International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home Archive Contact Us

Volume 11 - Issue 01, January 2022 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Terms and Conditions

C. H. Ugwuishiwu , U. E. Orji, O.Ukwueze , P. O. Ogbobe

Quantum Elements, Efficient Quantum Algorithms and Quantum Error Correcting Codes are some of the fundamental concepts of quantum computing. In this paper, the authors aim to introduce readers and potential researchers to the subject areas to help them appreciate the intrigues and ideas behind quantum computing. The authors introduced the basic concepts of quantum physics which is the foundation for quantum computing. Related literature such as books, journals, conference proceedings, lecture notes and webpages on this field of study were sourced and reviewed from top databases like IEEE Xplore, JSTOR, ScienceDirect etc.

[View Full Paper]  


Aryan Kumar

Psychosis is a medical disorder that affects millions in the US alone. Nearly 3% of the population of the general population will experience an episode of psychosis once in their lifetime. This paper will give a better understanding of the signs and symptoms of early psychosis and the range of its manifestation in patients. Examination of the barriers to early identification along with the impact of misdiagnosis or misdiagnosis. This paper will equip you with the skills to assist young patients and their families which includes the appropriate screening questions for successful identification and explore possible referral options and what to do if appropriate services are not available in the patient’s location.

[View Full Paper]  


Khaled ELMenshawy , Haitham Rizk Fadallah , Marwa Hussien Mohamed

There has been a significant development in the use of consumer data since the industrial revolution, and the companies have been using them to develop their products according to the needs of each individual consumer using personalization technologies, which relied heavily on the development of information technology. Data is the key to personalization. Although there is difficulty in using data in the advertisement in the past, recently, the investment in data increases from 8% to 12% due to the evolution of information technology such as cloud storage and network bandwidth. By studying the consumer's purchase journey, a lot of valuable information about his desires can be collected and analyzed. Personalization technologies combine consumer data, rules, and algorithms through a process model for generating a personalized web page. Web designers typically build websites using a layered design approach called the n-tier architecture, which internally uses three different types of filters depending on business rules to classify and manage consumers.

[View Full Paper]  


Michael G. Garlan

This paper aimed to model purification, amplification and visualization a microbial genomic DNA (gDNA) eluted from Staphylococcus aureus prepared overnight at 37˚C and to compare the amplified gDNA with the standard DNA ladder 1 kb as standardized procedure for student research. The purity of the gDNA was also determined using spectrophotometric analysis with the A260/A280 ratio of 2.0 as the highest and 1.9 as the lowest which indicated the gDNA eluted was within the purity range. The genomic DNA with 4 replicates (A1, A2, A3 and A4) were amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) machine for 1 hour using PCR master mix of 5 µL PCR buffer, 1 µL forward primer, 1 µL reverse primer, 12.8 µL SnpH2O and 0.2 µL Taq polymerase. The amplified DNA as well as the gDNA quality were then determined by loading the EtBr-stained gel agarose wells with DNA samples including the DNA ladder 1 kb as positive control using 1.5 g agarose gel and was photographed using transmitted UV light and polaroid film. Results showed the PCR product indicated successful clones of the gDNA with gene primer sizes of 1500 bp to 1517 bp.

[View Full Paper]  


Angella Nwachukwu, Henry O. Omoregbee, Modestus O. Okwu, Lagouge K. Tartibu, Dolor Roy Enarevba, Adedoyin Adesuji

The energy business thrives with in-depth knowledge and awareness of the subsurface in the oil and gas operations. Strategists have attempted to solve the problem of uncertainties which exist as a result of the complex nature of the subsurface in a variety of ways; nevertheless, the traditional approaches used have failed to provide a reliable guide to apposite decisions on the exploitation of these reservoirs. Artificial intelligence techniques, specifically artificial neural networks (ANN) have been discovered as a possible tool for unravelling the uncertainties experienced during exploration and production (E&P) operations. This research is an exposition and demonstration of the ANN capabilities in E&P operations. Firstly, the nitty-gritties of ANN were discussed. Secondly, information on AI applications in the oil and gas operations was divulged. Then the application of ANN in reservoir characterization, drilling operation, exploration and production were detailed. Finally, a case study was presented focusing on ANN application in drilling operations by considering simple speed in rpm, feed rate in mm/rev, drill size in mm and depth of cut in mm as input variables. The output target is the surface roughness obtained via experiment. The system was trained by using nineteen (19) samples representing 70%of the dataset for training and 30% for testing and validation. The close values of the experimental and predicted results demonstrate the capability of ANN to effectively fine-tune the values of input and output variables and parameters to obtain a good solution.

[View Full Paper]  


Agus Syarif, Nofrans Eka Saputra, Novita Ekasari

Product downstream in the industrial world is a demand for every university in Indonesia. It is expected to increase the quantity and quality of innovation in Indonesia, which is still in the lowest position in ASEAN. The contribution of higher education research in product innovation is still considered insignificant in realizing a startup ecosystem. This study aims to analyze the downstream strategy of the lecturers' research results by analyzing internal and external factors. The method used is SWOT (Strengths-Weakness-Opportunities-Threats) analysis and Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM). The SWOT analysis resulted in four alternative strategies for downstream the results of lecturers' research. The results of the QSPM matrix analysis show that the main strategy of the four alternative strategies obtained is to manage several strengths to take advantage of existing opportunities (strengths-opportunities/SO) with the highest total attractive score (STAS). The strategy is to increase cooperation with industry and other universities by implementing regulations aimed at infrastructure and special financing schemes for lecturers who utilize the use of local raw materials. The strategy emphasizes the implementation of regulations and the implementation of cooperation with the industrial world. For further research, it is recommended to review the existing strategy recommendations and explore the effectiveness of existing regulations. The strategy is to increase cooperation with industry and other universities by implementing regulations aimed at infrastructure and special financing schemes for lecturers who utilize the use of local raw materials. The strategy emphasizes the implementation of regulations and the implementation of cooperation with the industrial world. For further research, it is recommended to review the existing strategy recommendations and explore the effectiveness of existing regulations. The strategy is to increase cooperation with industry and other universities by implementing regulations aimed at infrastructure and special financing schemes for lecturers who utilize the use of local raw materials. The strategy emphasizes the implementation of regulations and the implementation of cooperation with the industrial world. For further research, it is recommended to review the existing strategy recommendations and explore the effectiveness of existing regulations.

[View Full Paper]  


Jeanard Anthony Robiego, Divine Grace Onyot, Francine Panchito, Ryneir Jae Pelenio, Isabel Puerto, Rene Bonifacio

This study sought at evaluating the indigenous language transcendence and preservation practices of the Manobo indigenous cultural community in Mindanao, Philippines. The study is an extended literature review, in which it focuses on synthesizing a broad range of studies for a new perspective. The results revealed that the Manobo indigenous cultural community in Mindanao, Philippines transcend and preserve their language by putting emphasis on the role of family and by using minority languages in many domains; indigenous communities have gradually lost speakers due to the low self-esteem of their members and due to modern advancements; and problems in language preservation are solved through the Indigenous Peoples’ Rights Acts and interventions done by the government. Ergo, the transcendence and preservation practices of the Manobo indigenous cultural community in Mindanao, Philippines are prevalent and supported by the government and various organizations.

[View Full Paper]  


Budy Rahmat, Suharjadinata

The process of forming briquettes requires a tool that was able to compress the material, which consists of particles of charcoal powder and the adhesive used. This research was the initial stage of designing a briquette compression device with a material compression mechanism with manual hydraulic pressure. This research has succeeded in designing a briquette molding device that could mold a mixture of young coconut coat waste charcoal powder with starch adhesive by 10%. The resulting briquettes have an average height of 1.54 cm and a diameter of 3.21 cm. After drying the charcoal briquettes for two days, the moisture content was 7.79%. The results of the characteristic test of young coconut coat charcoal briquettes had the following properties: vapor content 26.74%, ash content 2.76%, bound carbon content 68.66 %, density 0.62 g/cm3, firmness 32.44 kg/cm3, and calorific value 6.21 cal/g. Charcoal briquettes from young coconut coat waste meet quality standards as community fuel based on Indonesian and Japanese Standards.

[View Full Paper]  


Jasem Mohammed Abdeen

There are three situations used to provide cooling air for both flight deck equipment and the main equipment centre compartment racks in the aircraft, the first one is in flight operations: Since the bleed of air supply is always at higher temperature than what is required for the passenger comfort, a means of cooling this air is accomplished in flight by a simple air-to-air heat exchanger; this heat exchanger uses ambient ram air as a heat sink. (to reduce the heat). The second one during ground services: When an air plane is at ground being prepared for the next flight, a moveable air-conditioning system servicing from under the fuselage centre section to meet user system demands. And the third one when the ground services complete, the moveable air conditioning system will be disconnected and then the airplane will be moved to the run way for the departure. This means that it is a critical duration of time because there is no air conditioning is provided to the seating area of the passengers and the temperature of the area will raise to about (90°F) and 85% humidity. It is more critical if this duration of time will be longer which means a higher temperature will be, and leads to passengers discomfort as the pilot will not be able to provide any A/C to the passenger till the airplane is in flight operation.So this paper provides a full study and analysis that leads to develop a new air conditioning system for Aircraft (A320), which can be operated while the aircraft is at the gate or during the critical time between the end of ground service and take off. The successful development of the concept could create a new industry within the Middle East. To achieve the aim of this study, AC load determination, Air craft structure, zones, existing AC system description, ventilation system and pressurization system are needed to make a full study on the required design condition.

[View Full Paper]  


Dwi Retna Kumalaningrum, Uun Yanuhar, Muhammad Musa

This study examines the role of Brachionus sp protein on the interleukin-10 anti-inflammatory immune system in cantang grouper infected with Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN). The purpose of this study was to determine the protein content of Brachionus sp. which has the potential as an antivirus and to find out the benefits of Brachionus sp. on the expression of Interleukin-10 as an indicator of increased fish body defense system against VNN. Testing of Brachionus protein by injection at doses of 35 µl, 105 µl and 170 µl /150 gram cantang grouper. The results showed that the lowest decrease was at a dose of 105 µl/150 gram cantang groupers.

[View Full Paper]  


Fayez Sayer Al Mutairi – Ameen Abdulkareem Alansari

Operating air conditioning and refrigeration systems consume great amount of electrical power in buildings and industrial plants . According to energy ministry in the state of Kuwait , equipment power consumption spends more than 45% on HVAC operation “Ref [ 1 ] “ . This energy spend is going to rise as industrial developments and population growth over coming years . This study discuss the different ways to reduce energy demand by AHU used as an essential part of the cooling system . The main study points on steps which can save significant amount of power and reduces consumption are to minimize air leakage from unit casing and a proper sizing and selection of AHU components such as fans, motors , coils filters and dampers .Results showed that energy reduction of air leakage decreased up to (6 %) , and fans, motors, coil and filters decreases up to (9%) .It is concluded the result of resizing the internal components and improvement of AHU performance cannot be ignored .

[View Full Paper]  


Sultanov Damir Utkurovich

this report illustrates an excursion into the history of Samarkand. The tripartite division of the city belonging to different periods and layers of historical cultures. For each part, particular approaches to the reconstruction, modernization and renewal of the environment are highlighted. The development of a new tourist infrastructure of the studied routes shows a variety of directions in their functional use, due to which the above objects become more attractive and innovative, gradually developing the sphere of tourist activity.

[View Full Paper]  


Fytilis S. Konstantinos

Business research consists of a set of important quantitative techniques based on mathematical programming, which have been used effectively in various management processes. Linear programming is one of the most widely used techniques in this group. For a long time, linear programming was used for programming in agriculture and crop management. The present study uses linear programming for crop management in an afro area in central Greece. The current situation is compared with the best solution proposed by the methodology. The solver tool of excel is used. Constraints taken into account are fertilization, irrigation, working hours and land uses. As a result, there are savings of restrictions and a significant increase in yields of the proposed crops.

[View Full Paper]  


Babatunde S. Emmanuel, Paul O. Michael

The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) is an electronic device widely used as the building block in all commercial processors, memories, and digital integrated circuits (ICs). MOSFET is fabricated from semiconductor materials such as silicon. This paper presents the simulation study of the output characteristics of silicon MOSFET with a p-type substrate and n-type doped regions for source and drain interfaces as a switching device. The significance of the results obtained in the analysis is that at the applied input gate voltage greater than the threshold voltage of 1.2V, the MOSFET switch operates in the ON state while at input voltage lower than the threshold voltage indicated that the device is in the OFF state. In addition, at a gate voltage greater than the threshold voltage, the output drain current is directly proportional to the applied gate voltage. Perhaps, more significantly, as the value of the applied gate voltage increases the output drain current increases proportionally. These simulated characteristics of the MOSFET are therefore suitable for electronic switching applications.

[View Full Paper]  


Edward, Mohammad Ihsan, Ade Perdana Siregar

The growth of the creative industry in Indonesia has become a pillar in the economy. This phenomenon has illustrated that human resources have the potential to be ready to compete abroad. The weak ability of creative industry players in knowledge, skills and attitudes towards finance can hinder the growth of creative industry entrepreneurs. The objectives of this study are: (1) To examine the influence of entrepreneurial competence on the performance of creative industries; (2) Assessing the influence of entrepreneurial competence on financial literacy; (3) Assessing the influence of financial literacy on the performance of creative industries; (4) Assessing the role of financial literacy to be able to mediate the effect of entrepreneurial competence on the performance of creative industries. The study population was the population of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Jambi Province. The sample is 200 business actors in Jambi Province for more than 2 years running a business. The data method uses the data analysis method used with measurement of Structural Equation Modeling using the SmartPLS software. The results of the study show that (1) financial literacy shows a significant positive effect on the performance of the creative industry, increased performance must be supported by increased financial literacy; (2) entrepreneurial competence shows a significant positive effect on the performance of the creative industry, the better the competence of business actors, the better the performance; (3) entrepreneurial competence shows a significant positive effect on financial literacy, increasing entrepreneurial competence possessed by business actors, the better financial literacy owned by business actors; (4) financial literacy as a mediation of the influence of entrepreneurial competence shows a significant positive effect on the performance of the creative industry, financial literacy is considered a variable that strengthens entrepreneurial competence in decision making as an effort to improve the performance of a business.

[View Full Paper]  


Ade Titi Nifita, Husni Hasbullah, Garry Yuesa Rosyid, Ade Perdana Siregar

Indonesia is the largest country in Southeast Asia with the largest digital economy in 2020. Lifestyle changes provide opportunities for local businesses to expand their marketing networks and be able to publish regional specialty products. Batik Jambi has enormous potential if it is promoted with an extensive network. Management in digital content marketing is thought to be the right choice to promote Jambi batik. The objectives of this research are: (1) To examine the influence of lifestyle on purchasing decisions; (2) Assessing the influence of lifestyle on digital content marketing; (3) Assessing the influence of digital content marketing on purchasing decisions; (4) Assessing the role of digital content marketing in mediating the influence of lifestyle on purchasing decisions. The population of this research is consumers who purchase goods through social media, while the sample is consumers who have at least more than two purchases of Jambi batik through social media as many as 200 people. The data method uses the data analysis method used by measuring Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using the SmartPLS software. The results show that (1) digital content marketing shows a significant positive effect on purchasing decisions, the role of technology development is useful in delivering digital information that can improve purchasing decisions; (2) lifestyle shows a significant positive effect on digital content marketing, the higher the lifestyle changes, the application of digital content marketing must increase by adjusting the lifestyle; (3) lifestyle shows a significant positive effect on purchasing decisions, with increasing lifestyle changes in consumers in their environment affecting the increase in consumers in making purchasing decisions; (4) digital content marketing as a mediation for the influence of lifestyle shows a significant positive influence on purchasing decisions, digital content marketing is considered a variable that strengthens the influence of lifestyle in purchasing decisions

[View Full Paper]  


Rene Bonifacio, James Vincent Minguez, Desryll John Mongado, Dinver Monte De Ramos, Ma. Abbygale Ojales, Tamarra Jamme Ong

Ethnolinguistic vitality is the ability of a group to further preserve and maintain its existence in time without the threat of cultural assimilation. This article reviews the literature evaluating the ethnolinguistic vitality of indigenous communities in the Philippines in terms of rooting their language and identity. We focused on six (6) indigenous communities: the T'boli, the Mandaya, the Higaunon, the Talaandig, the Manobo, and the Subanon, as they were the ones that had been surveyed for ethnolinguistic vitality studies. We extracted the details of each community and categorized them into five (5) discussions: history, ethnolinguistic vitality, language, and identity, variables, standard model, and indigeneity. Only the Mandaya showed significant ethnolinguistic vitality, an observation supported by them also being the only group reported to have met the standard model. The T'boli managed to preserve their customs until discrimination against indigeneity and poor access to education and healthcare threatened assimilation. We found that dying ancestral oral traditions and an absence of written documents had been responsible for the Higaonon’s fading linguistic distinctiveness and the Talaandig’s language being neglected, respectively. We also found that the loss of speakers and outright rejection of the language and/or identity had, for the Manobo, come from a lack of institutional aid, failure of elders to teach the language, and, especially for the Subanon, prejudice. In conclusion, low vitality groups face cultural assimilation; indigenous peoples in the Philippines, in general, lack in the variables to maintain their ethnolinguistic vitality, and discrimination discourages indigenous people to identify as indigenous.

[View Full Paper]  


Sulieman A.S Hazineh, Derar Eleyan, Maan Alkhateeb

Technology is considered as most dynamic aspect of our life, it affects our living standards, way of living and how we are interacting and proacting, thus we can say that its vital rather than important…. The technological development indeed has transformed the rigid government policies and strategies toward e-government, were as to become more dynamic, responsive, accessible, effective and provided in more efficient matter. The e-government is considered as a main instrument and medium to improve and enable access of various stakeholders including citizens to a wide variety of services, which is in role will improve and enrich the effective usability of information and communication technology (ICT) tools to provide better, improved, advanced, transparent, and reliable sources of services to the macro level of society. Accordingly, the government plans and initiatives shall be available to the public through e-government portals with improved accessibility and high level of security and privacy. Many of developed countries have integrated but up to a certain limit the e-government models whereas other still under development phase and continuous improvements. Nevertheless, along with the recognized and desired benefits and synergies that e-Government may provide to governments, stakeholders and the societies on macro level, it still faces many obstacles and challenges. Therefore, there are always several critical success factors and risks associated with e-Government that we will try to address.

[View Full Paper]  


Aderinsola E. Kayode, Taiwo O. Olagunju and Fulufhelo G. Netswera

Reading is very important in determining success and worth of school and academic work. One of the skills of reading is comprehension skill. However, the poor performance of Nigerian students in English Language Public Examinations has been located partially in their lack of reading skill. Scholars have raised concerns about the effectiveness of teaching comprehension skills in schools. Recent effort in addressing the problem involves the use of information and communication technology devices with proven comprehension strategies. This paper provides additional information to show evidence for the effectiveness of technology in reading instruction with the use of inquiry strategy. It was suggested that English Language teachers in public secondary schools should be trained with the use of modern ICT tools.

[View Full Paper]  


Idrees M A SH Alkandari

The storage of agricultural products has long been a problem in developing countries. Because most countries' populations are growing at a quicker rate, food shortages are a possibility in such countries. Many ways of food preservation are utilized to prevent this problem, with solar drying being one of the most prominent. Because solar energy is inexpensive and readily available, it is advantageous to dry agricultural goods in the most efficient manner possible. Direct sunlight exposure to dry things has a negative impact on product quality. It is planned to review a solar dryer technology to achieve higher drying rates in different climates. The primary goal of this study is to review all active and passive solar dryer technologies. Finally, it is concluded that, the food dried in a solar dryer was higher than food dried in direct sunshine. Furthermore, the forced convection solar dryer dried faster than the natural convection solar dryer.

[View Full Paper]  


Jephter Kapika Pelekamoyo, Hastings M. Libati

The study explores the use of Artificial Intelligent Machine Learning (AI/ML) models in forecasting Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs’) local goods’ quantity purchase, buying and goods selling prices, from the day-to-day local weather conditions of low and high temperatures. The use of weather parameters in forecasting for SME market parameters proved to be an accurate procedure for SME market parameters’ forecasting than other methods which use time-series methods. The weather was chosen as the independent variable, as it impacts local production and influences human behaviour in ways that most traditional methods cannot compute. With the inclusion of weather, AI/ML forecast models considered the seasonal variations of demand and supply traits due to seasonal shifts in the popularity of certain goods and services. This can give SMEs a better market business insistence. SMEs herein included the marketers who trade in household edible commodities. The study’s findings will give SMEs an added advantage, with insists on increasing their savings, reducing losses, minimizing resource wastage, with a prior overview of coming business risks and opportunities. The AI/ML forecasting models explored, included the Multivariate Linear Regression model, and Logistic Regression model built using visual C# DotNet, and an ‘Encoder-Decoder Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Neural Network modelled with python language. The study contributes to the body of knowledge by elaborating how ML applications will give SMEs a chance to take pre-emptive measures, by prior planning and controlling cash flows, balancing spending with revenues and adjusting sales targets. It also proposes how ML applications should use personalized localized data in forecasting business parameters

[View Full Paper]  


Dr. Ahmed Mahade, Dr. Abdallah Elmahi

This paper is intended to investigate the faculty annual Performance evaluation methods in Sudanese universities and review people involved in the evaluation process. This paper also looked at the perspectives of the senior management on evaluation system and templates. The main instrument to obtain the results was a survey. The participants were faculty administrational and teaching faculty at public universities. In recent years, many researchers have been conducting studies on similar areas, and many have shown positive outcomes. Studies have shown increases in positive evaluation and performance relations. The analyses of the results has proved the need for the comprehensive new model of evaluation to be used at Sudanese universities, It also showed that there is agreement upon the participants on the uses, effects and the impacts of the performance evaluation on both universities and people evaluated.

[View Full Paper]  


Ajeba Wilfred, Onwuama Ikenna Chigozie, Abdulsalami Muyideen, Bawonda Femi Ikotoni

Sufficient energy is pivotal to the socio-economic development of any country. Rural communities in Nigeria lack energy access owing to long distance, difficult terrain and cost of grid extension.The alternative solution to the use of fossilized power generation to solving the energy crises in these rural communities and guaranteeing sustainable energy access is the use of green energy technology-renewable energy resources. Fortunately, renewable energy resources abound in Nigeria and are harnessable using appropriate green energy technology. This work considered the evaluation of an off-grid small hydro power (SHP)-solar photovoltaic (PV)-diesel generator (DG) – battery bank (BB) hybrid power system as a pathway to attaining energy sufficiency and sustainability for Nigeria's rural communities using Itoikin, a rural community in Lagos state, as case study. Aye river in Itoikin and the solar resource of this community were used for the study. The peak load of the area was obtained from the Nigeria’s National Control Center (NCC), Oshogbo, while the daily load profile was projected through questionnaire. The hydro data of the area were obtained from Ogun-Oshun River Basin Development Authority, Abeoukuta, Ogun state, while the solar data were obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)’s global satellite database. The capital costs of all the system components were from different component manufacturers and suppliers in Nigeria and Oversea. These parameters were the input for the hybrid optimization model for electric renewable (HOMER) software used the for simulation. The optimal energy systems were selected using the criteria of less levelised cost of energy (LCOE), less net present cost (NPC), less excess electricity, minimum annual capacity shortage etc. The resultant hybrid architecture was also compared with an autonomous diesel generator for the same community in terms of emission and economic consideration to appreciate the ecological advantage of green energy technology. The results showed that PV-BB-SHP is the optimal configuration for Itoikin area. The NPC is $1,464,633,000, LCOE $0.276/kWh and renewable fraction (RF) 100%. The result shows environmentally benign hybrid power system that can guarantee sustained and sufficient energy access to Itoikin community at minimum cost to improve the community's quality of live and socio-economic activities. The work will can also provide the impetus to researchers, investors, government and policy makers for green energy technology exploitation in Nigerian rural communities lacking energy access.

[View Full Paper]  


Basem Nasser, Derar Eleyan, Maan Alkhateeb

The rapidly growth nowadays of information technology influence the world in many aspects, such as the e-business, geographical boundaries, government services, and banking sectors,...etc. Currently, the E-government is considered as a vital medium for providing government services with much comprehensiveness and efficiency, were as it improves the government performance credibility and proactivity in addition to enabling quick responses to wide aspects. This paper in specific review and assess the latest literatures related to e-government implementations, factors affecting it or affected by it (two-dimensional assessment) in term of economic sustainability, governance, collaboration, and urbanization. About the effect of e-government on the sustainability indicators, the paper outputs illustrate that digital transformation of government infrastructure and services enhance corruption control and governmental best practices. According to our findings, the paper provides recommendations for better future implementation of e-government and setting the related framework on how to dedicate technology to be used in the process of public sector reform.

[View Full Paper]  


Sandisiwe Gladness Zondo, Fikile Qwabe, Precious Mahlambi

This study, was conducted to evaluate the uptake of heavy metal from the soil by root vegetables and their translocation within different plant parts. The analysis was conducted using inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy after nitric acid digestion with microwave assisted method. Sweet potato roots had high uptake of heavy metals with arsenic (22.2 µg g-1), cadmium (19.2 µg g-1) and lead (21.6 µg g-1) compared to other vegetables studied, however carrot roots had higher chromium uptake of 30.8 µg g-1. The total concentrations of the toxic metals (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, lead) were found to be higher than permissible limits in soil and edible parts. All nutritious metals (cupper, iron, manganese, nickel, zinc) were detectable in all samples and within permissible limits. Zinc concentration ranged between 20.9 to 40.7 µg g-1 in edible parts of all vegetables studied, with the highest concentration in sweet potatoes and lowest in potatoes. Among all heavy metals studied, cadmium showed high bioaccumulation factor rate which was highest in carrots (0.97) and lowest in sweet potatoes (0.61). Iron showed the lowest bioaccumulation factor rate <0.01 in all root vegetables studied. The presence of these metals in vegetables reveals their potential consumption by humans and thus health effects, thus their continuous assessment is of importance, also prevention measures need to be considered.

[View Full Paper]  


Rose Moraa Ogendi, Elijah Maronga

Globalization has changed the way corporations carry out their businesses. With changes in technology and the availability of information to consumers, corporations have had to adopt strategies that enhance their competitiveness and encourage growth of business. The Postal Corporation of Kenya has not been left behind by the influence of globalization and changes in technology. The Corporation has seen a decrease in the volume of mail and parcels that it handles. With the changes in technology, the Postal Corporation of Kenya has faced a series of challenges and has been driven to re-invent to stay afloat in the service industry. However, the Corporation’s poor performance may be attributed to strategic responses to competition in the industry. Some of its competitors are service providers such as Wells Fargo, DHL, G4S courier services, Overseas courier, Easy Coach, and Guardian Coach. This paper seeks to assess some of the ways the corporation could re-invent itself to improve its competitive position. It seeks to provide alternative strategic responses to counter competition. The paper focuses mainly on diversification combined with Porter’s generic strategies of low-cost leadership, differentiation, and focus. A company may attain above average industry returns if it combines diversification with the generic strategies.

[View Full Paper]