International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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IJSTR Volume 3- Issue 7, July 2014 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Umoru, Patricia Ese., Boryo, Doris E.A., Aliyu, A.O, Adeyemi, O.O

ABSTRACT: The processing and evaluation of chemically retted kenaf bast (Hibiscus cannabinus) was carried out using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphite. The bast of the kenaf plant was retted with 5 % sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and 5 % sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) at 100 oC for 10 mins. The extracted fibres were subjected to bleaching with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Mercerization process was carried out on the bleached fibres in order to improve the quality of the fibres. The kenaf bast was converted into clean, lustrous, smooth and soft fibres using the retting, bleaching and mercerization processes. The effects of these treatments were further evaluated using a tensile strength machine and a viscometer. It was observed that the samples retted with Na2SO3 and its corresponding bleached fibre had relatively high tensile strength and low viscosity values while those retted with NaOH and its corresponding bleached samples gave lower tensile strength and high viscosity values. The implication of this is that the samples retted with Na2SO3 were slightly affected while those retted with NaOH were affected most. This was attributed to the inefficiency of NaOH in removing the impurities of the fibre completely and as such lead to lower tensile strength and high viscosity while the reverse is the case for Na2SO3 retted and bleached fibres. The corresponding viscosity of mercerized fibre of NaOH retted samples was low whereas that of Na2SO3 was high. From the results obtained, it indicates that Na2SO3 is a better retting agent than NaOH.

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N. Sahouane, A. Zerga, I. Bensefia

ABSRTACT: To increase the photon transmission in solar cells based on multicrystalline silicon, two different double layer antireflections (DARC1 and DARC2) were optimized and simulated, to optimize the antireflection double layer, we have developed a numerical simulation code with Matlab software package where we have used the method of transfer matrix to solve the optical equation. These solutions permit us to plot the optical reflectivity and the absorption versus wavelengths and layer thicknesses. The optical refractive index and thicknesses of considered materials which allowed us to have the best results of reflection were used to simulate the electrical properties of the cell with PC1D software. Thus, our results showed that the average reflectivity of 5.4 % and 6.4 % is obtained with a DARC2composed of two different layers of hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiNx: H) and silicon oxide (SiO2) and DARC1 composed of two layers of silicon nitride hydrogenated SiNx: H with optical indexes and thicknesses different, respectively. These optimized structures have the potential to increase the short-circuit current by more than 1.8% with a DARC1 and up 3.3 % with a DARC2 for non-encapsulated cells, in comparison with the standard single SiNx:H ARC.

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Yonatan Kassu, Solomon Demeke, TayeTolemariam, YehenewGetachew

Abstract: the experiment was conducted to study the effect of Effective Microorganisms (EM) on the nutritive quality of coffee husk silages. Eight treatment silages were produced by ensiling chopped grass hay in combination with 10, 20, 30 and 100% of dry processed coffee husk with and without the use of EM as biological inoculants. The nutritive quality of the treatments silage was evaluated on the basis of fermentation characteristics, chemical composition and in-vitro dry matter digestibility. The results obtained showed that the best silages were prepared by ensiling pure coffee husk and chopped grass hay in combination with 30% coffee husk with the use of EM as measured by visual appraisal and pH value. The pH value (4.2) obtained from the treatment silage containing 100% coffee husk with the inoculation of EM is significantly lower (P< 0.001) than that of all the others and similar to the acidity limit recommended for good quality silage. According to the results of the laboratory chemical analysis, there was significant improvement in the total ash, ether extract(EE) and crude protein(CP) content of pure coffee husk ensiled with the use of EM. The EE and CP content of the 100% coffee husk tended to decrease when it ensiled with grass hay. On the contrary, there was significant (P<0.001) decrease in cell wall (NDF, ADF and hemicelluloses) content of pure coffee husk ensiled with the use of EM as biological inoculants’. The results obtained also showed that there was significant reduction (P<0.001) in the anti-nutritional factors content (lignin, caffeine and condensed tannin) of pure coffee husk ensiled with the use of EM. Moreover there was significant improvement (P<0.001) in in-vitro dry matter digestibility of coffee husk ensiled with the EM. From the result its shows clearly that there was substantial improvement on nutritive quality of coffee husk when treated withEM. However, the output of the current result on the performance of the animal seems to be the future direction of intensive research.

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Netsanet Beyero, V.Kapoor, B.S.Tewatia

Abstract: Experiment was conducted on twenty-four crossbred dairy cows divided into four groups of six animals in each group. Cows were fed on iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric ration consisting of concentrate mixture and roughage. The concentrate mixture of four treatment groups differed with regard to the source of fat/oil and contained GNC (T1), ground linseed (T2), Ca-salt of linseed oil (T3) and linseed oil (T4). Roughages offered were green berseem forage and wheat straw. DMI (kg/d, g/ W0.75kg, or % BW) did not vary significantly among treatments. Digestibility (%) of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, CF, EE, NFE, NDF and ADF) did not vary among treatments. Daily average milk yield and 4% FCM yield did not vary significantly among the treatments. Milk yield (kg/d) ranged between 12.40 (T3) and 13.38 (T2). Percentage of milk protein, fat, lactose, MUN, Cholesterol, TS and total ash were not affected by different treatments. TLCFA and PUFA were significantly (P <0.05) higher in T3 than in T1, T2 and T4. Total PUFA yield (g/100g fat) increased by 137.34% in cows fed bypass fat as compared to control group (T1). Total CLA yield (mg/g fat) improved by 74.97% in cows fed linseed over T1. The total feeding cost was highest (USD 3.33/d) in T3, followed by (USD 2.76/d) T4, (USD 2.56/d) T2, and (USD 2.49/d) T1. The feeding cost per g PUFA production reduced by 42% in cows fed bypass fat than control diet. The feeding cost per g CLA production reduced by 44% in cows fed linseed than control diet. In summary, these results suggest that milk fatty acid profile is improved for better human health by feeding linseed products, as shown by higher concentrations of PUFA including CLA recognized as being beneficial to reduce the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and stimulate the immune system.

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Tynysbek Kongyratbay, Abdikarim Kamak, Kalzhan Kongyratbay

Abstract: If eposes in folklore science are searched as literary in XX century hermeneutic method is used to search its ethnic information. Epic poems of world people as “Odyssey”, “Iliada”, “Makhabkharata”, “Manas” have been searching historically in different levels. But in soviet period folklore was searched according to the typological analysis and limited defining literary similiarities of the following nationalities eposes as Russian, Kazakh, Uzbek, Azerbaijan, Turkmen, Tajik, Karakalpak and Khakas, Tuva, Sakha in Altay. Rightly the eposes’ such as “Korkyt ata kitaby”, “Koruglu”, “Kobylandy”, “Alpamys”, “Geser”, “Zhangar” historical-ethnical characteristics are clear. In these eposes ethnos names are saved, their historical activities are described with literary language. This article deals with the problem of searching eposes of Turkic people according to hermeneutic method and the aim is to define their ethnical characteristics. Different research methods and methodological basis are considered.

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Rustem PACI Shkelqim KUKA Ida Muraj

Abstract: The performance of the X-ray equipment can have a significant effect on radiation dose to the patient. The practice of monitoring performance is called Quality Control (QC). All equipment should be tested for compliance with the specifications on acceptance. The testing should cover all the basic parameters including the dose rate. QC will effect to take the right image quality, right dose to patient and staff safety of patient. Regular QA testing should also be cared out during the life of the equipment. The following measurements were performed for the selected X-ray machines: Determination of every patient's exposure parameters, including: dose and dose rate, which give an immediate impression about the risk to radiations comparing to guidance levels.

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Bayowa O. Gabriel, Olorunfemi O. Martins, Akinluyi O. Francis, Ademilua O. Lawrence

ABSTRACT: Hydrogeophysical investigation as well as analyses of hydrogeomorphological, geologic/hydrogeologic, electrical resistivity and borehole data has been carried out in the Basement Complex terrain of Ekiti State, Southwestern Nigeria. This is a second and further step to validate and consolidate on the results from the earlier preliminary approach of Bayowa et’al (2014b) with a view to identifying the hydrogeologic/geoelectric characteristics of the area and classifying the area into different groundwater potential zones. The VES interpretation results were used for aquifers identification; aquifers geoelectric parameter determination and for the calculation of the overburden coefficient of anisotropy for each of the parametric VES. Hydrogeomorphological, lineament density, lineament intersection density and overburden coefficient of anisotropy thematic maps were produced and integrated for the classification of the study area into different groundwater potential zones. The reliability of the groundwater potential map was checked with the existing groundwater yield data. The groundwater yields of boreholes located on quartzitic rocks had a mean of 1.56 l/s while the mean groundwater yield from metasediment (schist) was 1.14 l/s. The study area was characterized into five different groundwater potential zones which are very low, low, moderate, high and very high. Ijelu-Ekiti, Ayede, Ipao, Ikole, Oye. Ayegbaju, Ofale-Ijero and Omuo-Ekiti were classified by very low groundwater potential while low groundwater potential was established in Ijesa-Isu, Iludofin, Iyemero, Esure, Otun, Osi, Iropora, Ifaki, Ikun, Ijero, Ado, Emure and Ise/Orun. Igbara-Odo, Ilawe, Ikogosi, Ido, Ipole-Iloro, Ipere, Ayetoro, Ikoro, Ifisin, Ilogbo, Isinbode, Erinmope and Iwaro fall within moderate groundwater potential zones. High groundwater potential was recorded in Ijan, Okemesi, Aramoko, Ilemeso, Ikere, Etisun and Itawure. Efon-Alaaye and Ilumoba fall within very high groundwater potential zone. The groundwater potential of Ekiti State is generally of very low –moderate level rating. There are however few areas with high to very high groundwater potential.

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Marbaniang D., Chaturvedi S.S.

Abstract: Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the As uptake capacity by three aquatic macrophytes (Scripus mucronatus, Rotala rotundifolia and Myriophyllum intermedium). The selected macrophytes were transferred to the laboratory containing nutrient solution and working As standard solutions of different concentrations (1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 16 mg L-1) and harvested at regular time interval of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. The As uptake by these macrophytes showed a linear relationship for S. mucronatus, R. rotundifolia and M. intermedium with the exposure time period (2–10 d). As accumulation in the plant parts was higher in the roots for S. mucronatus but reverse in the case of R. rotundifolia and M. intermedium. The maximum bioconcentration factor (BCF) values were found at the 8th day in all the three aquatic macrophytes and translocation factor (TF) was at the 8th day for S. mucronatus and R. rotundifolia and at the 6th day for M. intermedium respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that these three aquatic macrophytes have a phytoremediation potential for removing As from As -contaminated water.

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Noha Morsy, Sakina Alhady

Abstract: Globally, about two hundred million people suffer from anaemia per annum with the highest prevalence rates found among women of reproductive age, infants and young children, and especially those of poor socioeconomic status. This study is a survey-based descriptive study conducted among 400 pregnant women to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the influence of some factors associated with anaemia during pregnancy such as age, socio-economic status, nutrition, awareness, child spacing and spouse’s level of education. The concentration of haemoglobin is collected from analytical data and the personal, nutrition and socio-economical information was recorded using questionnaire interview. The investigation indicated that the prevalence of anaemia was 91.25% among the interviewed women with 27.5% of mildly anaemic (11.0-9.0g/dl), 28.5% moderately anaemic (9.0-7.0g/dl), 32% severely anaemic (7.0-4.0g/dl) and 3.25% very severely anaemic (<4.0g/dl). More studies are needed to explore the cause of the failure to prevent anaemia among pregnant women. The main recommendations of the study included implementing more efforts to improve the quality of health services, improve the awareness about anaemia, improve family planning and birth spacing program to diminish maternal iron losses, intensify measures to improve public awareness and implement an advocacy program to increase utilization of health services.

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Yeshwant M. Sonkhaskar, Amit Choubey, Amritpal Bhamra, Raghav Singhal, Anurag Sahu

Abstract : The paper is about design of a Plastic Bottle Crusher which would help to crush the used Plastic bottles and would thereby help in waste management and disposal. This project aims to design a portable Plastic Bottle crusher that could be installed anywhere and would aid crush of used bottles. This project involves the process of designing the crusher considering forces required for crushing and ergonomic factor that an operator needs. The design of this machine is such that it would require optimum load to crush bottles and will thus not strain the user or operator. After the completion of design process, it could be manufactured and transformed into a Recycle aid able machine. The crusher thus would help in recycling plastic waste. It would also help in reducing the volume of waste generated and will thus help in effective waste management. The crushing of used water bottles will also ensure that the bottles are no used beyond the shelf life of its plastic. Therefore this project will prove to be a useful asset in many ways.

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Dr Deepak Arora, Varun Kumar, B. Jagdeep, Prabhat Verma

Abstract: Over the last few years, the use of the simulation technologies and the internet in education industry has become wide spread. A Virtual Lab is definitely a large-scale solution to a large-scale problem. Its implementation being very intense, but the benefits of Virtualization Technology greatly facilitates the provisioning of accessibility to Adaptive Learning software. Bearing the expenses to purchase the individual software’s is not feasible for students, institutions, or the state itself. Cloud VLAB, or simply said a Virtual Laboratory; server-side licensing is taken care of, as software licenses are scalable and costs much less. Cloud computing paradigm promises to deliver the desired hardware to the end user at a low cost with an exceptionally easy to use interface through the commonly available internet. This paper outlines an effort at the Amity University, to deploy a hybrid Infrastructure as a Cloud Service, so as to enhance the student learning and experimenting experience. This paper covers the deployment methods and configurations implemented for OpenStack along with security provisions to deliver the desired computer hardware. The rationale behind the provisions of virtual hardware and the operating system configurations have been defined in great detail supported by examples. This paper also covers how the resources have been used within the taught courses as a Virtual Lab, and in the research projects. The authors also added the Service offering on to the IaaS cloud. The reason behind choosing OpenStack and KVM hypervisor is that both are open source and right now one of the market leaders for cloud computing.This development has led to the student’s freedom to enhance their practical knowledge.

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Dinesh Kumar, Reena Patel

ABSTRACT: The exponential growth and popularity of WWW increases the amount of traffic which results in major congestion problems over the available bandwidth for the retrieval of data. This results in the increase of user perceived latency. Prefetching of web pages is a potential area that can significantly reduce the web access latency. It refers to the mechanism of deducing the forthcoming page accesses of a client. Prefetching reduces the user’s perceived latency but on the contrary it increases the traffic that may result in further congestion,. So the major concern of the prefetching is to device an algorithm that could efficiently and optimally prefetch the pages so that the traffic load is minimized. In this dissertation an optimal prefetching algorithm is proposed which gives the optimal number of web documents to be prefetched to reduce latency. The algorithm is based on the current content of the web documents so there is no requirement of maintaining past history of the users and is also beneficial for first retrieval of access of web resources.

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Hemraj K. Varachhia, Ankur N. Shah

Abstract: Today internet is widely used in every aspect of day to day life. People get more and more dependent on internet for getting any kind of information. Record of different web user’s web using pattern are get stored in web log repository, which are great source of knowledge about user’s navigation. With increasing the use of internet, number of web sites and web pages are increasing rapidly. So analyze and discovering user’s interesting patterns are necessary for web administrator and recommendation system. Web usage mining is a part of data mining. In this, mining techniques are applied to web data for finding user’s interesting patterns. That means in which patterns user want to access web pages and web-sites. In this review paper I reviewed several pattern reorganization techniques such as graph traversal algorithm, efficient sequential pattern mining algorithm, mining a web usage data mining graph. From this entire techniques graph traversal algorithm is best.

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Ashima Wadhawan, Neerja Negi

Abstract: Spam is defined as unwanted commercial messages to many recipients. Email Spamming is a universal problem with which everyone is familiar. This problem has reached to the mobile networks also now days to a great extent which is referred to as SMS Spamming. A number of approaches are used for SMS spam filtering like blacklist-white list filter, Content based filter, Bayesian filtering, checksum filter, heuristic filter. The most common filtering technique is content based spam filtering which uses actual text of messages to determine whether it is spam or not. Bayesian method represents the changing nature of message using probability theory. Bayesian classifier can be trained very efficiently in supervised learning. We have used a new mathematical approach Rough set Theory. Rough Set Theory is a new methodology which is used to cluster the objects of a decision system with a large data set. In this dissertation, the Naďve Bayes and the RST method are implemented.

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Joan Jani, Partizan Malkaj

Abstract: In this paper we study the meaning and importance of Lyapunov exponents through methods of analysis of experimental data applied in physics, and especially in chaotic circuits. The Lyapunov exponents play a very important role in detecting chaos, which occurs in many areas of science and technology. So, the question belongs to the theory of chaotic dynamical systems and generally all dynamical systems, which should analyzed correctly and accurately to obtain the correct conclusions regards Lyapunov exponents. The purpose of the study is to find the Lyapunov exponents for various dynamical systems and the explanation of the results for the dynamic behavior of each system. We also present applications science where Lyapunov exponents play an important role in explaining the main algorithms to calculate these exponents under different implementation and different computer packages.

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Bahram Dastourian

Abstract: In this paper we deduce some inequalities and get a generalization of the Dunkl-Williams inequality in the framework of Hilbert C*-modules.

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Brown, C. A., Anang, Y, Okorie P. N.

Abstract: A wide range of water-holding containers are exploited by mosquito vector as sites for oviposition of eggs and larvae development. The study was aimed at determining the role of the construction industry in promoting mosquito breeding in and around the Accra metropolis, Ghana. A two-month larval survey was carried out at selected construction sites in and around the Accra metropolis. Routine daily larval sampling was done from mosquito breeding sites at the construction sites using the dipper method. Larvae samples were collected from sites such as small pools of water collection and concrete water containers. The larval population was estimated for each breeding site and the physical and chemical characteristics of the breeding sites were recorded. The presence of other aquatic fauna and flora were also noted and recorded. Water samples for a total of 30 different construction sites were sampled. Seventy percent (21/30) of the breeding sites sampled were positive for mosquito larvae. A total of 1475 mosquito larvae comprising of the three main genera: Culex, Aedes and Anopheles were collected. Culex species occurred in all the breeding sites and made up 54.1% of the overall sample collection, followed by Aedes species (28.1%) and Anopheles species (17.8%). A number of other fauna and flora, non-target organisms, were observed both at the sites and in the collected samples. These included Odonata nymphs, Notonectidae, water snail (Bulinus species), tadpoles and algae. The results of this study indicate that residential development sites should be strongly considered for inclusion in the local mosquito surveillance and control programs in order to reduce the public health risk related to the construction industry.

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Rosanna, Muslimin Mustafa, Baharuddin, EnnyLisan

Abstract: This research was aimed to study the effect of paclobutrazol concentration and hyacinth liquid organic fertilizer application frequency on growth and yield of Kalosi potato in medium plain. This research was conducted in Gowa regency during August to December 2012 in medium plain at altitude of 490 m above sea level. This research used two-factor factorial experiments repeated twice and continued with Duncan test at significance level of 5%. The first factor was the application of growth regulator containing paclobutrazol at concentration of 0, 1, and 3 ml l-1 . The second factor is hyacinth liquid organic fertilizer with several application frequencies: control, two-applications, three applications, and four application. Study findings indicate that the application of paclobutrazol at the concentration of 3 mll-1 with four applications ofhyacinth liquid organic fertilizer produced the best effect on tuber amount (64.0 tubers) compared to the application of paclobutrazol 1 mll-1 water with four applications of fertilizer (54.2 tubers) and 1 ml l-1 paclobutrazol application with three applications of hyacinth fertilizer (53.1 tubers). In regards to potatoes tuber weight per plot, the application of 3 ml l-1 palcobutrazol with three applications of liquid organic fertilizer produce higher tuber weight (1.99 kg plot-1) compared to the application of paclobutrazol 1 ml l-1 water with three applications of fertilizer and without paclobutrazol application with three applications of fertilizer, weighting 1.87 kg plot-1 and 1.49 kg plot-1, respectively.

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Drishti Kanjilal, Divyata Singh, Rakhi Reddy, Prof Jimmy Mathew

Abstract: With the advent of technology, the world around us is getting automated. Automatic systems are being favored over manual systems, as they are energy efficient and minimize the need for tedious manual labor. With agriculture being the primary economic sector of India and other developing countries, it is essential to automate it in order to increase efficiency. A typical farm requires a lot of labor. Automation can proficiently moderate the amount of manual labor, and make farming easier and faster, leading to more agricultural growth. The concept of automation is extended to the agricultural farms and farm houses. Numerous aspects of the farm are automated, which include auto-irrigation cycles and secure temperature controlled enclosures for livestock and farm products. In our paper, we implement automatic lighting system, auto-sprinkler system, in-house temperature control and security for farm houses. As temperature and motion sensitive devices will only work when required, such a system conserves energy effectively. The paper also presents features to enhance the security of the farm. Energy efficient farm automation is the need of the hour in an agro-based economy.

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Marie Nejedla, Marketa Vnouckova

Abstract: The article focuses on the principle of designing clothes based on obtained data and a method of measuring the surface of the human body using available technology in 2D and 3D applications and progressive methods and technologies. The first step in obtaining 3D data and the subsequent work in CATIA 3D program is achieved using MaNescan system. The procedure for creating what is known as a “wrap” of the human body in 3D is described in the article, and the procedure for its unfolding is consequently explained. There is also an example of designing clothing layers on a body with the possibility for subsequent unfolding. The principles applied in this thesis can be used when unfolding any part of the human body and hence when defining and creating new model designs of clothing.

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Khadir E. Khadir, Omer M. Izzeldin, Gaafar A. Nugdallah, Mohammed Abdalbasit A. Gasmalla, Azhari A. Mohammed Nour, Amir M. M. Bushara

ABSTRACT: In this study used five pedigrees from animals, actually two kind from each pedigree or genus (Kabashi and Hamari from Sheep, Baggara and Nilotic from Beef, Anafi and Hawari fom Camels, Ross and Hubbard from Chicken, Synodoutis. (Garqur or Galabeya.) and Bagrus. (Bayad or Kabarus.) from Fish), where taken comprehend samples from animals meat, then extracted the fat from it and analyzed the physiochemical of fats. The result showed that the physical characteristics values for animal fats was a significant difference (P≤ 0.05) between most samples, when melting point (Co) was determinated the higher value of melting point (50.20) recorded by Gargur and the lower value recorded by Bagara (34 C⁰), in density(g/Cm3) the higher value of density (1.421) recorded by Kabashi sheep and the lower value recorded by Ross chicken (0.960), in the refractive index (o) the higher value of it recorded by bayad fish (1.465) but the lower value recorded by Baggara beef (1.453), in the viscosity (CPs) the higher value recorded by Baggara beef (28.4), lower value recorded by Anafi camel (23.6), in fats colour (0) analysis Anafi camel recorded higher value in blue colour (0.200) and lower value was zerro (0.00) recorded by Ross chicken, in yellow colour nilotic beef was recorded higher value (50.5), lower value recorded by Ross chicken and Hummary sheep (20.7), but in red colour Garqur fish recorded higher value (8.6) and nilotic beef recorded lower value (1.4). chemical constants determination had performed for animals fat, there was significant difference (P≤ 0.05) between all Samples, when peroxide value (ml eq peroxide/kg fat) was determination the higher value recorded by Kabashi camel (5.61), lower value recorded by Kabashi sheep(1.57), in saponification value (mg NaoH/g oil) Hummari sheep recorded higher value (199.00) when Garqur fish recorded lower value (189.33), in unsaponifable matter (%)Baggara beef recorded higher value (0.817) when Bayad fish recorded lower value (0.237), in acid value (mg NaoH/g oil) the results showed the higher value recorded by Hummari sheep (4.63) the lower value recorded by Nilotic beef (0.93), in free fatty acids the results showed the higher value recorded by Hummari sheep (2.32) the lower value recorded by Nilotic beef (0.47), in moisture content (%) Baggara beef recorded the higher value (1.34) the lower value recorded by Kabashi camel (0.03).

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Nini Rahmawati, Rosmayati, Delvian, Mohammad Basyuni

Abstract: Salt stress limits soybean production in vast areas worldwide. It has been found that increases salinity resulted in decrease of chlorophyll contents in soybean leaves. Effect of foliar application of ascorbic acid and inoculation of mycorrhizal arbuscular fungi on chlophyll content of soybean was studied in saline soil with EC 4– 5 mmhos/cm. The experiment was laid out in split-split plot design with three replications. The treatments consisted of two variety of saline tolerant soybean (non-selected soybean and F4 selected soybean) in main plots, ascorbic acid concentration (0 and 500 ppm) in sub plots. Mycorrhizal arbuscular fungi inoculum namely without inoculum (control), Glomus sp-1, Glomus sp-2, Glomus sp-3, Glomus sp-4, Glomus sp-5, and combined of all mycorrhizal inoculum were the sub-sub plot treatments. The parameters observed were chlorophyll a, b and total by using Henry and Grime (1993) method. The results showed that F4 selected soybean tolerant salinity, foliar application of ascorbic acid, inoculation of myorrhizal arbuscular fungi and interaction all of treatment significantly increased chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll of soybean leaves in saline soil.

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Keerthi Rajan, V. Visveswaran

Abstract: Intrusion detection system is the key component for ensuring the safety of systems and networks. There are a number of challenges facing by the intrusion detection; an intrusion detection system must efficiently find out the malicious activities in a network and must perform reliably to cope with the network traffic. This paper develops an advanced notice board system using android where the registered members can post their content and which can be seen by the entire member users. Here performing four kind of intrusion detection for the notice board; probe, dos, r2l and u2r detection. Layer based intrusion detection approach is used to detect the four attacks which has been mentioned before.

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Choon-Ju Tan, Wei-Seng Ho, Shek-Ling Pang

Abstract: Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a key enzyme that catalyses the reversible synthesis and degradation of sucrose. It provides greater impact in regulating the photosynthetic processes and environmental stresses in plants. Thus, the nucleotide variation of partial NmSusy1 genomic DNAs (750 bp) generated through PCR amplification was examined in this study, and this followed by resequencing from 15 selected Neolamarckia macrophylla clones. The consensus sequences were aligned to detect the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, five SNPs were detected at nucleotide 1, 2, 34, 35 and 397. Of these, four SNPs were located at the predicted coding region while one SNP was located at the predicted non-coding region. Interestingly, one single base pair InDel polymorphism was also detected at nucleotide 17. On average, one SNP at every 150 bp was detected based on the 15 NmSusy1 sequences. There was one non-synonymous mutation detected, whereby amino acid glutamic acid (E) was replaced by arginine (R) in one of the 15 samples tested. This non-synonymous SNP might change the structural, functional or biochemical properties of the enzyme being produced and therefore possibly lead to changes in phenotypic characteristic of the trees. Overall, this study has demonstrated that resequencing is an effective technique for classifying molecular diversity or nucleotide variation in the Susy gene of N. macrophylla. Those SNPs, once validated, could potentially be used as a tool in marker-assisted selection (MAS) that enables more precise and accurate in the selection and prediction of yield or performance at the early developmental stages, such as at the seedling stage.

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N.Satya Sree, V.Madhusudhan Rao, P.Vijetha

Abstract: Better and broader use of existing clean energy technologies is an important objective of the vision “ A green Mother Earth” one such technology is production of an eco friendly diesel i.e., bio diesel. It is an alternative every source with its biodegradability, low toxicity, renewability. Bio diesel is an alternative to mineral diesel which has been studied worldwide due to its applicability in the current engines of motor vehicles without any alterations and also noticed the reduced pollutant emissions particularly sulpur emissions which are liberated by fossil fuels to a considerable extent. Due to its renewable characteristic from vegetable oils, fats and a short chain alcohol,it can be considered to meet the energy crisis in the coming decades. From all these facts production of biodiesel is now having its significance, infact, most countries are establishing rules to its introduction by blending it in different proportions with mineral diesel. Now it is necessary to identify a viable process of producing biodiesel and a suitable catalyst that carry out the conversion of complex ester into a simple ester. Hence we adopted transesterification of soap stock, which is a refinery byproduct of cotton seed oil as feed stock with a simple alcohol and ferric sulphate as catalyst.

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Galal A. Hassaan

Abstract: High oscillation in industrial processes is something undesired and controller tuning has to solve this problems. PD-PI is a controller type of the PID-family which is suggested to overcome this problem with improved performance regarding the spike characteristics associated with certain types of controllers. This research work has proven that using the PD-PI is capable of solving the dynamic problems of highly oscillating processes. A second order process of 85.45 % maximum overshoot and 8 seconds settling time is controlled using an PD-PI controller (through simulation). The controller is tuned by minimizing the sum of square of error (ISE) of the control system using MATLAB. The MATLAB optimization toolbox is used assuming that the tuning problem is an unconstrained one. The result was cancelling completely the 85.45 % overshoot and producing a step-wise time response without any undershoot. The performance of the control system using an PD-PI controller using the present tuning technique is compared with that using the ITAE standard forms tuning technique.

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HAYATU M., Muhammad S.Y., HABIBU U. A.

Abstract: This Experiment was carried out in the screen house of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Kano station to study the leaf relative water content and yield of nine cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) varieties to water stress. Data were collected on the following criteria, number of leaves, leaf area (LA), leaf relative water content (LRWC), and agronomic traits. The experimental materials were arranged in randomize complete block design with three treatments which include unstressed, vegetative stage and flowering stage of water stress. The results indicate that Leaf Relative Water Content (LRWC) of the water stressed genotypes were lower than the unstressed genotypes. At vegetative stage of water stress only 22.22% had an increase in their leaf water content and 77.78% recorded reduction in their LRWC. The highest reduction was exhibited by IT97K-568-19 with 9.5% and lowest reduction was recorded 0.1% by TVU-7778. 55.55% of the genotypes at flowering stage of water stress had reduction in their pod number. The Fodder yield at vegetative stage of water stress showed that 77.77% of the genotypes recorded reduction in their Fodder yield. IT98K-503-1 had higher dry fodder yield with 4.07% increase. At flowering stage of water stress, 99% of the genotypes recorded reduction in their fodder yield. The present study conclude that, water stress reduced the leaf area, relative water content and grain yield, among the cowpea screen genotypes TVU-7778 and IT98Kk-503-1recorded lower seed number at vegetative and flowering stages

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H.M.L.N.K Herath, J.V Wijayakulasooriya

Abstract: One well-known problem with speech synthesis is the occurrence of audible discontinuities at phoneme boundaries, which lead to the unnaturalness of synthetic speech. This paper presents a sinusoidal noise based mathematical method to reform the transition regions from one phoneme to another phoneme with low storage. The speech parameters of sinusoidal noise model were estimated and stored as polynomials to reconstruct the transition wave. According to the results, all transitions regions which are considered during this experiment have higher correlation values for lower order polynomial with less capacity ratio. In addition, to that the same experiment has been carried out by changing the number of FFT coefficient. As the FFT coefficient increases, capacity ratio was also increased, while correlation coefficient values were also increased. It was understood that a signal which is very close to the original signal can be generated with a lesser number of FFT coefficients

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Ravindrapal M Joshi

Abstract: The single crystal of MoSe2grown by chemical vapour transport (CVT) technique are used for the fabrication of photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells. The effect of the temperature of the electrolyte on the conversion efficiency of the fabricated PEC solar cell is studied.

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Haider A. Sabti, Dr. Jabir S. Aziz

Abstract: New design of obtaining a dual frequency bands antenna operate on the dual frequency bands of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) (Lower band = 900 MHz, Upper band = 1.9 GHz) with a single-feed square micro-strip antenna are proposed and experimentally studied. The proposed designs are based on the same patch dimensions configured with one rectangular slot in the form of cut inside the square patch antenna with different dimensions. The result of this work shows that the slot loaded into the square patch antennas offers further size reduction with multiband properties that can be used in GSM applications. Details of the design considerations of the proposed antenna are described, and experimental results of the obtained dual-band GSM performance are presented and discussed.

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Siti Muhibah, S.Ag., M.Pd

Abstract: This research was initiated by the lack of characters value in some schools, particularly in vocational skills. Islamic education highlights curriculum content for learning praying did not reach the delivery moral message, teaching materials are very strong prayer dominated jurisprudence, rather than morals, learning praying was only emphasizing on the prayer, while habituation and meaning almost neglected prayers systemically the whole process of learning, and Islamic teachers do not implement Islamic studies which show exemplary moral character. This study aims to find out some strategies for curriculum development of Islamic based studies focussed on character education through studying at SMK 2 Pandeglang. This school is based on education curriculum and syllabus of characters that can be used as teaching materials for teachers in SMK Pandeglang. The researcher used qualitative research through descriptive and explanatory. Descriptive approach seeks to answer the "what" is happening, while the explanatory answer the "Why" and "How", which is focussed on the writing. The techniques of collecting data in this research were to interview, test, and non-test, questionnaires and documentation. She collected data analysis based on three steps, namely (1) data reduction; (2) data display; (3) Withdrawal of conclusion / verification. The result of this research shows that some strategies in curriculum development for Islamic studies at SMK 2 Pandeglang namely: (1) Integrating the value of each character in the learning material, (2) State the value of the character contained in learning materials, (3) Identify the character in the learning material, (4) Give an example of a character value, (5) using the method of demonstration in practice the value of character, (6) Ratings.

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Sri Nur Aminah Ngatimin, Annie P. Saranga, Nurariaty Agus, Amran Achmad, Ifayanti Ridwan

Abstract: The Common Birdwing Troides helena Linne (Lepidoptera : Papilionidae) is the one of butterflies species protected under Indonesian laws i.e. PP 7 and 8 year 1999 and UU no.5 year 1990. T. helena including on the list of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) Appendix II. The artificial diet for T. helena never done and we were used mung bean sprout and red bean as the substitute of wheat germ that more cheap and easy to find in our areas in South Sulawesi. The result was showed the high percentage of T. helena larvae survival on red bean 57,05% more higher than mung bean sprout 51,66%. A. tagala leaves as a control given a highest is 61,36%. The larvae weight before pre-pupae stage was highest on A. tagala leaves 4,86 mg. The lowest larvae weight on the mung bean sprout 2,13 mg. The red bean was given the higher larvae weight on artificial diet is 3,22 mg. This results different to pupae weight in every diet. The pupae weight on mung bean sprout is 2,55 mg compare to red bean 2,45 mg. The male emergence from red bean was higher 71,20% and lower on mung bean sprout 55%. The female from red bean was higher 48,08 % and 33% on mung bean sprout. T. helena male was emerged from mung bean sprout dan red bean almost be abnormal individual. Most of T. helena males has a crippling wings and the abdoment coherent in their exuviae. They has a short living periode about 4-6 h on their sites. On several T. helena female, we found few eggs reduce on her ovary (based on the dissection after her death). The formulation of artificial diet that suitable for T. helena larvae is red bean based the results on larvae survival and adult emergences. The composition of red bean almost similar to A. tagala leaves (control).

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C Shruthi Reddy, Sowmya Ravi, Giriraja C V

Abstract: This paper describes a novel approach to monitor a baby and it’s emotion and needs. Feature extraction methods like Magnitude Sum function, Pitch and Energy have been performed to classify the signal. These extraction techniques are proven to be more accurate than the conventional techniques. Although combinations of all three techniques have to be used to achieve 100% accuracy, the computational cost and processing time is less than that of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient. Thus, classification of hungry, tired and in-pain cries were successfully done.

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V.D. Nagaraju, B.S. Sridhar

Abstract: The hydrodynamic characteristics of flow regime were studied employing different draft tubes during the spouted bed roasting of groundnuts and the dimensionless parameters were employed for predicting the flow regime. The estimated Reynolds's number (Re) under the turbulent convection regime was ≈ 8399. The size of the draft tubes employed ranged from 0.175 to 0.375 m length and 0.065 m diameter. The optimal processing condition was found to be the draft tube size of 0.275 m length with heat transfer coefficient of 132 W/m2-C. The studies showed that draft tube insertion is a versatile technique to increase the bed height as compared to the classical spouted bed roaster and can be seen as a promising roaster design for groundnuts and related heat sensitive particulate materials that have slow intra -particle heat transfer coefficients.

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Ramez Farajallah Saad, Samar Talaat Kraidly, Ali Ahmad Kanso, Antoine Georges El Samrani, Veronique Antonios Kazpard, Ahmad Najib Kobaissi

Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) compost is an ‘organic’ amendment that can act like inorganic fertilizers. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of further cured MSW compost on the growth and development of Zea may L. and characterizing the effect of curing on the soil microbial populations and enzymatic activities. The experimental design was a completely randomized block design with six treatments, the plant’s morpho-physiological characteristics were studied, and the microbial analyses were done for three different soil layers 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 centimeter as well as for the rhizosphere. Data was submitted to statistical analysis using SPSS 17, where treatments with further cured compost showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in all the parameters investigated, and the level of 2.5% had the highest values, except for fungal populations, for both the microbial and enzymatic activities.

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Mina Elmarkhi, Sanae Sadek, Khadija Elkharrim, Fatima Benelharkati, Driss Belghyti.

Abstract: In Morocco, the amount of household waste produced by the population now exceeds 0.75 kg per person and per day and is increasing, so Morocco became aware of the seriousness of the problem of solid waste and products that they generate. As part of a physico-chemical characterization of leachate from the landfill Ouled Berjal, Kenitra, we conducted from November 2011 to October to 2012 physico-chemical analyzes of leachates collected at the accumulation of leachate pond. Time tracking of the samples revealed the following results: Temperature varies between 26.01 and 20.03 ° C, the pH is voisinage neutrality, the electrical conductivity is through 24982.5 S / cm, salinity 13, 62 g / l, the turbidity is 16 September 9,66 NTU, BOD5 is medium 5000 mg O 2 / l, the COD is 24858.33 mg O 2 / l. The hardness leachate with means 1510.75 mg / l ; Va lue of NH4 + of leachate of 2005, 90 mg / l. The high values of chlorides coincide with high values of conductivities ; Na+ ion has an average of 3686.2 mg / l ; the average concentration of nitrates is 13.15 mg / l ; The average value of bicarbonate ion, is approximately 1009.95 mg / l. The application of principal component analysis for such a task could be beneficial. This is in view of such an application 17 that physico-chemical parameters from the analysis of water samples collected were analyzed. The principal component analysis applied to the data showed that the variables can be grouped into two main components. Also, the PCA showed a possible reduction in the number of dimensions without major loss of information. This reduction is even more interesting that the variables to be taken into account are 3 simple steps.According to this study, liquid'' and'' solid waste leachate discharge of ouled berjel releases are a real environmental impact mainly on the quality of surface water, groundwater, and soil.

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Rustem PACI Ida Muraj

Abstract: Distribution of radionuclide’s in the environment and the associated exposures to workers and the public. Environment assessment is one very important issues related to protection of environment from radionuclide’s. The amount to be released which may have typical concentrations of radionuclide’s of natural origin, or artificial origin may generate products or wastes that have higher concentrations of radionuclide’s or give rise to exposures that should not be excluded from regulatory control. Uranium (U) and thorium (Th) and their decay chain daughter radionuclide are the radionuclide of primary interest released from nuclear installations as well as several other radionuclide’s as Cs for different radioisotopes. For an appropriate assessment of dose to public and workers (occupational staff) it is necessary that following elements shall be taken into account for release of the bulk amount of contaminated water into the sea. These element will help the process of calculation the effective dose to populations. Activity concentrations, Total activity and types of radionuclide released Type of radionuclides , Types of radiations, Radio toxicity, Salt extracting, Swimming, Natural evaporations and raining etc.

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Doreen Amponsah, Godfred Etsey Sebiawu, Dr. Henry Nagai

Abstract: The soil test analysis conducted by research on variety of crop growing soil gave values of 12- 20ppm of Phosphate which is regarded to be adequate for plant establishment and production. In the case of Sulphate, the experimental results obtained were as follows: virgin land (14.8ppm), tomato land (20.9ppm), cassava land (43.3ppm). Soil test analysis gave standard sulphate values required for growth to be between 15 – 40ppm. This is the concentration of sulphate express in ppm which is sufficient for plant growth.

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Aye Than Mon, Zaw Min Naing, Chaw Myat New, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: The paper deals with band pass filter which is located between up converter and modulator of uplink model for C band small satellite communication system that work digitally. In this paper, FIR equiripple method is used.The selection of FIR equiripple filter depends on the nature of the problem and specifications of the desired frequency response. The main theme of designing a digital FIR filter is to provide the better settlement solution, to improve an efficiency of the desired signal of the system and to allow adjustment of the compromise between the over shoot reduction and transition region width for practical application of the small satellite uplink system. The realization structure of this filter with a specific and symmetric filter coefficient is analysed and the symmetric coefficients of the filter structure is that this filter is stable, it is also linear and it has a constant group delay. And then the magnitude response and phase response of this filter are analysed and the simulation results are also described using FDA tool that is one of the Computer Aided Design tool available with MATLAB which enables design of the digital filter blocks faster and more accurate.With the performance evaluation of the equiripple filter design, the output results are completely suitable for the proposed small satellite uplink model and so Equiripple filter design is found to be the most suitable and optimized method to meet the desired specification. The second part of the paper is to analyze the antenna deign analysis. A multiple-feed system or a beam former is used to generate several beams from this common aperture. This results in a geometry, which has the typical advantages of a spacecraft-borne antenna i.e. a high order of functionality with a compact and lightweight structure. In this paper, the single offset parabolic multi beam reflector antenna is designed and implemented. Basic geometries for MBA are designed and implemented. Reflector antenna radiation analysis method will be used in the design of MBA.

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Chia-Nin Chang, Wei-Seng Ho, Shek-Ling Pang

Abstract: The present study is aimed to isolate and characterize the hypervariable (HVRII) region in cellulose synthase gene from the developing xylem tissues of a tropical timber tree species, Neolamarckia macrophylla. N. macrophylla is locally known as red kelampayan and it has been selected as one of the important reforestation tree species in Malaysia. RT-PCR was carried out by using the degenerate primers and one of the three amplified DNA bands was successfully sequenced and characterized. The sequence was named as NmCesA1HVRII and it was clustered in a distinct clade that is associated with secondary cell wall development. This study has generated a useful genomic resource for a better understanding about the HVRII region of CesA gene in N. macrophylla and its function which is important in future applications, genetic improvement of N. macrophylla. This also facilitates the future selection of trees with optimal cellulose content required for certain specific industries as well as synthesizing of artificial cellulose, hence increasing the economic development and growth in the country.

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Vitus M. Tabie, Yesuenyeagbe A. K. Fiagbe

Abstract: This paper deals with Optimization of a lift-tipping mechanism for a small solid waste collection truck. Finite element analysis was performed on a linkage mechanism that operates the tipping mechanism. The exercise involved validating the design changes made in the stress analysis environment. The work flow was repeated until the weight of the designs was optimized against the design criteria. Siemens Solid Edge ST3 software package, NX Nastran (7) solver was used in the optimization process. The weight of the linkage mechanism has been reduced from 11.6 kg to 7.5 kg which represents 35.4% reduction in weight.

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Anuj Khuttan, Ashwini Kumar, Archana Singh

Abstract: Effort estimation at the early stage of the software development is one of the most challenging parts of any organization. Many organization use different techniques to evaluate effort required for producing software, at the different levels of software life cycle model. There are various models like COCOMO, COCOMO II, Putnam model that have already used to estimate the software effort for projects. Researchers have proposed many new models to evaluate Effort. The objective of this paper is to compare Putnam model, COCOMO, and ANN-COCOMO and find out which technique give more accurate results.

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Emir I.Hajdini, Hajdini

ABSTRACT Multi-national Corporations (MNC) are being playing a major role on research and development, not only through activities in their home country but also in host countries through investments. The globalization of R&D is not a new phenomena, the novel element lays in the accelerated steps these last year. However the geographic disperse of R&D, realized through their branches, is not homogenous and only a few economic communities have taken the major part. It is obvious that the abilities host economies posses to attract FDI’s are subject to political, economical legal national culture and off course to physical and human infrastructure in line with economical objectives and economic national economies. An ever growing number of countries have developed a positive stance toward FDI’s that bears R&D, considering this a way to scale up their competitiveness. The total flux of FDI in Albania is significantly risen, from 258 mil $ in 2006 in 705 mil$ in 2009 në 1.190 bill. $ in 2011. The foreign direct investments have been in positive trends despite the global and regional financial and economical crisis, evidently reflecting a continuing rise through 2012. (Report of Foreign Investments 2011). However, the Republic of Albania scores in the 25th position, this number can be advance to 20.This article aims at establishing a framework for the exploration of the obstacles to attract R&D relating FDI’s and present the reasons for this moderate success on behalf of Albania. First off, the factors that impacts globalization are presented, followed by major reasons why a certain country has been chosen. The main obstacles on attracting these investment are been analyzed. Finally the findings are presented.

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Babatunde OA, Umoru, Patricia Ese

ABSTRACT: The kinetics and mechanism of p-Bis(dimethylamino)-phenothiazin-5-ium chloride by sulphate ion has been investigated in perchloric acid. The progress of the reactions was monitored by observing the decrease in absorbance of the oxidant at λ max of 663 nm UV/Vis Spectrumlab 752s spectrophotometer. The results showed a stoichiometry of 1:2, first-order dependence in both oxidant and reductant. The second order rate equation at constant temperature is therefore given as: -d[MB]/dt= k2[MB][SO42-] where k2 = 4.86 dm3 mol-1 min-1 A positive primary salt effect was observed and an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ion as well dielectric constant increased the rate of reaction. Added ions did not show any effect on the rate of reaction. The result of spectroscopic and kinetic investigation did not indicate intermediate complex formation in the course of the reaction. A plausible mechanism for the reaction has been proposed in line with the outer-sphere reaction pathway.

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Deepak Pandey, Jitendra Singh Bhadoriya

Abstract: Growing concerns over environmental impacts, conditions for improvement of the whole distribution network, and rebate programs offered by governments have contributed to an increment in the number of DG units in commercial and domestic electrical power output. It is known that the non optimal size and non optimal placement of DG units may lead to high power losses, bad voltage profiles. Therefore, this paper introduces a sensitivity analysis to determine the optimal sitting and sizing of DG units. A new methodology PSO for the placement of DG in the radial distribution systems to reduce the active power losses and to improve the voltage profile. A two-stage methodology is practiced for the optimal DG placement. In the first stage Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT), an open source MATLAB software package for analysis and design of small to medium size electric power systems for power flow and in the second stage, PSO is used to find the optimal size and site of DG in distribution systems. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through IEEE 16 bus standard test systems.

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Navid Bazrkar, Payam Porkar

Abstract: for application programs in scientific and technological fields have grown increasingly large and complex, it is becoming more difficult to parallelize these programs by hand using message-passing libraries. To reduce this difficulty, we are researching the compilation technology for serial program automatic parallelization. In this paper, the author puts forward a kind of parallel recognition algorithm in parallelization compiler with sparse matrix to reduce memory consumption and time complexity. In the algorithm the author adopts the idea of the medium grain parallel.

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Balarabe R. Mohammed, Craig S. Wilding, PhillipJ. Collier, Yusuf Y. Deeni

Abstract: CYP6M2 is a Cytochrome P450 gene involved in the detoxification of multiple classes of public health insecticidesin the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Some P450 genes are known to be up regulatedby the transcription factorsCnCC/ Keap 1 and (ss)/ (Tgo) in Drosophilamelanogaster. Whether this regulatory mechanism is involved inthe regulation of P450s in Anopheles gambiae is yet to be identified..In this study, we investigated cloning of 896 bp CYP6M2 promoter and construction of its luciferase reporter system in Anopheles gambiae. Bioinformatics tools were used to search for 5’ up stream region of CYP6M2 promoter sequence and specific primers designed. The promoter region of CYP6M2 (896 bp) was amplified using isolated the designed primers and isolated genomic DNA from insecticide resistant Tiassale and susceptible Kisumu strains of An. gambiae. The PCR products were cloned intopJET1.2/blunt vector. The resultant plasmid DNA was transformed into Escherichia coli XL1-Blue competent cells for propagation and purification, the plasmid constructs isolated and sequenced. Both cloned pJET1.2 and pGL3-Basic vectors were digested with BglII, purified and then ligated into the luciferase expression vector pGL3-Basic vector. The designed CYP6M2 promoter constructs were confirmed by sequencing. Results revealed that the retrieved CYP6M2 gene promoter sequence has 96% and 95% similarity for Kisumu and Tiassale cloned sequences respectively.Cloning of CYP6M2 gene promoter and construction of its dual luciferase reporter system were successfully established, this will be essential in further studies aimed at understanding the regulatory mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance, which is important in the control of malaria.

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D. Jena, S. K. Mohanty

Abstract: The cardio respiratory performance of male and female subjects was studied in relation to manual types of agricultural work in Odisha. Operations like land preparation with spade, manual transplanting and seeding methods, weeding, harvesting with local sickle and reaper were evaluated. The working heart rate and oxygen consumption rate recorded 136.3 beats/min, 0.98 l min-1 for male and 138.4, 0.92 l min-1 in spading operation. Manual random transplanting required working heart rate of 118.6 beats/min and 114.7 beats/min for male and female workers and higher heart rate of 128.7 beats/min, 133.7 beats/min was recorded in 2 row and 4 row paddy transplanter operated by male workers, and it was 130.4 beats/min & 134.8 beats/min in 2 row and 4 row paddy transplanter for female workers. The 2 row and 4 row transplanter required 9.3 and 20.3 man day / ha for male and female workers respectively. Weeding in squatting posture required less working heart rate and oxygen consumption rate of 98.3 beats/min, 0.45 l min-1 for male and 100.2 beats/min , 0.4 l min-1 for female workers. Four row pre germinated paddy seeder required the working heart rate, oxygen consumption rate and relative cost of work load of 126.4 beats/min, 0.80 l min-1 and 41 per cent against 140.2 beats/min, 1.08 l min-1 and 55.4 percent in case of 8 row paddy seeder operated by male workers. The female workers could not operate the 6 and 8 row pre germinated paddy seeders due to higher pulling force in puddled field. Operation of local available sickle in squatting posture required. 23.2 and 33.3 percent lower energy expenditure rate against paddy reaper for both male and female workers. Pedal thresher was about 70per cent more efficient than manual threshing. The working heart rate, oxygen consumption rate required in pedal thresher was 126.5 beats/min, 0.79 min-1 for male and 124.3 beats/min , 0.68 l min-1 for female workers. The relative cost of workload of pedal thresher was 23.9 and 18.5 percent lower than that of manual threshing by male and female workers. Proper training and modification of existing tools and equipments will reduce drudgery and fatigue of workers.

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Thakur Bignesh, Chavda Chetan, Salvi Harshad

Abstract: Winter season variations of physicochemical parameters of water of coral reef were studied at three different sites of Poshitra cluster in the Gulf of Kachchh (GoK), India. These sites come under Marine National Park and Sanctuary and it is demarked as Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). The study sites were selected on the basis of their ecological importance. These sites are having rich marine diversity and especially good coral presence. The study was carried out on the monthly basis from Nov’11 to Feb’12. Some of the water parameters are analyzed on site and others in lab. Winter season variations of different parameters investigated were as follows: pH (8.02-9.89), Temperature (19.90-29.40 °C), Dissolve oxygen (5.20-8.60 mg/l), Turbidity (3.24-20.80 NTU), and Salinity (33.8-40.0 ppt).

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Jigna Mehta

Abstract: Sample survey is very common these days. But projecting the correct population inference using these sample survey information is challenging. Sample weights obtained by weighting procedure does helps in minimizing the sampling bias to an extent but it does not fully eliminates the sampling error. The objectives of this study were how to further refine and use the sample information for population projections prior to putting under weighting techniques.

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Kunhambu. K

Abstract: Arundhati Roy’s search for identity asserts that she could not write until it comes from within. She firmly states that she could not be a writer for hire. Arundhati Roy eschews traditional practices and gives free reins to her individual vision. Her literature is neither a means of escaping reality nor a vehicle for parading political, social, religious, and moral ideas. What differentiates Arundhati Roy from the other Indo-Anglican novelists is her capacity to transform the alienation experiences into the monument of living art. Arundhati Roy's characters alienate in order to involve themselves in a frantic quest for their identity.

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B. Osundare, H.O. Gbadamosi

ABSTRACT: Tillage has been reported to disrupt soil structural arrangement, which consequently results in soil fertility problems. Consequent upon this, critical assessment of soil fertility and crop performance under tillage treatments is imperative in order to achieve sustainability of agricultural production and environmental quality for future generations. In view of this, a two – year study was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ado – Ekiti, Ado – Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, during 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons to determine the effects of tillage methods on the nutrient status of an acid Alfisol and grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tillage treatments included: Conventional tillage (CT) and no - tillage (NT). The results indicated existence of significant (P = 0.05) differences between the two tillage treatments with respect to their effects on maize grain yield and soil chemical properties. At the end of 2011 cropping season, NT gave soil organic carbon (SOC) value of 0.73 g kg-1, which was significantly higher than 0.20 g kg-1 for its CT counterpart. Similarly, at the end of 2012 cropping season, NT gave SOC value of 0.62 g kg, which was significantly higher than 0.09 g kg-1 for the CT treatment. At the end of 2011 cropping season, NT gave total N value of 0.49 g kg-1, which was significantly higher than 0.23 g kg-1 for the CT. At the end of 2012 cropping season, NT gave total N value of 0.33 g kg-1, which was significantly higher than 0.08 g kg-1 for the CT. At the end of 2011 cropping season, NT gave available P value of 0.34 mg kg-1, which was significantly higher than 0.23 mg kg-1 for the CT. At the end of 2012 cropping season, NT gave available P value of 0.22 mg kg-1, which was significantly higher than 0.09 mg kg-1 for the CT. The mean values of maize grain yield data over the two years of experimentation indicated that CT gave maize grain yield of 2.35 t ha-1, which was significantly (P = 0.05) higher than 2.17 t ha-1 for its NT counterpart. In conclusion, apart from the micro – nutrients and exchangeable Al, no - tillage gave significantly higher values of other nutrients than the conventional tillage treatment at the end of both cropping seasons. Conventional tillage gave significantly higher maize grain yield than its no – tillage treatment counterpart.

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Abstract: The main objective of the present work is to correlate the optical, semiconducting and thermal behaviour of thiosemicarbazone of benzophenone and benzaldehyde. These crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique (SESGT) for the first time using methanol as solvent. The grown crystals have been characterized by Fourier-transform Infra-red spectral analysis, UV-Visible spectral analysis, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, band gap energy determination SHG efficiency and thermal studies.

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Walid Roundi, Abdellah El Gharad

Abstract: The goal of this study is to highlight the various stress and strain states responsible for degradations of the couple wheel/rail, so the model is applied in three cases of loading, order to compare the results obtained for the three cases and the numerical method applied in this study is that of the finite elements to obtain the form of nodal solution in a very detailed way in the zones which are the seat of stress concentration, deformations and displacements, the results of this study also make it possible to define a strategy of maintenance. The study also shows the fatigue of the wheel, characterized by the lifespan, the safety coefficient and result of damage.

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Avinash Ghorpade, Priyanka Katkar

Abstract: Wavelet Transform has been proved to be a very useful tool for image processing in recent years. Digital images require large amounts of memory to store and, when retrieved from the internet, can take a considerable amount of time to download. Compression makes it possible for creating file sizes of manageable, storable and transmittable dimensions The Haar wavelet transform provides a method of compressing image data so that it takes up less memory. The most distinctive feature of Haar Transform lies in the fact that it lends itself easily to simple manual calculations. Modified Fast Haar Wavelet Transform is one of the algorithms which can reduce the calculation work in Haar Transform. The present paper attempts to describe the algorithm for image compression using MFHWT.

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Chinwko Emmanuel Chuka, Odio B. O., Chukwuneke J. L., Sinebe J. E.

Abstract: Mild Steel is one of the major construction materials used in the industries. It has a young modulus of 200GNm-2. This paper focuses on the experimental study of the corrosion behavior and mechanism for mild steel in five different media namely: 0.1M of Hydrochloric acid, Underground (soil), Atmosphere, Salt water, Fresh water. Mild steel of diameter 1.2cm and 8.5cm long was used for this experiment and studied for a period of five weeks interval weighing and re-immersing. The weight losses were tabulated and analyzed graphically. It was observed that mild steel corroded in the different environments with decreasing intensity in the order of 0.1M of Hydrochloric acid, Underground (soil), Atmosphere, Salt water, Fresh water. It was then concluded that the laboratory immersion test remains the best method of screening of metal, it remains the quickest and most economical means for providing a preliminary selection of best suited materials for engineering applications as there is no simple way to extrapolate the results obtained from this simple test to the predictions of systems service lifetime.

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Sastry V. Emani

Abstract: In this paper I am proposing that gravity is generated at quantum level by the (smallest) particle in motion which is travelling at the velocity of light. I will deduce Gravity constant’s relation with Planck length (lp) and speed of light. In my previous paper, I proposed the smallest particle radius as lp/2 (Planck Length/2). This is a photon and this particle has zero mass (this zero mass as discussed in my previous paper). Using equations derived from my previous paper and Planck’s Energy equations (Ref. 10), I will derive that photon travelling at the speed of light produces gravity in quantum level and a value can be attributed to it.

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Moisi Xhoxhi, Partizan Malkaj, Tatjana Mulaj, Alma Dudia, Aurel Ymeti

Abstract: In this paper is presented a new design for Young Interferometer (YI) biosensor and the analysis of output power of a MMI waveguide that will be used in it. The waveguides are simulated with OptiBPM software, which is a Waveguide Optics Modeling software from Optiwave Coorporation. Output power and excess loss is analysed for 15 and 110 planar MMI waveguides for different wavelengths with TE and TM polarization. It is demonstrated that output power decreases exponentially with the increase of the wavelength for both polarizations. The evaluation of the excess loss shows that it is higher for a TM polarized field for all the wavelengths and periodicities considered. Power imbalance seems to have small values suggesting the use of MMI waveguides as good power splitters. A comparison of the excess loss between 15 and 110 MMI waveguides shows that it remains almost the same for both polarizations for the optimum wavelength ( = 647 nm).

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Rehana Saeed, Zain Ul Abdeen

Abstract: Isotherms for the adsorption of KCl in PVOH-borate hydrogel was studied at 303 K by determining the amount of potassium and chloride ions adsorbed in PVOH-borate hydrogel using ion exchange chromatography and potentiometric titrations respectively. Experimental data was tested for Frendulich’s, Langmuir’s, Temkin’s and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherms equations. The adsorption data follows isotherms in order Frendulich’s > Dubinin–Radushkevich > Temkin’s. Kinetics of adsorption and desorption processes were studied using conductivity method. The applicability of pseudo first order, second order kinetics and intra particle diffusion kinetics were tested. From standard deviation, R2 and 2 values it can be concluded that sorption of KCl using PVOH-borate hydrogel as an adsorbent obey pseudo first order kinetics. Intra particle diffusion rate constant increases on enhancement in the contents of KCl. Obeying Temkin’s isotherm and intra particle diffusion kinetics confirmed the presence of interaction between potassium ions and PVOH-borate hydrogel during sorption phenomenon.

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Atul Mishra

Abstract: This paper evaluates the benefits of combining Web Semantics Design Method (WSDM) and Agile Framework- “Scrum” for modeling and Project Management (PM), respectively, of a Web Applications (WA). Furthermore, it is to detail the potential benefits of combining WSDM and Scrum in the development of WA. Moreover, when WSDM is adopted in modeling, the potential benefits have been reflected. What lacks in WSDM and why there is need of agility has been illustrated and elaborated. Finally, the benefit of Scrum as an effective project management technique for WA development has been discussed.

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Atul Mishra

AbstractL This paper critically compares PHP and ASP.NET for development of web application (WA)which was developed as a part of a module’s assessment. These languages have been evaluated for development of WA functional requirements and features. In other words, the main area where the comparison of these languages has been applied is potential requirements of Car Sales Web Application. The paper begins with defining these technologies and comparing fundamental architectural variances. This paper also explore and compare suitability of selected technologies for comparing features involved in imposing restrictions on accessing navigation and functionality, validation and proactive behaviour involved in validating user input from the browser, providing users feedback, overall time consumed in development and associated security issues.

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Anisiji O. E., Chukwuneke J. L., Achebe C. H., Okolie P. C.

Abstract: this work developed a mathematical model of a biogas plant from a mechanistic point of view, for urban area clean energy requirement. It aimed at integrating thermodynamics; which deals with the direction in which a process occurs and Biochemical kinetics; which gives the understanding of the rates of biochemical reaction. The mathematical formulation of the proposed gas plant follows the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, and further analysis were accomplished to develop an algorithm for evaluating the plant performance preferably in terms of daily production capacity. In addition, the capacity of the plant is equally estimated for a given cycle of operation and presented in time histories. A nominal 1500m3 biogas plant was studied characteristically and its performance efficiency evaluated. It was observed that the rate of biogas production is essentially a function of enthalpy ratio, the reactor temperature, pH, substrate concentration, rate of degradation of the biomass, and the accumulation of matter in the system due to bacteria growth. The results of this study conform to a very large extent with reported empirical data of some existing plant and further model validations were conducted in line with classical records found in literature.

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R.M. Kulkarni, H. N. Narasimha Murthy, G.B.Rudrakshi, Sushilendra

ABSTRACT: This paper focused on investigating the effects of drilling parameters like spindle speed (600rpm, 1860 rpm and 2700 rpm), Feed rate (0.1mm/rev, 0.2mm/rev and 0.3mm/rev), drill point angle (1180, 1100 and 900), drill material (HSS, Co-HSS and Tungsten Carbide) and carbon black (0, 4 and 8 wt %) on the responses: thrust force and delamination factor (entry and exit) in drilling of carbon black dispersed vinyl ester GFRP, by Design of Experiments approach. Drilling experiments were designed to control the drilling parameters based on L27Orthogonal Array. The experimental results were analyzed using MINITAB V16. Signal-to-Noise (S/N) ratio, ANOVA and Grey Relation Analysis (GRA) were employed to analyze the effect of drilling parameters on the quality of the drilled holes. Minimum value of thrust force was obtained for 4 wt% carbon black, 2700 rpm, 0.1 mm/rev, 1100 drill point angle and HSS drill. Delamination was minimum for 4 wt% carbon black, 2700rpm, 0.1mm/rev, 4mm diameter with Tungsten Carbide (WC) drill. SEM confirmed that delamination at the exit is greater than delamination at the entry.

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R.A Adeleke, K.A Oguntuase, R.E Ogunsakin

Abstract: This paper studies the pattern of students’ enrolment and their academic performance in the Department of Mathematical Sciences (Mathematics Option) Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, Nigeria. In this paper, A transition matrix was developed for ten consecutive academic sessions. The probabilities of absorption (Graduating and Withdrawal) were obtained. Also fundamental matrix was obtained to determine the expected length of students’ stay before graduating. Prediction was made on the enrolment and academic performance of students.

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Sastry V. Emani

Abstract: This theory deals with “Equilibrium and Orbital Dynamics of the Solar System and beyond”. In this paper, at first, I will give all the calculations and equations for how the equilibrium of all the planets in our solar system is achieved without flying out of the orbit. Secondly, this paper deals with the reasons why the planets orbit in elliptical path. This paper derives all the calculations and equations needed for the Ellipticity of the orbit and the laws that govern this nature which extends to all the stars, planets and the moons in the universe. Finally, I will specify new universal constants “Sun and planet constants” specifying how the orbits of solar planets and moons of all the planets orbits can be predicted in the whole Universe. Earth-moon history and data will be studied at length. I will extrapolate similar theory to other elliptical orbits of massive bodies in our solar system and beyond.

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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - January 2022 - Volume 11 Issue 1