.

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Harpreet Singh, Er. B. S. Ubhi, Er. Harvinder Lal.

Abstract- Exploration of the benefit of cryotreatment for achieving improvement in corrosion rate of mild steel is a topic of current research interest. This study is concerned with the effect of deep cryogenic treatment at temperature of -1930 C on the corrosion rate and mechanical properties. A series of corrosion rate tests have been carried out to cryotreated samples. The specimen were divided into two groups, the first group was subjected to conventional heat treatment process at a temperature of 9500 C for about 1 hour and the other group was subjected to deep cryogenic treatment for about 36 hours at a temperature of -1930 C, followed by tempering at 1500 C for about 1 hour to both the groups. The results have shown that after DCT the corrosion rate and mechanical properties of the samples were all improved. The changes in microstructure due to (DCT) were clearly noticeable, the grain boundaries were no longer visible and the microstructure consists of baninite, martensite and retained austenite.

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Driss Ouzebla, Hassan B. Lazrek, Michael Smietana, Jean-Jacques Vasseur

Abstract: Several D, L -ribonucleosides are prepared from 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-ribofuranoside and trimethylsilylated nucleobases under mild conditions by fusion method using natural phosphate doped with KI (NP/KI) as catalyst

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Meigy Nelce Mailoa,St Sabahannur, Irman Halid

Abstract: This study aims to analyze total microbial and detection Salmonella on smoked tuna sold in the market arumbae Ambon city. Smoked tuna samples taken from three sellers smoked fish production Aster and two sellers smoked fish products Tantui for sale on the market Arumbae. Analysis Total Plate Count ranged between 4.5 x 101 - 9.5 x 102 colonies/g. Based SNI.01-2717-1992 quality requirements of smoked fish that maximum is 5 x 105 colonies/g, then the smoked fish products sold in the market is still Arumbae determined eligible and suitable for consumption. Analysis of Salmonella, the smoked fish sold in the market Arumbae not found Salmonella. This is probably due to the fish during the process of curing temperature of heating can inactive Salmonella.

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Kosmas Rahado, Leunard Onisivorus Kakisina, Arman Amran, Beni Setha, Meigy Nelce Mailoa

Abstract: The objective of this research was to know the various kinds of weed in banana-based reclamation area of sago palm and in natural sago palm forest. The square method was used to analysis weed vegetation. The results of the research. of predominating weeds found in the sago palm reclamation area were Sida apcuta, Centrosema pubicens, Mimosa invisa, Gallingsoga parviviflora, and Commelina diffusa. These weeds are from the broad leaf group. Also, there were Phaspalum konjugatum, Digitaria violancens , Axosonopus compresus, and Bractiarva paspoloides. These weeds are from grasses group. While from the sead jeas group there are Cyperus killyngia, Cyperus iia and Cyperus phylosous.The predominating weeds found in the natural sago palm area were Althenantera sessilis, Commelina difusa, Melastoma affine, Centrosema pubicens, Ficus septica, Sehismatogolotis cypta, and Xanthomonas violaceum which are from broad leaf group.Aneielma spiratum, Axsonopus comperesus are from grasses group. Cyclocorus aridus, Selagineella sp and Stenochlea palustrisare from fern group were found in the natural sago palm area but was not found in the reclamation area. Commelina diffusa weed which is from broad leaf group spread and dominated in 4 columns of sago palm reclamation area, while in the natural sago palm area there is only 1 column. Sead jeas group was not found in the natural sago palm area, while fern group was found in sago palm reclamation area the ecology of these two areas were different.

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S.A.Osemeahon, J.T. Barminas, M.A. Hamma Adama

ABSTRACT: The sorption capacity of Immobilized Bombax costatum leaves (IBCL) for the removal of metal ions (Fe3+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Cr3+ and Cd2+) was studied using batch experiments. The residual metal ion concentrations were investigated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The influence of factors such as contact time, initial concentration, ionic strength, pH and temperature were investigated. The metal ions sorption capacity by IBCL decreases with increasing ionic strength but increases with increasing pH values and initial metal ion concentration. The sorption rate for the metal ions was rapid for the first 30 minutes and equilibrium was established within 2 hrs. The maximum sorption capacity for Fe3+, Pb2+, Cd3+, Cr2+, and Zn2+ were found to be 85.56, 80.48, 76.63, 73.84 and 70.35 respectively. From the experimental work on the sorption capacity of IBCL sorbent, our result showed that the abundant but presently wasted Bombax Costatum leaves could be turned into an environmentally friendly, and cost effective sorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from waste water.

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Ali Makhmali, Hajar Mat Jani

Abstract: In implementing a web-based application, security is one of the most important issues to be addressed. Generally, two factors should be addressed prior to implementing the application to ensure security: the structure of data management, and data security strategy. In this research, we try to find a suitable implementation and solution to handle these two problems. These issues first led us to perform a comparative study on several encryption algorithms, and consequently, to find the most suitable one; and second, to find the best management structure of data to ensure a reasonable level of security for the clients of the web-based application. We study and compare the concepts of five encryption algorithms that are most widely used: DES, Triple DES, RSA, Blowfish, and AES. The focus is on the general strategy the encryption algorithms are using, and their implementation applicability on websites or web-based applications. A survey was also conducted in finding the level of awareness and concern regarding online systems’ security. Based on the findings of this study, a data management structure for storing confidential data on a server is proposed.

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Guntur Cahaya Kesuma

Abstract: The purpose of writing this article is to discuss about the Relationship Between Habit Learning and Assessment Towards System Evaluation With Students' Learning Achievement. The methodology of analysis is correlation techniques to assess and disclose the relationship of independent variables and the dependent variable to determine: (1) determine the relationship between students' learning habits (X1) and learning outcomes (Y), (2) determine the relationship between the assessment of the evaluation system (X2) with academic achievement (Y), and (3) determine the relationship between the achievement of students (X1) and the assessment of the evaluation system (X2) together with academic achievement (Y). The study results show that the proposed third null hypothesis is rejected and accept the alternative hypothesis. In other words that there is a positive relationship between (1) the habit of learning achievement of students' learning achievement, (2) an assessment of the performance evaluation system with students' learning achievement, and (3) the habit of learning and assessment towards evaluation system together with Students' Learning Achievement.

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Sudha. S, Bandita Datta, Pasha. M. A

Abstract: A simple, rapid and efficient method for the preparation of polyfunctional quinoline derivatives by the reaction of 2-aminobenzophenone with ketones or 1,3-diketones in the presence of silica chloride under heterogeneous, solvent-free and sonic condition is reported. The significant features of this method are short reaction times, high yields of the products, mild reaction condition, solvent-free reaction, economy, non-toxicity and reusability of the catalyst.

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I. B. Muhit, S. Tasneem Chowdhury

Abstract: In developing countries like Bangladesh, menstrual hygiene and management is not prime concern in the sector of reproductive health and water, sanitation and hygiene. To achieve Millennium Development goals (MDGs) within right time a study on women reproductive health of Bangladesh is very necessary as it ensures environment sustainability, gender equality and women empowerment. A typical and systematic study on adolescent school girls of greater Chittagong Division of Bangladesh on menstrual hygiene and management condition were carried to identify the prevailing knowledge and experiences and their implications. Chittagong division consists of 11 districts including total land area 33,771.18 Sq. Km. where the total land area of Bangladesh is 1,47,570 Sq. Km. By using mixed methods both quantitative and qualitative, data was collected from 1373 adolescent school girls from 22 schools of 11 districts. The survey includes some pre-questionnaires and focus group discussions and interviews. Knowledge and beliefs, experiences during menstruation, seclusion and absenteeism and finally hygiene practices were analysed through this descriptive cross sectional study. Data wasn’t fluctuated very much in different district except Khagrachhari, Rangamati and Bandarban. Maximum number of survey respondents (96%) reported that they had known about menstruation before their menarche, 90% respondents were facing abdominal pain and mental stress is another key thing due to extra thinking about her menstruation and maintain secrecy from others, 95% of them maintaining some restrictions due to religious issue and for other significant reason. Almost 39% of total respondents was being absent in school at least one day, during menstruation period and reason behind this circumstances were also evaluated. Re-usable cloths were preferred by the tribal girls (Khagrachhari, Rangamati and Bandarban district) whereas sanitary pad was preferable by rest of the district. In total 49% used re-usable cloths and use rate of old piece of cloth was higher at rural area. Absorbent material used, bath taken, cleaning and changing, availability of toilet, disposal of absorbent material in last menstruation were analysed to identify their hygiene practice. Finally some recommendations are proposed after analyzing the focus group discussions and interview.

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Sushma J. Gaurkar, Piyush K.Ingole

Abstract: In wireless sensor networks (WSN), security access is one of the key component. Nodes in a wireless sensor network may be lost due to power exhaustion or malicious attacks. To prevent malicious nodes from joining the sensor network, access control is required in the design of sensor network protocols. WSN must be able to authorize and grant users the right to access to the network. On the other hand, WSN must organize data collected by sensors in such a way that an unauthorized entity cannot make arbitrary queries. The secure authentication protocol of traditional access control scheme do not provide concept of attribute mutability and can not perform continuous access decisions. The proposed work provide a new framework for low level intrusion detection at sensor with access control. This UCON scheme can perform access control with attribute mutability and decision continuity which provide more security. For the simulation purpose, . net framework is used.

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John Selvadurai

Abstract: Mobile payment is the new trend in the payment technology sector. The ecosystem of mobile payment is complicated and consists of multiple dimensions. Securing consumer privacy is an important aspect in any type of payment industry. Since the mobile payment industry is in its infancy, the requirements for respecting privacy are not too clear. This paper discusses the legal and ethical responsibilities of the individuals and organizations in the mobile payment industry to protect consumer privacy. As part of the discussion, firstly, the main types of mobile payment methods are explained. Secondly, the legal requirements of the privacy protection are analyzed. The main privacy aspects of Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act are explored in order to examine the legal requirements. Thirdly, the privacy concerns in the mobile payment methods are discussed as they relate to Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. Finally, this paper recommends several guidelines to improve and protect consumer privacy in the mobile payment industry. This paper concludes with the ethical requirements of the businesses to build the trust from the consumers by protecting their privacy.

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R. R. Chaudhari, Dr K. N. Kadam

Abstract: Piled-raft foundations for important high-rise buildings have proved to be a valuable alternative to conventional pile foundations or mat foundations. The concept of using piled raft foundation is that the combined foundation is able to support the applied axial loading with an appropriate factor of safety and that the settlement of the combined foundation at working load is tolerable. Pile raft foundation behavior is evaluated with many researches and the effect of pile length; pile distance, pile arrangement and cap thickness are determined under vertical or horizontal static and dynamic loading. In the present paper the influence of pile length configurations on behavior of multi-storied are evaluated under vertical loading. In practice, the foundation loads from structural analysis are obtained without allowance for soil settlements and the foundation settlements are estimated assuming a perfectly flexible structure. However, the stiffness of the structure can restrain the displacements of the foundations and even tiny differential settlements of the foundations will also alter forces of the structural members. Hence, the interaction among structures, their foundations and the soil medium below the foundations alter the actual behaviour of the structure considerably than what is obtained from the consideration of the structure alone. In this work, analysis of pile soil structure interaction has been studied by finite element software ANSYS 11. The soil structure interaction has been found to be significantly affecting the performance of structure and it is discussed in this paper.

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Pankaj Kumar Srivastava, Ritika Chugh Malik

Abstract: Automated Windows 8 Security Console is software program which is aimed to help windows 8 user to protect their privacy and secure the system through the security policies. This Automated Windows 8 Security Console is graphical user interface software which guides an average user about the security issues and this software offers a feature to implement the security console by simple approval by windows 8 user. The approval for security console can be a simple click or enter a button. As the name suggests Automated Windows 8 Security Console will protect the system in automated way

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Rashmi Gokhale, Dr. Ramakanth Kumar P

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to design and develop a three dimensional reconstruction system using a feature detection technique called as speeded up robust features (SURF). First the feature points are detected using SURF and matched between pair of underwater stereo images. Further epipolar geometry is utilized to remove the unfavourable feature points and to derive geometrical relation. Linear triangulation is used to compute 3d points, which are further dense matched and mapped with the appropriate texture to resemble the original object. The proposed design is tested on a set of underwater images, using the information about the camera calibration parameters. The result of testing shows that the designed method can be utilized to reconstruct a partial 3D approximation of the underwater objects.

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Nanitha Mathew, V.Gowri

Abstract: Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are exposed to peers who fake, advertise malign code, or peers who won’t contribute. The classic security techniques like client-server networks are not enough for Peer-to-Peer networks because of its centralized nature. BloomCast is a full-text revival scheme which is used in unstructured P2P networks. It duplicates Bloom Filters rather than duplicating the documents among the network. BloomCast greatly minimizes the communication cost needed for duplication. But the main disadvantage is that it is vulnerable to malicious peers. In the proposed method self certification technique is used. Self-certification removes the need of a centralized system for sending the identities. The Self Certification mechanism helps to identify the malicious content and makes the search more effective.

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Nazneen M. G, Sufia Banu, Zahira Tabassum, Khamer Fatima, Arshiya Shariff S

Abstract: In this paper, we propose selective bitplane encryption to provide secure image transmission in low power mobile environment. We assume a 512 X 512 pixels image to be given in 8bit/pixel (bpp) precision. We consider the 8bpp data in the form of 8 bit planes, each bit plane associated with a position in the binary representation of the pixels. The Selective or partial encryption (SE) approach is to AES encrypt a subset of the bit planes only, starting with the bitplane containing the most significant bit (MSB) of the pixel. Each possible subset of bit planes may be chosen for SE the minimal percentage of data to be encrypted is 12.5 % increasing in steps of 12.5 % for each additional bitplane encrypted.

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S.V.Lathkar, U.B.Jangam

Abstract: We all utilized techniques via game theory that can help come up along with examine for couple of methods problems: discouraging deadlock situation with multi-hop wifi communities along with permitting cohesiveness involving ISPs from the internet. The item proved complicated to do this. This specific document accounts upon your activities along with describes the difficulties that any of us found. This explains the ways that it will uncomplicated by using benefits via regular game theory failed to suit very well while using the specifications of similar problems. What's more, it pinpoints an essential attribute on the solutions many of us performed at some point that will differentiates these individuals via those offered making use of game theoretic strategies. We hope that this will assist everyone to emphasize formulations regarding game theory which are well-suited for problems regarding desktops. Application of mathematics to solve computer operating system or network routing is now very extensive and this will prove mathematical relation towards implementation of network design topology.

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Kairanbay Magzhan, Hajar Mat Jani

Abstract: Nowadays, in computer networks, the routing is based on the shortest path problem. This will help in minimizing the overall costs of setting up computer networks. New technologies such as map-related systems are also applying the shortest path problem. This paper’s main objective is to evaluate the Dijkstra’s Algorithm, Floyd-Warshall Algorithm, Bellman-Ford Algorithm, and Genetic Algorithm (GA) in solving the shortest path problem. A short review is performed on the various types of shortest path algorithms. Further explanations and implementations of the algorithms are illustrated in graphical forms to show how each of the algorithms works. A framework of the GA for finding optimal solutions to the shortest path problem is presented. The results of evaluating the Dijkstra’s, Floyd-Warshall and Bellman-Ford algorithms along with their time complexity conclude the paper.

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Dhanashree R. Kamble

ABSTRACT: The importance of knowledge management is growing day by day. In current environment, handling and managing of fast growing knowledge is very difficult which results in consuming more time for knowledge serving and therefore degrading the overall productivity. Therefore decision of choosing Multi-Agent system for implementing enterprise Knowledge Management (KM) results in reducing the time overhead for serving the relevant knowledge to the end-user by automatic communication between the agents. The main aim of this paper is to propose knowledge management system architecture for multi agents that will be helpful in disseminating knowledge to public sector organizations in a better way and thus enhancing the productivity. The knowledge management system architecture described in this paper also provides scalability, reusability and supports system adaptability. The paper first reviews the literature on various KM frameworks and the various tools for implementing multi-agents and also proposes Multi Agent Enterprise KM System (MAEKMS) architecture. Using this architecture, the paper describes how the agents communicate with each other automatically for knowledge dissemination which results in fast processing and therefore enhancing the service qualities of the organization. This paper then implements the Multi Agent Enterprise Knowledge Management System (MAEKMS) architecture using JADE with Eclipse for public sector unit for the modules which shows knowledge reusability, knowledge retrieving and agent automatic inter communication of the overall system.

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Richard Kipkemboi Chesang

Abstract: Exit, voice and loyalty can be seen in the light of declining performance in economic, social and political systems. Individuals, business firms and organizations in general are subject to lapses from efficient, rational, law abiding, virtuous or otherwise functional behavior. the theory has an impact on the household level dynamics as well as national level dynamics. The paper clear indicates that exit, voice and loyalty theory explains many occurrences in our society on day to day basis. There is no sphere of household or national life that is not characterized by the occurrence of one or all the three concepts. The theory is therefore relevant to social dynamics as it rightly tries to explain phenomena.

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Richard Kipkemboi Chesang

Abstract: Drug abuse is one of the top problems confronting the nation today especially among the youth. Incidences of drug and alcohol abuse and related anti-social behaviour have tremendously increased in recent years. This has become a matter of concern to the government, parents, teachers, Non-governmental organisations and all other relevant agencies. The Kenya government has recognised the seriousness of the drug problem and initiated the National Campaign against Drug Abuse (NACADA) in early 2001. This organisation is charged with the responsibility of coordinating activities of individuals and organisations in the campaign against drug abuse. Its mandate is to initiate public education campaign and develop an action plan aimed at curbing drug abuse by the youth. The study found that drug use and abuse among youth is increasing despite the control mechanisms that have been put in place. The paper recommended that as a first step to prevent and control drug abuse, parents should be sensitised on the dangers of drug abuse, the attendant problems and their functions as role models; schools should have a drug prevention curriculum from Kindergarten onwards teaching that drug use is wrong and harmful and that there is need for initiation of rehabilitation programmes for drug dependent persons.

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Too Chepkoech Joyce, Dr.Thomas K. Ronoh, Dr. Emily Sitienei , Benjamin K. Bii, Jonah Kipsang Kiptum

Abstract: Parents are the prime educators of their children at infancy stage till they attend pre-school. They remain a major influence on their children’s learning through their early years, school and beyond. Therefore their involvement in pre-school learning is very vital since it determines the kind of foundation accorded to the child for future learning. Descriptive survey design was used in this study. The 760 parents and 63 teachers of the pre-school pupils, who reside in Turbo division formed the study population. Stratified sampling technique was used to select 19 pre-school centres out of 63. Simple random sampling was used to select 228 out of 760 parents and purposive sampling was used to select 19 Pre-school teachers out of 63.The data was collected using researcher administered questionnaires and interview schedules. Descriptive statistical techniques were used to analyze quantitative data and these include frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations. The findings were presented in bar graphs, pie charts and tables. Qualitative data were analyzed using selective coding of common themes and concepts and presented by basing on the objectives of the study. The study found that family income has an influence on parental involvement in public pre-schools. The study concludes that parental involvement does not only mean paying of school fees or buying of school uniforms but it involves attending parents’ meetings, encouraging of children to work hard in school, and most importantly assisting children in doing their homework and regularly checking books of their children.

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Chaw Su Win, Mie Mie Su Thwin

Abstract: Internet web pages contain several items that cannot be classified as the “informative content,” e.g., search and filtering panel, navigation links, advertisements, and so on. Most clients and end-users search for the informative content, and largely do not seek the non-informative content. As a result, the need of Informative Content Extraction from web pages becomes evident. Two steps, Web Page Segmentation and Informative Content Extraction, are needed to be carried out for Web Informative Content Extraction. DOM-based Segmentation Approaches cannot often provide satisfactory results. Vision-based Segmentation Approaches also have some drawbacks. So this paper proposes Effective Visual Block Extractor (EVBE) Algorithm to overcome the problems of DOM-based Approaches and reduce the drawbacks of previous works in Web Page Segmentation. And it also proposes Effective Informative Content Extractor (EIFCE) Algorithm to reduce the drawbacks of previous works in Web Informative Content Extraction. Web Page Indexing System, Web Page Classification and Clustering System, Web Information Extraction System can achieve significant savings and satisfactory results by applying the Proposed Algorithms.

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Saili Waichal, B.B.Meshram

Abstract: Router is one of the most important components of any network. Their main aim is taking routing decision to forward a packet to its destination. It can be a home or small office router which takes your traffic on the internet; or it can also be one of the core routers which form the backbone of the internet. Being such an important component, routers are often targeted for attacks. It thus becomes necessary to apply some kind of security mechanism to protect them. This paper gives a survey of different methods for router management and security. The aim is to detect any anomalous behavior of router which can lead to collapse of entire network. It then focuses on using an excellent in built feature available in almost any machine like router or web server or mail server or switch or database server which is LOGS!!! Proper analysis of logs that are generated can be extremely useful for detecting any anomalous behavior of the router. Thus logs can provide us huge information for solving a misconfiguration on router or detect an intrusion on the system. In this paper we give details about how to use router logs for attacks detection and defense.

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C.U. Widanapathirana, D.L.A.L.A Dassanayake

Abstract: Sri Lankan Agriculturehas a very long history and was based on very successful and environmentally healthy principles.The insect Pest management practices known as “Kem” methods were very successfully performed with the use of plant based materials and cultural practices, in the form of religion based rituals. Even without a distinct knowledge of the chemical constituents of the plants they were using, the ancient Sri Lankan rice farmers had identified a set of indigenous plants to develop this successful system of plant protection. These methods of kemhad different modes of actions of, pesticidal effect, sticky traps,and light traps. With the development of the modern technology, the hidden success of the kemmethods can be explained as the right selection of the chemical basis of the plants on the respective insect species. Burning kaduru(Cerberamanghas)sticks near the paddy fields was a kem, effective against insect pests as a light trap as well as a use of chemical repellent. Cycasin is one of the constituents of the cycas(Cycascircinalis) and it has insecticidal and inhibitory properties. This clearly reveals that the modern findings match with the ancient fundamentals of kem. There are many plant species of this nature like, Warā’(Calotropisgigantea),Mella(Diospyrosovalifolia), Kappettiya(Croton laccifer), Daluk(Euphorbia antiquorum) etc. that were very systematically fitted with the traditional practices. This effort is to identify the scientific fundamentals of the traditional kem methods used in pest management that has been neglected at present Agricultural systems.

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Abdul saleem, Mohammed Junaid.M, Syeda Husna Mohammadi, Mohamed Jebran.P, Sarah Iram.L. Indikar

Abstract: This paper describes the design of Embedded based preemies monitoring system with jaundice detection and therapy. It is a hybrid of the neonatal monitoring and photo radiation therapy system. It detects jaundice in newborns non-invasively by optical method and provides the required therapy by photo radiation. It provides an ideal environment for newborns needing special care and facilitates remote based temperature and respiration control. This system consists of two sections, a transmitter and a receiver section. ZigBee wireless protocol has been used. Transmitter part is used to set the room temperature and apnea values. Receiver part detects jaundice; provide single surface or double surface photo radiation treatment based on the level of jaundice. Monitors the room and baby temperature and controls the temperature by means of Heating and cooling mechanism and also monitors respiration rate. The system is inexpensive and reliable and can be used in hospitals, child care units etc

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Arafatur Rahaman, G. M. Shafayet Ullah

Abstract: Our social technologies are increasingly serving as an obstacle to young people in the way that, the users of online social networking communities are disclosing large amounts of personal information and putting themselves at a variety of risks. While social media connect us to more digital relationships, at the same time, they deteriorate our ability to maintain healthy relationships in real life. User should familiarize themselves with sites' privacy options; its implications for their privacy settings and should make sure to understand who could access their profiles, and how that information could be used, whether information could end up in the hands of marketing companies, government or criminal investigation agencies, Political Campaign and employers have been known to visit such sites to check personal details about prospective workers. These bits and pieces of our personal identities could potentially have reputational harm. In fact, problem is not using the technology. The problem is using it unconsciously. Recently Bangladesh faced communal fracas due to unconscious religious posting on Facebook .On the top of that, political party are using facebook as a channel of their campaign which may create social violence. This scenery might be same to other country as if more than 1000 million users are using it. Author investigated to explore the factors relating privacy awareness on Bangladeshi undergraduate students to focus actual influencing factors and aggregated relationship with Awareness of Facebook Privacy. From our findings we concluded that, Bangladeshi students do care about their privacy on Facebook, and a large number of them are now making regular changes to their settings.

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Yusuf M. Suraj, Muhammad A, Mabrouk, Joseph O. Ayo

Abstract: There is paucity of information on the diurnal variation in electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters of normal individuals, especially those subjected to physical exertion. The aim of the study was to determine changes in patterns of ECG intervals of normal young adults with variations in hours of the day, and to compare the changes between athletes and non-athletes. The study investigated resting ECG values from 30 athletes (20 males and 10 females) and compared with those obtained from 26 non-athletes (16 males and 10 females) in the same laboratory. ECG recordings were performed according to the recommendation of Society for Cardiological Science and Technology, 2006. Recordings were made at 07:00 h, 12:00 h and 17:00 h daily for two days consecutively for all the subjects. Intervals considered included P-wave duration, PR interval, QRS interval, QT interval and the corrected QT interval (QTc). [Data were subjected to statistical analysis using the Student’s t-test and were expressed as mean±SEM]. The results of the study revealed that values of all the measured parameters for all the subjects were all within normal range, and a significant (P < 0.05) diurnal variation. The results also indicated that there was a higher (P < 0.05) range of ECG interval variations in males than females, and in athletes compared to non-athletes, In conclusion, the study showed that the ECG intervals exhibited diurnal variation and that exercise exerted effects on diurnal variations of ECG intervals in man.

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Obiora-Ilouno H. O., Mbegbu J. I.

Abstract: In this paper we presented the multivariate extension of multiple linear regression using Jackknife techniques in modeling the relationship between m set of responses and a single set of r regressors . The responses are Oil Import Non-Oil Import Oil Export Non-Oil Export which is classified as Nigeria Foreign Trade, while the regressors are Exchange Rate of US Dollar and Exchange Rate of Pounds sterling’s which are classified as Foreign Exchange Rate. We proposed new algorithm for estimating the parameters of multivariate linear regression using the jackknife technique. The results obtained using Jackknife delete-5 algorithm competes favorably with the existing methods. Consequently Time Series approach was adopted for future prediction of the Nigeria Foreign Trade from year 2011 to 2020. Evidently, the time series plot depicts an increase of exchange rate of US Dollar and Pounds Sterling over the years under consideration. Thus, this will definitely affect Nigeria Foreign Trade negatively which could be harmful to the Nigeria’s economy.

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Bourmatte Nadjoua, Houari Hacene

Abstract: The industry of building materials is always accompanied by secondary products or waste which have an incidence on the environment. The management of solid waste is one of main environmental concerns in the world. With the rarity of the space of discharge, the use of waste became an interesting alternative in the elimination ; the research is led on the use of waste and concrete products, it is not only economic, but also help to reduce the problems of elimination, the research program thus includes the works concerning the valuation of the waste of construction/demolition and under products, as well as on the development of new materials and products : mortar or concrete with these recycled aggregates. We present in this article the results of a vast experimental program dedicated to the study of a variety of mortars and concretes with substitution aggregates waste (of construction / demolition) and under products. We chose as basic parameters: • The origin of the waste (of bricks) or of (concrete of demolition) • The substitution rate recycled aggregates : 0% - 25% - 50% - 100% • The variation of the dosage in cement: 250 - 350 and 450 Kg / m³. By studying these parameters, we were able to observe the behaviour to the state of fresh and hardened various materials developed with the recycled aggregates. The recycled concrete aggregates are generally more absorbent and less dense than the ordinary aggregates.the shape of aggregates is similar to that of the crushed stone. Concretes made with aggregates resulting from the recycling present good qualities of handiness, durability and resistance in the action of the freeze-thaw. the compressive strength varies according to the initial resistance and the relationship water/cement of the new concrete. As for any new source of aggregates, it is necessary to control the durability, the sise grading and the properties of aggregates.

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David, I. J., Asiribo, O. E., Dikko, H. G.

Abstract: This paper assesses the adequacy of model fit of the split-plot design models that is the whole plot (WP) sub design model with WP error and the split-plot (SP) sub design model with SP error using the four measures of adequacy of fit for the WP and SP sub designs proposed by Almimi et al. [3] which are the R2, R2-Adjusted, Prediction Error Sum of Square (PRESS) and R2-Prediction statistics and we proposed five other methods which are the Modeling Efficiency (MEF), Resistant Coefficient of Determination (r2r), Mean Square Error (MSE), Mean Square Error Prediction (MSEP) and Adequate Precision (AP) statistics. A 2(1+3) replicated two-level SP design and 31 x 42 replicated mixed level SP design were used for computing the measures of model adequacy of fit for each WP and SP sub design models. These measures describe the predictive performance of each WP and SP sub design models.

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Oloto, I.N. Yikarebogha,Y.

Abstract: These The Late Cretaceous succession penetrated by Mushe-1well in the Central Chad Basin, North East Nigeria was investigated for its palynological content. This investigation produced biostratigraphically significant Pollen, Spore and dinoflagellate cyst. The studied interval penetrated a sequence of clay, sandstone, shale, shally sandstone, sandy shale and sandstone, occuriing at different intervals in all the wells. Based on the stratigraphic distribution of the palynomorphs from the Mbeji-1 –well. Twelve informal assemblage palynozones and six dinoflagellate assemblage biozones spanning the Upper Cretaceous were identified in the Chad Basin, Nigeria. The zones are: Assemblage Zones I-IV (Cenomanian); Assemblage Zone V (Turonian); Assemblage Zone VI,VII,VIII, and IX (Coniacian-Santonian); and Assemblage Zones X,XI, XII, and XIII (Campanian-Maastrichtian) for the Pollen/Spore biozones.. The age determinations are based on the known stratigraphic ranges of pollen, spores and dinoflagellate and their relative stratigraphic positions. Data from the studied well revealed that generally in the basin, there is relatively higher frequency of the land derived pollen and spores compared to marine palynomorph abundance, which suggests a paralic condition of continental to shallow marine environment. The shallow marginal marine environment is further supported by the presence high diversity of dinoflagellate species and foram test linings at some depths which are indicative of marine paleoenvironment i.e. neritic environment.

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Oloto, I.N. Yikarebogha, Y.

Abstract:These The upper cretaceous sediments of the Chad, basins have been studied from ditch cuttings and core samples from Tuma- well. The sedimentary sequences penetrated and sampled in Tuma-1 well include the Pliocene – pleistocene lacustrine sediments comprising mostly clays, sandy and silty clays, and sand belonging to the Chad formation and the highly distinctive upper cretaceous dark-gray, silty carbonaceous shale unit which underlies it. The foraminiferal assemblages of the upper cretaceous dark gray shale unit underlying the Chad Formation is dominated by arenaceous benthonic foraminifera comprising mostly Haplophragmoides species such as H. sahariensis H. Hausa. H. Rugosa, H. baucnensis, H. benuensis and H. pindigensis and Ammobacultes species which include Ammobaculties Numanhinsis, A. benuensis, A. irregularity formis and A. numanninsis. A. benuensis. A. irregulariformis and A. bauchensis.s few specimens of calcareous benthonic speces such as lenticulina sp and Reophax sp are also associated with the assemblages. The calcareous benthonics constitute less than 1% of the entire assemblages recovered while the arenaceous assemblages makeup over 99% the sequences above the upper cretaceous unit yielded very few specimens. The generic composition of the assemblages characterized by a low diversity, coupled with the presence of carbonaceous and micaceous material suggests a probable marshy estuarine lacustrine environment of deposition for the upper cretaceous shale unit. The phosphatic and gypsiferous nature of the samples and their associated foraminiferal assemblages are indicative of a shallow marshy hypersaline marine depositional environment fo the study section.

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Oloto, I.N. Yikarebogha, Y.

Abstract: These i The biostratigraphic study of the Cretaceous sediments penetrated by X-1 well, Chad Basin was carried out. A total of 112 ditch cutting samples were analyzed and these yielded eight genera and seventeen species of both arenaceous benthonic and planktonic microfossils. Sixteen Pollen species, 11 spore species and 15 Dinoflagellate species making up 14 genera, 8 genera and 14 genera, respectively for the microflora. The accessory microflora encountered are fungal spore, pediastrum, radiolarian, foraminifera test lining, spike and gastropod tooth. Biostratigraphiic analysis established albian-Cenomanian age for the studied interval on the basis of the First Downhole Occurrence (FDO) of index Heterohelix (Heterohelix moremani) and Electarao bearing microfossils (Elaterosporites protensus, Elaterosporites verrucatus and Elaterocoplites castelaini). The depositional environments and paleobathymetric ranges of the studied well samples were determined and interpreted with the use of the microfaunal, palynoflora assemblages and other accessories such as glauconite, foramnifera test lining and fungal spore which reflects a transition from a marginal marine to a shallow marine (inner neritic-middle neritic) environment within the continental shelf. Two maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) and one sequence boundary (SB) were identified from maximum and minimum faunal abundance and diversity peaks, respectively. The strata in the study are divided into transgressive systems tracts (TST) and Highstand Systems Tracts (HST).

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Beni Setha, Febe F. Gaspersz, Andi Puspa S. Idris, Samsul Rahman, Meigy Nelce Mailoa

Abstract : The aim of the research was to study the antioxidant activity of crude extract of seaweed Padina sp. The process of extraction of seaweed Padina sp. was done by using maceration stages namely the solvent n-hexane, and then using solvent extraction followed by ethyl acetate and methanol. Solvents that are still left in the third crude extract was evaporated by using a rotary vacuum evaporator, and then tested for DPPH free radical activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) by UV-VIS spectrophotometer at a wave length of 517 nm. Measurement of antioxidant activity of crude extract of seaweed Padina sp. performed at a concentration of 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 150 ppm, 200 ppm and 250 ppm. Data from tested for DPPH free radical were analyzed using linear regression, than followed by determination of IC50. The test results of all three antioxidant activity of crude extract of seaweed Padina sp. indicated that the higher concentration of solvent, the higher the percentage of arrests of radical activity or percentage inhibition. The antioxidant activity of methanol crude extract of seaweed Padina sp. to give IC50 value of 200.88 mg/L, crude extract of ethyl acetate to give IC50 value of 483.09 mg/L and extract crude n-hexane gave IC50 value of 900.00 mg/L. This means that the antioxidant activity of methanol crude extract of seaweed Padina sp. was stronger than that of crude extract of ethyl acetate and n-hexane.

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Megha Aggarwal, Amrita

Abstract: In today’s era detection of security threats that are commonly referred to as intrusion, has become a very important and critical issue in network, data and information security. Highly confidential data of various organizations are present over the network so in order to preserve that data from unauthorized users or attackers a strong security framework is required. Intrusion detection system plays a major role in providing security to computer networks. An Intrusion detection system collects and analyzes information from different areas within a computer or a network to identify possible security threats that include threats from both outside as well as inside the organization. The Intrusion detection system deals with large amount of data whichcontains various irrelevant and redundant features resulting in increased processing time and low detection rate. Therefore feature selection plays an important role in intrusion detection. There arevarious feature selection methods proposed in literature by different authors. In this paper a comparative analysis of different feature selection methods are presented on KDDCUP’99 benchmark dataset and their performance are evaluated in terms of detection rate, root mean square error and computational time.

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Wangkheirakpam Radhapiyari Devi

Abstract : Aeschynomene aspera L. is a wild annual legume growing in periodically waterlogged soils in Manipur, India with profuse stem nodulation. Nodules are formed on the stem at the emergence of lateral root primordia, called nodulation sites. They are distributed on vertical rows all along the stem and branches. Stem nodules are hemispherical in shaped, dark green outside and contain a red-pigmented central zone. Stem nodules exhibit high nitrogen-fixing potential being detected by micro Kjeldahl method. The amount of Nitrogen (N) content (%) found in term of kg N per kg dry weight was as 2.4x10-7 ± 1x10-7 kg from the 45-50 days old stem nodules. Because of nitrogen fixing potential and its ability to grow in waterlogged conditions, A. aspera L. could be introduced as organic manure into the rice cropping system in Manipur.

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Rushikesh Tade

Abstract: Modern Software organizations try to use variety of methods for reducing piracy. The article discusses some brief idea about how the piracy can be reduced with the combination of embedded system and cloud computing and how to use this concept in daily life of home users to organizations.

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Sang Francis Kipkemboi, Keror Isaac Kipruto

Abstract: A great number of schools in Kenya have been experiencing a general wave of management conflicts which have mainly affected church sponsored public schools. The study sought to assess the factors influencing management conflicts in the church sponsored public secondary schools of Kipkaren division of Nandi North District. The study employed descriptive survey design. The study targeted 170 BOG members, 17 head teachers, 17 deputy head teachers, and 17 sponsors’ representatives all totaling 221 respondents. A census (‘sample survey’) for all respondents was used. This consideration was made because the target population was small and hence the population was easily handled. A total of 200 respondents returned the questionnaires which comprised of 17 head teachers, 17 deputy head teachers, 17 sponsors’ representatives and 149 BOG members. This represents 90.5% rate of return. Data was mainly collected using questionnaires. The head teachers and sponsors’ representatives were also interviewed to give in-depth findings. The instruments were prepared by the researcher and established reliability using Cronbach Alpha coefficient which found a reliability coefficient of 0.89 which was a strong enough measure of reliability. Similarly face and content validity was established with the assistance of experts in social science research methodology. The descriptive statistics such as frequencies, means and percentages were used to analyze data collected. The findings revealed the major factor influencing management conflicts in schools was religious’ differences. The study recommends that a representative team should be appointed in the school’s management; that seminars, conferences and symposiums are carried out in educational management from time to time and courses in conflicts and human relation be included in the curriculum for teachers to prepare them for conflict management.

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Jonah Kipsang Kiptum, Philip K. Rono, Jackson K. Too, Benjamin K. Bii, Joyce Too

Abstract: Mathematics has been viewed as a subject favouring male students due to factors like attitude, methods used for teaching and so on. This has resulted to gender differences between male and female students in Mathematics performance. The study sought to find out the relationship gender of students and mathematics performance. Descriptive survey design was used in the study to investigate the attitudes of primary school learners towards mathematics. Data was collected by use of questionnaires, interview schedules and class examination administered previously. The accessible population was teachers of Mathematics and Standard Eight learners from selected primary schools in Keiyo South District, Kenya. Sample study comprised of 300 learners (150 male students and 150 female students) and all teachers of Mathematics from the sampled schools in Keiyo South District, Kenya. Stratified random sampling was used to categorize schools in either boarding or day schools. Simple random sampling was used to select 50 schools from 119 primary schools and 5 male students and 5 female students from each selected Standard Eight class. The study used purposive sampling technique to select Mathematics Teachers. Simple random sampling technique was used to select Mathematics teachers for interview. Data was collected using questionnaire and interview schedule. It was established that majority of the students (boys and girls) had a positive attitude towards learning of mathematics. However, when comparing the attitudes of boys and girls, the results demonstrated that boys were more inclined to positive attitudes than girls.

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Sherry K. Amedorme, Yesuenyeagbe A.K. Fiagbe

Abstract : Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in Ghana is facing a number of challenges. The problems ranging from the limited number of technical institutes available in the country, lack of facilities and materials for training students, inadequate technical teachers or facilitators, limited number of training institutions for technical teachers and difficulty in career progression to the negative public attitudes and perceptions towards technical and vocational education and training in Ghana. In this paper, these challenges confronting TVET and the pertinent issues are discussed with the aim of recommending ways of addressing them.

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R.Pushpavalli, G.Sivarajde

Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid filter for denoising and enhancing digital image in situation where the image is corrupted by salt and pepper noise. Image denoising and enhancement are important preprocessing and post processing steps in image analysis. Successful results of image analysis extremely depend on image enhancement. There are several filters have been illustrated till date. But they are highly sensitive to noise. The structure of the proposed hybrid filter, to make the process robust against noise, is a combination of nonlinear switching median filter and neuro-fuzzy network. The internal parameters of the neuro-fuzzy network are adaptively optimized by training. The most distinctive feature of the proposed operator offers excellent line, edge, and fine detail preservation performance while, at the same time, effectively removing noise from the input image. The proposed filter is evaluated under different noisy condition on several test images and also compared with already existing filters for performance evaluation.

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Fidelis Chigondo, Piwai Shoko, Benias C. Nyamunda, UpenyuGuyo, Mambo Moyo

Abstract: Maize stalk fibres can be used as fillers in natural rubber composites replacing expensive and non-biodegradable inorganic fillers. Maize stalk fibres were chemically modified with acetic anhydride (acetylation) to enhance their compatibility with the hydrophobic rubber polymer matrix. The fibre was characterised using FTIR showing a spectrum with a well defined peak at 1742 cm-1 (attributed to the carbonyl groups –C=O), indicating that new acetyl groups were introduced to cellulose. The curing and physico–mechanical properties of the composite as a function of filler loading was determined and compared with the values obtained using commercial grade hydrated silica. The natural rubber-maize stalk filled composites showed good processing safety in terms of torques and scorch. Compared with untreated maize-natural rubber composites, the acetylated composites exhibited higher mechanical properties, reduced moisture absorption and higher resistant to hydrothermal aging. Based on mechanical properties and statistical treatment of data, composites filled with 20 phr treated maize stalk had the optimum set of mechanical properties (tensile strength of 22.4 MPa, elongation at break 404 % and hardness Shore A of 55) that were closely comparable with commercial hydrated silica filled composites. Maize stalk has therefore demonstrated its potential to be used to reinforce natural rubber for shoe sole production.

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Stephen .P. Mnyawi; Bonamax Mbasa; Aisia Lawuo

ABSTRACT: This study focus on assessing causes of deviation and delays of foreign aid disbursement in Tanzania. It was conducted in 2012 at Manyoni District of Singida region in Tanzania. The study adopted a cross sectional research design and stratified sampling techniques to collect data from a sample of 75 respondents by using questionnaires and interviews. Data analysed and revealed that deviation of foreign aid is a problem in both organizations such as causes of deviations of funds includes occurrence of emergency issues, unlawful personnel, and lack of commitment, failure to meet donor conditions, political influence, and existence of poor project implementation. While causes of delays of foreign aid includes existence of bureaucracy, corruption, stringent conditions, lack of commitment, Lack of accountability, and poor communication, unsatisfactory proposal, poor coordination and poor report Preparation. It is suggested that, in order to reduce the problem of deviation of foreign aid in most of Local Government Authorities and Non government Organizations there is a need to improve the techniques of preparing proposal, increase the level of independent and level of community participation.

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Oloto, I. N. Ihunda, C.E

Abstract: Palynological baseline data acquisition and analysis were carried out within longitude 6 E and latitude 8 N spanning the area from middle to southern Benue Trough for the purpose of forensic studies. A total of seventeen samples were collected from Northern to Southern town axis from Akunza Migili Lafia town to Ikot Ekpene road Abia state. A lithologic section was prepared using latitude from the northern to southern axis. The lithologic and palynological analysis based on field samples were tied up with the geologic formation based on published geologic maps. The rocks were compose of shale and sandstone, therefore found to traverse within middle Benue Trough (Akunza Migili Lafia Nasarawa State-Oturkpa Benue State), lower Benue Trough (Nkalagu- Enohia-Nkalu Afikpo Ebonyi State) and Niger Delta (Abia state boundary between Umuahia and Imo State-Ikot Ekpene road Abia State) from a geographic spread between longitude 6 E and latitude 8 N. Palynologic analysis yielded; Echitricolpites spinosus, Fenetrites spinosus; from middle Benue Trough, Echimonocolpites rarispinosus, Cingulatisporites ornatus, Macrotyloma brevicaules, Tubistephanocolpites cylindricus, Hexaporotricolpites emelianova, Retidiporities magdalenensis, Retistephanoclpites gracillis, Elaeis guineensis; from Nsukka Formation, Multiarolites formosus, Echitricolpites spinosus, Nympheapollis clarus; from Benin Formation. These data were used to generate palaeogeographical distribution of pollen, spore, fungal spore, dinoflagellate, acritarch, foram test wall lining and diatom. The palaeogeographical distribution charts were converted into percentage charts which shows the comparative occurrences of the different palynomorph groups. These are represented in step-like manner indicating the entrance of two to three new species marks a biozones. The occurrences of environmental diagnostic palynomorphs within a specific latitude range leads to the interpretation of the environment of deposition indicating sedimentation from alluvial plain to transitional/tidal zone and the diagnostic palynomorphs shows that the paleoecology consists of rainforest to mangrove.

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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - January 2022 - Volume 11 Issue 1