International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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Volume 7 - Issue 1, January 2017 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Abdul Halil Hi. Ibrahim

This study aims to find the effect and role of public participation in improving the performance of general election commission (KPU) on Ternate city Mayor election of North Maluku Province. The research method used is survey method, which is observed directly the object being studied conducted on large or small population but the data are taken and that will be studied is the sample from the population. The data is qualitative that is cumulative by using a statistical method. The research model uses a simple linear analysis of the relationship of public participation in improving the performance of KPU. The data were collected by interviews and observations, while the tools used in data collection were questionnaires. Stages of data analysis as follows; validity and reliability test, classical assumption test, linear regression analysis, determination analysis, and hypothesis test. The result shows that the variable data for all test shows the accuracy and validity is very good, so it is known that the effect of public participation on the performance of KPU in Ternate City is 54,9%. This indicates importance role of public participation to the election commission performance in Ternate City, related to horizontal, vertical, relationships, means, decision-making, security and order, political, economic, social, cultural, decision-making, activity planning, implementation activities, monitoring, and evaluation of activities and utilization of results of activities.

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This research aims at documenting and studying the origin and distribution of private health expenditure in Cyprus, with focus on the economic relations between the health system and households, whether they involve standard transactions or underground (black) economy. In this context, a specially developed questionnaire was used, gathering data from 400 households from all over Cyprus, via telephone interviews. The recording and processing of data and results was performed with the use of the statistical platform SPSS, applying methods of descriptive and inferential statistics on the available data, in order to present the results of both the first-degree statistical analysis, which included studying the frequency distribution of alternative answers provided by the participants and those of the second-degree statistical analysis as well, which investigated the possible relations between the participants’ demographics or other information and their decisions regarding the dissemination of private health expenditure.

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Mayuri R. Tone, M. B. Gudadhe

Social media and Social Network Analysis (SNA) acquired a huge popularity and represent one of the most important social and computer science phenomena of recent years. One of the most studied problems in this research area is influence and information propagation. The aim of this paper is to analyze the information diffusion process and predict the influence (represented by the rate of infected nodes at the end of the diffusion process) of an initial set of nodes in two networks: Facebook users contacts users commenting these posts. These networks are dissimilar in their structure (size, type, diameter, density, components), and the type of the Relationships (explicit relationship represented by the contacts links, and implicit relationship created by commenting on post), they are extracted using Node XL tool. Three models are used for modeling the dissemination process: Linear Threshold Model (LTM), Independent Cascade Model (ICM) and an extension of this last called Weighted Cascade Model (WCM). Networks metrics and visualization were manipulated By Node Xl. Experiments results show that the structure of the network affects the diffusion process directly. Unlike results given in the blog world networks, the information can spread farther through explicit connections than through implicit relations.

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Yogita Ninama, G. V. Mishra

Access to safe drinking-water is essential to health, a basic human right and a component of effective policy for health protection as per the published guidelines of WHO. The contamination of drinking water leads to major health burden, particularly in areas which are considered on lower side of human development index. The water-borne diseases owing to quality deterioration and fouling are major community health concern among rural and underdeveloped regions in developing nations. The study related to this problem was conducted in Dungarpur, located in southern Rajasthan of India. This hilly region constitutes 80% of rural populace which are largely tribal and the district on the whole is classed among least developed in country. Drinking water is either accessed from ground water or provided through supply line by government department, for which some water bodies are used as the supply sources. These water bodies are rainfall dependent and fed through some limited catchment area. Hence, water level exhibits fluctuations through different seasons of the year and so the quality profile of water there. Major water bodies used as the source of drinking water in district headquarter city Dungarpur and adjoining areas are- Adward samand and Demia Dam. Other related water bodies are Gaip Sagar and Sabela Talab. The objective of this study was to ascertain the pattern of physic-chemical and microbial changes in different seasons of the year and analyze its probable health hazards.

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Emy Svetlana Agren, Sirkku Männikkö Barbutiu

Current research is aiming to explore the possible technological and human-related factors preventing the growth of e-commerce in Pakistan. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been collected with survey strategy and a mixed method approach is used for analyzing the data and presenting the results. Findings suggest that several hindrances, such as trust deficit, non-exist digital divide between payment infrastructure, digital divide among male and females and lack of appropriate cyber security laws, exist preventing the growth of e-commerce in Pakistan. Based on the findings, appropriate recommendations for improving the use of e-commerce in this densely populated country are presented.

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Liana Dwi Sri Hastuti, Jane Faull

A bioassay pot trial using three species of the nematode-trapping fungi isolated from Sumatera Utara Indonesia were tested for potential as biocontrol agents. The 10 ml conidial suspension of Arthrobotrys oligospora containing 1x107 of conidia was added to the tomato media growth. Carbofuran® as chemical agent were also tested against Meloidogyne hapla on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.). Tomato plants were cultivated under growth cabinet conditions at temperatures between 22-25ºC and 12 hours light and 12 hours dark cycle. An inoculant of M. hapla containing 3 egg masses was injected into the soil around the roots of 15 days old tomato plants. A. oligospora and Carbofuran® treated plants showed reduced numbers of infections by M. hapla in term of swollen of roots, sausage shaped and galls, moreover all treatments enhanced growth in terms of length, root length, fresh, and dry weight. Results from the biological agents such as A. oligospora and the chemical agent Carbofuran® as standard nematicide indicate that all offered disease reduction.

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A. K. Bhatnagar, Scientist-E NIC

Election process of MPs and MLAs for Parliament and State Assembly is predefined and based on predefined systematic procedures to complete within a time frame with zero error. Election Commission of India delegates the power to District Election Officer (DEO) / Returning Officer in a transparent manner right from nomination to the declaration the of Winner as MP/MLA. This is a very tedious process which has been automated by our software. This software manage the Polling Personnel process which includes Election employees selection, duty assignment, training, party formation, three stage randomization, duty orders of Polling party on Polling Stations etc as per Election Commission guidelines.

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Darwis, Novianti

Seniors are a part of the process of growing flowers. People do not suddenly become old, but growing from infants, children, adults and eventually grow old. Elderly is a natural process that is determined by God Almighty. Where is this person experiencing physical, mental deterioration and gradual social (Ma ' Rifatul Azizah, 2011). The purpose of this research is to know the relation between Psychosocial Conditions with Less Nutritional Status In elderly at Clinics Salomekko, Bone Regency. The design of this research uses descriptive analytic method with cross sectional design where researchers do the observation and measurement of variables only once at a time i.e. the time study data. The sample in this research is elderly community in the work of public health Salomekko Bone Regency as much as 42 people are assigned using the purposive sampling techniques. Data collection using the questionnaire sheet. Data that has been collected is treated using univariate Analysis spss program in the research to find the frequency distribution data and analysis bivariat to find relationships between variables with the chi square test. Bivariat analysis results obtained by the relationship between psychosocial conditions with less nutritional status in elderly (p < α) namely 0,011 < in this research Conclusion .1 there is a relationship between psychosocial conditions with less nutritional status on the elderly.

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N.M. Tuxboyeva

The great Movorounnakhr was founded on the initiative of Amir Timur who played an important role with his workmanship and fair policy in history from the beginning of the 14th century. The architectural heritage that belonged to Amir Timur and the Temurids’ period is wide ranging and multifaceted owing to the fact that this culture was extended over a large area in the 14th and 15th centuries. Amir Timur’s heritage that played a key role in his architectural activities is his inimitable and unique architectural monuments which have survived to the present day. Very few of the architectural old relics and monuments that were built by order of Amir Timur have actually been preserved to the present day. However, the manuscripts of the 15th century and the historians lived after that period testified that there were a great number of other architectural relics and monuments. These old relics and architectural heritage have not lost their values for centuries with their constructional designs and architectural uniqueness. There is not full historical information about who and how actually built these architectural complexes. Therefore, studying the history of architectural designs, collecting the data on the basis of analyzing archive materials and existing books on history of that period and leaving them to the future generations are one of the pressing problems in the world today.

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Sunarko, Kustamar, Tiong Iskandar

The manufacture of block paving at CV. Tirto Mas, Watukebo Village, Blimbingsari Sub-District, Banyuwangi District in fulfilling the demand with fierce price competition, should find a new breakthrough. It is performed by finding a cheap substitute material in good quality. The application of value engineering to the manufacture of block paving is performed by replacing the use of stone ash material with natural stone ash. This research aims: 1) to analyze the type of material that can be used to produce block paving more effectively and efficiently after the application of value engineering in the manufacture of block paving, 2) to calculate the cost savings before the application of value engineering using stone ash and after the application of value engineering using natural stone ash in the manufacture of block paving, 3) to know the quality of block paving’s compressive strength before the application of value engineering and after the application of value engineering. The result of the research in the application of value engineering conducted to the manufacture of block paving at CV. Tirto Mas, Watukebo Village, Blimbingsari Sub-District, Banyuwangi District, East Java Province is the stone ash material. The amount of the cost saving or cost reduction after the application of value engineering is IDR 2,145,000.00 with the percentage of 72.22%. Next, the total funding is 24.07%..

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Nurliana Harahap, Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar, Dwi Ratika Putri, Andrie Juliansyah, Evan Erwansyah

Agricultural counseling using the LAKU SUSI Method of Practice (Exercise, Visits and Supervision) is one way of assistance to the farmers /groups/ groups of farmers who are done on a scheduled, regular and focused and sustainable basis. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors and magnitude of the influence of each independent variable (X) on the effectiveness of LAKU SUSI (Y). This research uses survey method conducted during November to December 2016 to 61 counselors of respondents in seven sub-districts in Batu Bara Regency. The data collected were analyzed descriptively in the field and regression analysis. The results showed that the independent variables showed significance (F (5.61) = 4.869, p <0.05). Furthermore, there are real effects of each variable, namely: Susi's effectiveness is the Extent of Agricultural Extension Working Area (AEWA) (X1), Extension Working Task (X2), Education (X4) and Extension Material (X6) with each contribution variable X1 (21,6%), X2 (31,3%), X4 (21,9%), X5 (12,9%) and unaffected variable are regulation variable (X3) and professional extension enhancer (X6). There are four variables which given significant influence, such as: AEWA, extension worker, education and extension materials are strategic factors that influence the effectiveness of LAKU SUSI method.

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Season Maharjan

The challenges in underground excavation depends upon rock mass strength, method of excavation and stress and deformation behavior of rock. It is important to obtain reliable estimates of these problem as early as possible in order to carry out construction with least difficulties. Squeezing is one of the common problems in excavation in Himalayan region where weak rock mass moves radially inward leading to decrease in size of excavated portion. Different methods has been used for the estimation of potential squeezing phenomenon. As rock consists of complex formations and exhibit a wide range of behaviors, the analytical methods provided some approximate solutions only. For the simulation of deformation and support behavior, numerical approach has been carried out for the case study of Ankhu Khola Hydropower Project (42.9MW). RMR and Q-Value were found to be poor to fair for Phyllite schist with overburden varying from 49 m to 613m for headrace tunnel of the same project. Consequently, support system has been designed for the potential squeezing sction.

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Yuniasih Purwaningrum

In Indonesia, in 2013 the prevalence of anemia in adolescent girls reached 57.1%. Many ways to prevent and treat anemia include consuming foods containing high iron and other nutrients that complement the formation of Haemoglobin, one by administering a mixture of juice of green beans and guava containing protein and iron is high enough that needed in the formation hemoglobin, as well as biological vitamin C produced red guava can increase the absorption of iron in food. This study was conducted to determine the effect of a mixture of green bean juice and guava against Haemoglobin levels in adolescent girls aged 13-16 years in the dorms Islamic Education Foundation Raudlatul Akbar Jember. The method in this study using the Pre Experiment with the design of the study one group pretest-posttest. A population of 45 people. Sampling using simple random sampling, in which a sample of 40 people. Of the 40 respondents performed blood sample is obtained as much as 28 respondents who are anemic. For the division as many as 14 respondents dick group and a control group of 14 respondents. The research instrument using digital Haemometer. Data analysis using t-test. The results of the study average hemoglobin level before treatment was 10,921gr / dl, and the control group was 11.450 g / dl. After treatment of a mixture of green bean juice and guava in the treatment group was 12,586gr / dl, while the untreated control group was 13.371 g / dl. There is a significant effect both for the treatment and control groups in the delivery of a mixture of green bean juice and guava against hemoglobin. Suggestions for this research’s place was the mix of green bean juice and guava as an effort to prevent the occurrence of iron deficiency anemia in adolescents as the preparatory process of pregnancy and childbirth.

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Tatok Endhiarto

Investors are interested to invest in Indonesia Stock Exchange with the aim of gaining abnormal profit based on Islamic syariah. Some theories and studies have concluded that the prevailed Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) revealed that security analysis was just a useless effort as it would not provide significant abnormal return.The objective of this study were (1) to analyze the EMH theory applied for investment transaction in BEI ( weak or semi strong ); (2) to examine the technical analysis in providing significant abnormal return for the investor and (3) to analyze the profitability of fundamental model. Daily and fundamentaly data of the stock in Jakarta Islamic Index (JII) from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed using descriptive and inferring methods. Runs-test and auto correlation test were employed to examine the EMH, while profit announcement was used to examine semi strong EMH. Trend moving indicators such as moving average and Parabolic Stop were used to test the profitability of technical model, while PER and PBV were used to test the profitability of fundamental model.The results showed that the stock market was not efficient or weak form. However, a test toward either AAR or CAR showed that the stock market was efficient in semi strong. The use of buy and sell signal resulted from the technical and fundamental models could generate positive abnormal return but was not statistically significant.

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Noor Muhammad, Dr. Tanveer Hussain Bokhari, Fatima Saleem

These Colors are shaded mixes which are used for passing on shading to the silk, nourishment stuffs, materials and fleece. Direct dyes were at first familiar fiscally for application with cellulosic fibers and this was so far their most essential use. The improvement rate of direct dyes for cellulosic strands was depended upon to continue growing. The present research work was related to prepare of new 4,4-diamino biphenyl stilbene - 2,2-disulphonic destructive based direct shading. This prompt shading was organized by methods for buildup, diazotization, hydrolysis and coupling forms. The joined shading had been associated on cellulosic material by debilitate process. Shaded surface qualities moreover had been concentrated, for instance, light speed, rubbing snappiness and washing speed. Application qualities like salt focus, pH, shading temperature and shading time were moreover shown. The fundamental depiction of consolidated 4,4-diamino biphenyl stilbene - 2,2-disulphonic destructive based direct shading were done with fourier change infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

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Windy Indah Yulianda, Dr. Muhammad Syaifullah

The background of this research is the combination of qardh and ijarah contracts, and the calculation of the cost of rent place done by syariah bank with equal 2% per month from the loan debt value. This research is a qualitative research, the type of research is fieldresearch as for the method used is descriptive method. Research Sites at BNI Syariah in Pontianak City, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Data source is primary data, that is data obtained by through interview and observation in BNI Syariah. Secondary data, ie data reports and documents related to research.Teknik and Data Collection Tools, data collection through observation techniques, interviews, documentation and field notes. Data Analysis Techniques, namely reduction, data display and data verification and conclusion. Technique of Data Validity Inspection with member check technique and triangulation. The results of research are 1) the practice of syariah pawn in BNI Syariah can be quite good, based on interview result of the researcher to the resource person. The first thing done by the customers is to come to the sharia bank by bringing the lien of gold, after which the customer fill out the filing form and make the contract to the sharia bank. After all the requirements are submitted to the bank, the bank will realize the submission and the customer will get the financing; 2) Maintenance and storage costs of Marhun are determined based on the loan amount. The determination of tariffs and maintenance fees is determined by the value of the loan as well as the estimated gold. As it is known that in the application of Fatwa DSN MUI No: 25 / DSN-MUI / III / 2002 has not fulfilled the gold mortgage agreement.

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Hadir El Kady, Osama Nasr El-Deen Mohamed, Amani Farouk Abaza , Yasser Hassan Mousa Zidan

Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) is a group of 17 closely-related species that emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen. It causes serious infections in clinical settings because of its high intrinsic multiple antibiotic resistance and because it survives and multiplies in aqueous hospital environments including disinfectants. Infections caused by BCC include bacteremia, urinary tract infections, septic arthritis, peritonitis and respiratory tract infections; particularly in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Hemodialysis, permanence in intensive care units (ICUs), use of central venous catheters, and endotracheal tubes are recognized as risk factors contributing to BCC acquisition. B. cepacia selective agar (BCSA) is rapid efficient and for selective isolation of BCC. The RapID NF Plus is an accurate, rapid, easy system to identify BCC in four hours. This cross-sectional study aimed to study the occurrence of BCC infection among ICU patients in two private hospitals in Alexandria during a 4-month period from February to May 2016. Comparison of isolation of B. cepacia on conventional media and on BCSA, besides identification of isolates by RapID NF Plus system was also aimed at. Conventional media and BCSA medium were used to isolate and identify BCC in 150 examined samples. Further confirmation of BCC isolates was done using RapID NF Plus system and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was detected.Causative agents were isolated from 74% of samples. The infection rate was highest in the third week of hospitalization. BCC was isolated from 7.2% of samples. The highest rate of isolation occurred in patients with pulmonary diseases. All BCC isolates were found to be multiple drug resistant (MDR) but were highly susceptible to ceftazidime, meropenem, and piperacillin- tazobactam.

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Putri Indah Nurhikmah, Eko Kusumawati, Dwi Susanto

This study aims to determine effect of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Liquid Organic Fertilizer application to the phosphorus concentration on soybeans grown in acid soils of post-coal mining. The research use completed randomized factorial design, consisted of two treatment: (1) Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Inoculation, M0= 0 gr, M1= 10 gr, M2= 20 gr, M3= 30 gr, and M4= 40 gr per plant. (2) Liquid organic fertilizer application ,P0= 0 mL, P1= 10 mL and P2= 20 mL per plant .The results showed that the inoculation of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae as much as 40 grams and 20 mL of Liquid Organic Fertilizer gave the best result to the increased concentrations of phosphorus in plant tissue but did not show any increased in the phosphorus concentrations of soil.

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Ch Sajjad Ahmed, Saeed ur Rehman Malik

All enterprises are managing their day to day affairs using IT based applications. In these applications, the most valuable asset is Data. A Relational Database Management System is utilized to retrieve and maintain the data in an efficient manner. (RDBMS)[1] was coined in Late-Seventies by E.F. Codd and since then all commercial and enterprise database are following RDBMS Model. Importance of data and its volume make RDBMS favorite targets for attackers. These attacks can result in compromise of a Database in many ways. In this paper the challenges and threats being faced by RDBMS are identified

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Dian Nuzulia Armariena

The issues in this research are cultural valueswhich are in poemKomering“Inggok” in Mengulak village Madang Suku Idistricts. The method used in this research was descriptive qualitative method. The data in the research were Komering poem “Inggok”. The data were obtained from three people namely; Mr. Somad (70 years old); Mr. Sukri (75 years old) and Mrs. Zuhro (65 years old). The technique collecting, thedata were interviews, observation and recording. The data were analyzed using content analysis techniques. The results of the research showed that Komering poem “Inggok” was a part of oral literature of Mengulak society. Cultural values contained in Komering poem “Inggok” were cultural values in human relationships with God, with the community, with other human beings, with ourself, and with nature. Beside that, the results of the poem recording showed that kinds of poem were children’s poem, young poem and old poem.

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Marwa G. Saad, Hesham M. Shafik, Laila Mekki, Radwa El-Kholy

At constant time and temperature, pure cultures of Chlorella sp. and Desmodesmus quadriquadatus studied under different nitrate concentrations of 375, 186, 94, 47, 23 and 0.0 mgl-1 to enhance biodiesel production. Nitrate reduced gradually from concentration to another each 7-day cultures. Biomass for all cultures estimated as chlorophyll-a (µgl-1) and dry cell weight (gl-1). For all 7 days` cultures, biomass productivity (mgl-1d-1), lipid content (% biomass) and target fatty acids (%TFAs) for biodiesel production were detected. Because biodiesel quality and quantity affected by growth and lipid content; nitrate concentrations of 23 and 375 mgl-1 were suitable to cultivate Chlorella and D. quadricaudatus for production of biodiesel where Chlorella results` were; biomass productivity; 263mgl-1, lipid content; 87.49%DCW and TFAs; 42.71% while at 375 mgl-1 NaNO3 D. quadricaudatus results` were; biomass productivity; 290.3mgl-1, lipid content; 57.98%DCW and TFAs; 65.39%. Biodiesel samples produced from both species accepted for both ASTM and EN standards. In this paper, the highest percent in lipid content and biomass productivity for Chlorella sp. and Desmodesmus quadricaudatus comparing with other literature recorded. In addition, this paper considered the time as an agent for biodiesel production, that no other paper had considered.

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Kadirova Surayyo Adilovna

The purpose of modern equipments and interiors is to teach the students the basics of design, design and interior design of residential, public and industrial buildings, to show them interiors social reality, and to explain the meaning and methods of practical social studies conducted in this field. The course focuses on the development of the basics of architectural planning solutions of interior designs of the social program of modern housing, architectural design of public and industrial buildings, and the future activity of future architects on the creation of modern regional residential buildings in the specific conditions of Central Asia, included.

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Wan Arfiani Barus, Abdul Rauf, Rosmayati, Chairani Hanum

The aim of this research was to determine the effect of different levels of Potassium Phosphate (KH2PO4) fertilizer on nutrient uptake of rice under saline conditions. This research was arranged in a factorial randomized block design with two factors, i.e.: Variety and KH2PO4 fertilizer concentration with 3 replications. Eight rice varieties used were Ciherang, IR 64, Lambur, Batanghari, Banyuasin, IR 42, Inpara 10 and Margasari. Four levels of KH2PO4 concentration were 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/l. Results showed that Potassium Phosphate application was alleviated the stress condition and significantly affected nutrient uptake in rice. Potassium Phosphate fertilizer applications through the leaves with a concentration of 150 mg/l (P3) gives the best results for all variables observed. Banyuasin had the better growth in saline soil than other varieties.

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The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that influence entrepreneurial intentions among students in Ghana. The research was carried out by a survey method. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 731 undergraduate students pursuing regular and part-time programmes in a Ghanaian public university. Data were analysed using correlation and multiple regression analysis through the SPSS. Results of standard multiple regression showed that six out of the 23 factors explored in the study significantly influenced student entrepreneurial intention. A follow-up forward regression analysis showed that exposure to other entrepreneurs and experienced network is the most significant predictor of student entrepreneurial intentions. This was followed by dissatisfaction with previous job. The findings further showed that utilization of better opportunity in the market least predicted student entrepreneurial intention. This study contributes to the pool of knowledge by revealing the factors that influence the entrepreneurial intention of Ghanaian tertiary students. This is very significant to the development of entrepreneurial activities in Ghana especially in developing curriculum for entrepreneurial education and governmental policies to boost entrepreneurship in the nation.

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The purpose of this research is to analysis the influence of firm size on financial distress in agricultural companies listed in indonesia stock exchange from 2012 to 2014. Altman Z’s Score, net profit margin, cash ratio, and natural logarithm total assets are used as the proxy of financial distress and firm size. Through purposive sampling method, 18 companies were used as a sample in this research. Data used in this research were secondary ones which obtained from company’s financial statement and Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD) from 2012 to 2014. The analysis methods of this research is used multiple regression analysis. The result is showed that firm size have effect but no significant towards financial distress.

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Simon Warui Mwangi, Johnson Changeiywo, Bernard Nyingi Githua

Kenyan secondary school students have continued to perform poorly in mathematics in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) examinations. The reason for the poor performance in mathematics has been attributed to several factors, which include: poor teaching methods, lack of teaching and learning resources, and abstract nature of mathematics. Some mathematics topics have been labeled hard to teach and learn by the teachers and the students respectively. Loci is a topic in the form four syllabus that is labeled hard or difficulty to teach and learn. The students� performance in the topics has consistently been poor. This study sought to investigate effects of using Computer Animated technique on Loci during instruction on students� misconception made in the mathematics topic. It was hoped that the use of ICT would improve the sorry state of mathematics misconceptions. ICT has been used in teaching and learning of chemistry with remarkable improvement. The theoretical frame work to guide the study was based on constructionist theory of learning where the students constructed new knowledge from real life experiences. The researcher constructed Computer Animations on Loci concepts to augment the teaching of loci. Solomon Four, Non-Equivalent Control Group Research Design was used. To ensure that there was no interactions between groups a Simple random sampling was used to assign each group to a specific sub-county out of sixteen Sub-Counties in Kitui County. A purposive random sampling was used to choose a school for each group that had graduate teachers teaching form four and had a computer laboratory. The study was carried out in a mathematics classroom setting. The two experimental groups were exposed to Computer Animated Loci technique as the treatment while the two control groups were taught using the conventional teaching/learning methods. The sample size was 207 students consisting of 95 girls and 112 boys. A Mathematics Achievement Tests (MAT), adopted from KCSE past Examinations on Loci was used. Misconception that a student made on Loci concepts in MAT were noted and awarded one mark. The instruments were pilot tested to estimate their reliability. The instrument was validated by experts from the Department of Curriculum, Instruction and Educational Management of Egerton University and mathematics examiners. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was computed to be 0.8157 using K-R 20 formula. A Pre-test was administered to the two groups, one experimental and one control before intervention and then the same MAT was administered to all the four groups after intervention as a Post-test. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 was used to analyse the collected data. The t-test and ANOVA were used to test hypotheses at Coefficient alpha (ά) level of 0.05. The findings are expected to be useful to students, teachers, Policy makers, teacher training colleges and curriculum developers in secondary schools because they may be able to identify a teaching/learning technique which may improve the quality of education in the country.

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Sus Trimurti, Lariman

Forest of Unmul Samarinda Botanical Garden (KRUS) is one of the tropical rain forests in East Kalimantan that have diversity of flora and fauna of exotic species and also serves as a research tool, conservation of environment education place as natural recreation area (Ecotourism) (Anonymous , 2005). Especially in the Unmul Botanical Natural Forest Arboretum (KRUS) in this area has a high level of biodiversity is still very high but still at least the species of plants, animals, or fungi are identified in the area. Basidiomycotina Mushroom Difficulties Research in Natural Arboretum of Unmul Samarinda Botanic Garden was conducted from February to March 2015. Observation and data collection was done by transect method by plot ploting purposively. The study was conducted on 3 transects, in each transect made plot 2x2 m which laying based on the presence or absence of fungus (purposive). From the results of research, 54 species of Basidiomycotina mushroom consist of 10 tribes and 5 nations. The dominant species in Transect 1 are Marasmielus candidus and Clitocybula abudans, on Transect 2 Ganoderma applanatum, on Transect 3 Marasmielus candidus and Pleurotus pulmonarius. The dominant Basidiomycotina fungus species in the study area was Marasmielus candidus. Index of macroscopic mushroom diversity at research location 3,277 and evenness index 0.098 and index of dominance of 0.068.

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