International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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Volume 6 - Issue 1, January 2017 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Govinda Sharma, Karan Bhatta, Basu Dev Ghimire, Peter Wilhelm Schnoor, Balaram Khadka, Mahesh Poudel Chhettri, Keshav Kandel

Seismo-ionospheric changes often affect the VLF waves resulting in possible changes in the terminator times and often lead to night time fluctuations. The Bardarbunga volcano which started on 2014 ended on the last days of February of 2015. In this paper we present the results of the VLF analysis of the first three months of 2015 using a signal of 37.50 KHz where an analysis on the sunset terminator time, D-layer dissipation time, daytime fluctuation and night time fluctuation of the VLF amplitude was done. We contrasted the values of these parameters for the first two months of 2015 where the volcano was active with third month of 2015 when the volcano had completely subsided. The Sunset terminator time and the daytime fluctuations in the VLF amplitude for the first two months showed no major anomalies. The anomaly in the D-layer disappearance time and night time fluctuation count reached its peak values for the volcanically active months.

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Naveen Kumar

This research paper is an investigation of the physical ergonomics of the work place in an automotive parts manufacturing company . Material transfer from one station to another station was done by hand, including a walk of a few steps to the next station. The unmachined components that has a quite heavy raw weight, also they are being loaded and unloaded by hand .Due to this continuous practice, some workers began complaining physical pain in their backs and muscular related pains. The work conditions of the workers were assessed using the REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) test to understand the stress and the impact the work environment they are exposed to. Few material handling concepts have been suggested and explained to improve the quality of the work conditions for the workers and the REBA test tends to show some significant improvement when these improvements are implemented into the production line.

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Ikenna Stephen Ezennia, Halil Zafer Alibaba

As architects and home-owners look for innovative ways to help reduce their carbon footprint in the campaign against climate change, straw bale could become a new tool in the building industry’s armory. In order to bring this form of building into the mainstream sector, as well as benefit from its inherent low carbon and high insulation characteristics, it is necessary to guarantee the long-term durability of the straw. Sources of data included extensive literature search of relevant English language articles and the results of literature search of Elsevier Science Direct, ISI Web of Knowledge, ProQuest Central, Scopus, and Google. This study strives to make an exhaustive review of straw-bale performance in different climates and respective improvements from an energy efficiency perspective. This research revealed that when straw-bale buildings are constructed using the correct and specific technique, moisture and thermal intrusion did not seem to be detrimental to the health of the building regardless of the climate. Furthermore, building with straw can lead to low thermal transfer, relatively high thermal inertia and high moisture regulation capacity. The study concluded that, at a time when the importance of building sustainably is widely accepted, it would seem imperative that the potential of building systems like this that use renewable resources, readily available, and have low embodied energy, is further studied.

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M Zulkifl Hasan, M Zunnurain Hussain

In this survey, author will be discussing about light field photography, its importance, techniques used in it to have an excellent output from the normal cameras. Light field photography has become an emerging area due to its refocusing of digital image and 3D reconstruction. Reconstruction of image tells us about its high resolution and refocusing is used to clear the blur image.[1]

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Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan, Muhammad Zunnurain Hussain

The Collective study will critically evaluate the voice over internet protocol (VOIP) Security threats, issues & challenges in the communication over the network, the solution provided by different vendors. Authors will be discussing all security issues, different protocols but main focus will be on SIP protocol its implementation and vendors VOIP security system.

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Delila Rambe, Irma Setyawati

The purpose of this study was to analyze a few good ways to manage stress so that it can improve the performance of human resources. This study used a descriptive design, by exploring some of the literature that discusses how to manage stress so that it can improve the performance of human resources. The results of the research that the key settlement of all the problems being faced, actually there yourself and not on others. It can be used for stress treatment method through self theraphy, namely positive thinking, recipient of the best, lifelong learning, persevering and steadfast, do it now, do not delay, extend the association multiply friend, exercise and cultivate breath.

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Muhammad Zunnurain Hussain, Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan

A single molecule of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is being sequenced by using an innovative concept of Nanopore. The orientation of nanopore define the channel of ions through the pore comes into contact with nucleotide, the permutation and the transition kinematics of each molecule of DNA. The divergence of electrical signal observed when the four chemical bases adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T), present in the DNA passed through the nanopore is being determined. This led to next generation bioengineering and reduces the cost and time of mammalian genome sequencing and makes the process of DNA sequencing extremely easy and easily accessible.

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Muhammad Zunnurain Hussain, Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan

In this paper the authors will be discussing the security issues in MANET & the methods to protect it. Authors will be talk about related work in securing the network, different type of attacks, how to sense these sorts of attack, what are the features of MANET, then will be describing what the requirements for securing network are. Investigation had been done in past to maintain the network from attacks but due to the feature of MANET, inappropriate infrastructure and due to the disperse network quality it is open to attack. Authors will be tackling the defence against each attack. Solution has been suggested, So that the users can use proper authentication techniques and network resources can be properly utilized.

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Sulaiman Muhammad kabir, Dr Halil zafer Alibaba

The change in climate and the rise in energy rates have become a necessary consideration in the construction industry which has made architects and engineers to arise with improved building design concepts. A focus on creating a comfortable indoor climate in office buildings ensures productive working conditions for the users and reduces global warming. Specific climatic design principles are often disregarded when designing to create a comfortable indoor climate. Sustainable design methods in buildings has been replicated from one zone to another zone without adjustments which results to buildings that do not provide adequate comfort. Capillary tube system is used to provide a comfortable indoor climate for office buildings making an interesting use of geothermal energy. This paper aims to explain its principle using geothermal energy and the effect of climate on the use of this system in office buildings in Africa. A case study of Lagos state lying on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean which is challenged with high rise in sea level as a result of global warming in Nigeria and Windhoek in Namibia is to be taken into consideration as the business hub of its country. These regions comprises of many office buildings to facilitate the countries trade internationally and locally.

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Dr. Mahmoud Mohamed Ali, Dr. Kirembwe Rashid Abdulhamed, Muhanna Sulaiman Al-Kindi

The purpose of this study is to investigate the principles and foundations of TQM in various organizations and institutions. After reading theoretical literature, the researchers concluded that, in any administrative system, these principles can be classified in to three sections . The first one is concerned with inputs, whereas the second is related to the processes and the last one is the outputs of the system. The researchers put a table comparing between traditional management and total quality management in organizations.

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Muhammad Zunnurain Hussain, Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan

In this paper, Author will be discussing the security issues and challenges faced by the industry in securing the cloud computing and how these problems can be tackled. Cloud computing is modern technique of sharing resources like data sharing, file sharing, basically sharing of resources without launching own infrastructure and using some third party resources to avoid huge investment . It is very challenging these days to secure the communication between two users although people use different encryption techniques [1].

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Li Jie, Fatma Fawzi

Cloud computing is expected to continue expanding in the next few years and people will start to see some of the following benefits in their real lives. Security of cloud computing environments is the set of control-based technologies and policies absolute to adhere regulatory compliance rules and protect information, data applications and infrastructure related with cloud use. In this paper we suggest a model to estimating the cloud computing security and test the services provided to users. The simulator NG-Cloud (Next Generation Secure Cloud Storage) is used and modified to administer the proposed model. This implementation achieved security functions, potential attacks as defined in the proposed model. Finally, we also solve some attacks over cloud computing to provide the security and safety of the cloud.

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Md. Rezwan Miah, Debashis Sen, Md. Azizur Rahman, Iqbal Ahmed Siddiquey, Md. Mahbubul Alam

In the present report, conductometric studies on the kinetic of formation of AgCl by ionic reaction between Ag+ and Cl in aqueous solution have been presented. The order of the mentioned reaction was determined by a new conductometric approach using half-life method. The obtained result showed that the reaction follows a second-order kinetics. The second-order rate constant of the reaction was obtained conductometrically using different initial concentrations of the reactants in the range of 2.5-5.0 mM. The average value of the rate constant was obtained as 20.648 L mol1 s1 at 25 C.

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C. Setyawan, C. Y. Lee, M. Prawitasari

Land degradation in form of soil erosion due to uncontrolled farming is occurred in many watersheds of Indonesia particularly in Java Island. Soil erosion is decreasing watershed function as a rainwater harvesting area. Good conservation practices need to be applied to prevent more degradation. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of land conservation practice for erosion control through land use modeling in the watershed scale. The modeling was applied in the Sempor watershed Indonesia. Three scenarios of land use were used for modeling. Soil erosion measurement and land use modeling were performed by using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) method and Geographic Information System (GIS) software ArcGIS 10.1. Land use modeling was conducted by increasing permanent vegetation coverage from existing condition 4% to 10%, 20% and 30%. The result showed that the modeling can reduce heavy class erosion about 15-37% of total area. GIS provides a good tool for erosion control modeling in the watershed scale.

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Aliihsan Sekertekin, Aycan Murat Marangoz

Urbanization has been one of the most important issues in recent years. Expansion in urban areas may affect urban ecosystem. Thus, it is crucial to observe the variations in landscape patterns in urban areas. Satellite imagery is one of the effective ways to observe the environment. Besides, spatial distribution of urban areas can be determined using satellite images quickly and accurately. In addition, in order to distinguish urban features from non-urban areas some spectral urban indices have been developed. In this study, Landsat 8 OLI and TIRS data acquired on 7 October 2014 were utilized to retrieve urban areas by the help of spectral urban indices. Zonguldak city, a province of Turkey, was chosen as study area. The objective of this study is to create an Erdas Imagine model to retrieve urban index maps automatically. The obtained results showed that Erdas Imagine Spatial Modeler is a user friendly and effective tool for image processing. Furthermore, different kinds of spectral index maps can be retrieved easily and automatically by creating models.

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Deny Supriharti, Elimasni

Study of gene frequencies and genotype of Sumatra Barbus was conducted to determine the the gene pool of body banding patterns of Sumatra Barbus (Barbus tetrazona) This research were done by examined the genotype and gene frequency in its population at North Sumatra. Sample of Barbus tetrazona were collected among its distributors at Medan and kept at several fish tanks. The acclimatizations were done for several months to growth and mature. When the fish reached its maturity, male and female were separated in a special fish tanks and induced by using a reproductive hormone ( ovaprim 0.5 mg / kg body) for 2 times with an interval 8 hours. Then the male and females of the fish were conducted to mate. After spawning happened, the fry would be separated. The fries were fed by rotifers and maintained until they reach maturity and ready to be mated. The hybrids would be carried out between individuals (P), F1 and F2, also testcross and back cross. Data obtained from those hybrids were analysed by Chi- Square based on Mendel law assumption. The result of the research showed that the majority of Barbus crossing were fit with Mendel’s assumption, except 2 crossing showed unfitness from Mendel’s assumption. The genotype and gene frequencies of the body banding pattern of Barbus also in line with Mendel’s law. The additive complete dominant trait has the highest genotype and gene frequencies which are 0.62 and 0.55 respectively, and the recessive trait also showed the lowest genotype and gene frequencies, 0.09 and 0.29 respectively. Meanwhile the incomplete body banding had the genotype and gene frequencies 0.29 and 0.16 respectively.

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Kamonthip Maichum, Surakiat Parichatnon, Ke-Chung Peng

Organic foods are gaining popularity around the world and consumers of organic foods are on the rise. However, information on the consumer behavior towards purchasing organic foods in developing countries, such as Thailand, is lacking. In this study we develop an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) research model that incorporates organic knowledge to investigate consumers' consumption intention and behavior towards organic food. We derived and examined the model through structural equation modeling (SEM) on a sample of 412 respondents in Thailand, representing 82.40% of the samples that were investigated. Our findings indicated that consumer attitude and perceived behavioral control significantly predicts consumption intention whereas subjective norm does not. Hence, consumption intention has a positive influence on organic food consumption behavior. Furthermore, our results suggest that TPB model mediates the relationship between organic knowledge and consumption behavior.

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Wawan Sulistiono, Taryono, Prapto Yudono, Irham

Growth of sugarcane transplanted bud chips seedlings in the dry land was assessed during 2014-2015 under different levels of interrow spacing i.e. 30 x 100, 45 x 100, 60 x 100, and 75 x 100 cm. The interrow spacing of 60 and 75 cm resulted in an increase in leaf area significantly compared with 30 and 45 cm interrow spacing. Widening the space of up to 75cm did not significantly decrease the leaf area index (LAI) compared with the row space of 30 cm in the grand growth phase and the maturity phase. Planting at interrow spacing of 60 to 75 cm in rainfed dryland produced the highest the crops growth rate (CGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) in the clones of PS864, KK, BL, and VMC during the early phase of maturity, i.e. 8-9 months after planting.

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Rafael Padilla-Vega, Cynthia Sénquiz-Díaz, Dr. Angel Ojeda

This paper reviews a research conducted on mobile technology adoption in the international business trade. Accordingly factors were adopted from the framework technology-organization-environment (TOE) with a set of future research proposals in order to support the suggested model. The paper recommends seven (7) implementation factors that may determine the decision for adopting mobile technology in the international business. These factors have been categorized into the three dimensions of the TOE framework: external task & environment, organizational and technological. The results of the investigation revealed that the modern technology supports the efficiency of the business, reduce the internal process consuming time and increase communication. On the other hand, supports the integration in the long-distance relations.

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Nwoko Christopher Ikpeamadi, Nkwoada Amarachi Udoka, Onu Uchenna Lynda

The abundance of coal in certain regions of Nigeria had been described as an alternative energy solution. The potential information obtained from the physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of coal samples in such regions has enabled scientist and government to make well informed decisions. Coal samples were obtained from Okpara Mine in Enugu state Nigeria and subjected to proximate, ultimate and mineralogical analyses. The results showed that the coal had uneven particle distribution with higher content of fixed carbon and lower amount of hydrogen and volatile matter. The mineral analyses showed that the coal was rich in silicon and aluminum. The rank was bituminous coal that can be utilized for power generation, steel industry, glass manufacturing and thermite process.

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Khin Kyu Kyu Win, Yu Yu Lwin

In this work, three different algorithms such as Brute Force, Delaunay Triangulation and k-d Tree, are analyzed on matching comparison for 3D shape representation. It is intended for developing the pose tracking of moving objects in video surveillance. To determine 3D pose of moving objects, some tracking system may require full 3D pose estimation of arbitrarily shaped objects in real time. In order to perform 3D pose estimation in real time, each step in the tracking algorithm must be computationally efficient. This paper presents method comparison for the computationally efficient registration of 3D shapes including free-form surfaces. Matching of free-form surfaces are carried out by using geometric point matching algorithm (ICP). Several aspects of the ICP algorithm are investigated and analyzed by using specified surface setup. The surface setup processed in this system is represented by simple geometric primitive dealing with objects of free-from shape. Considered representations are a cloud of points.

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Subhendu Das

There are many articles in the literature on the theory of everything (TOE), written by mathematicians, physicists, biologists, neuroscientists, cosmologists, etc. All books of all religions, including Bible and Vedas, also describe a TOE, which are all essentially same. It is the objective of this paper, to inform the scientific community, about the TOE that the religious books describe. The paper attempts to define the requirements for a TOE that can explain, in a uniform way, all the laws of nature described by the religions from all over the world.

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M. O. El-Ghossain

In this work we studied interaction electrons with matter; I calculated the stopping power (in MeV cm2/g) from the theory of Bethe-Bloch formula as giving in the reference , and the Range will be calculated. This has been done for different target materials in biological human body substances such as water, bone, muscle and tissue and different energies electrons. All these calculations were done using different programs; STAR and Matlab, the results will be shown for, stopping power vs energy and Range Vs energy. The stopping power in some biological compounds for electrons was calculated over the energy range from (10-2MeV to 103 MeV). Total stopping power was obtained by summing the electronic (collisional) and radiative stopping power of the target materials, and then employing the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) to calculate the path length (Range). The total stopping power is proportional to Z2 , Z/A and I, increases rapidly at low energies, reaches a maximum and decreases gradually with increasing energy, the data were fitted to a suitable empirical formula as shown in the figures.

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Dr. Mahmoud Mohammed Ali, Dr. Rashid Abdalhamaid Kirembwe, Hamid Salim Said Al Noumani

The role of leadership skills for managers pan of Education educational governorates in the Sultanate of Oman in raising the efficiency of managers and job satisfaction

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Taoufik Chaouachi, Kamel Jemaď

The electric vehicle allows fast, gentle, quiet and environmentally friendly movements in industrial and urban environments. The automotive industry has seen the opportunity to revive its production by replacing existing vehicles due to the reluctance of oil reserves around the world. In order to greatly reduce countries' dependence on oil, strategic sectors such as transport must increasingly integrate technologies based primarily on clean and renewable energy. Governments must implement large-scale measures to equip themselves with electric vehicles and build large recharge networks. The traditional system for conversions of conventional vehicles into electric vehicles consists of replacing the internal combustion engine and the gearbox with electrical components (engine and gearbox, or engine and gearbox), retaining the rest of the elements Transmission (transmission shafts, etc.).

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Anita Dianingrum, Rika Kisnarini, Dewi Septanti

The increasing of population in urban area results in the increase of the housing need and it is followed by the increase of land demand. So that, the development of settlement that considered based on sustainability principle plays an important role for the realization of land use that can be built optimally and efficiently. Therefore, this research needs to be done to propose formulation design concepts for housing site plan rearrangement to make it more efficient. This study used research method and design method. The research method used qualitative research strategy, while data collection techniques used observation and interview with qualitative descriptive analysis technique. While the process of design method included analysis, synthesis, appraisal and decision. The result of this study is design alternative of housing site plan which is proposed to be more efficient.

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Surakiat Parichatnon, Kamonthip Maichum, Ke-Chung Peng

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the technical efficiency of rice production in four regions of Thailand using a three-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) model during the period from 2006 to 2015. The results show a relatively high level of technical efficiency in their production and environmental factors have a significance influence on the production efficiency. In addition, our results indicated that northeastern region has the best scores of technical efficiency and was recognized as the best region for Thai rice production. The findings from this study contribute to improving efficiency production for sustainable development. It is proposed that the Thai government should pay attention to zoning area for rice production and the land holdings should provide sound policies to support modern agricultural machinery for rice production.

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Akanbi Oluwajuwon Mayomi, Atanu Omachoko

This paper examines “Resource Management as a Panacea for Sustainable National Economic Development and National Unity”. The nation has been besieged by numerous problems due to poor resource management. These problems include; corruption, health implications, poverty and inequality in income distribution, ethnic crisis, pollutions, and it has also resulted in economic losses. These problems have militated against the country’s ability to create wealth for the present and future generation. The paper also looked at the concept of conservation and sustainability and their relationship with resource management. The main thrust of the recommendations was hinged on the problems mentioned. These recommendations include making revenue from resources more equitably distributed, compensating the people of the area through the development of infrastructures like health facilities and provision of pipe borne water, making and enforcing laws that will reduce pollution and development of capital projects.

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Eze Somtochukwu Kingsley, Onyeagba Basil Obinna, Madu Okwuchukwu, Maliki Daniel, Okwuego Emeka Charles

Productivity improvement in a school desk production factory was investigated using work study. The study was limited on four most improved areas: safety standards, working conditions, fatigue and material handling. Data collected were subjected to industrial statistical analysis using activity chart and process chart. Results obtained indicate that the improved method saved a time of 1hr 7mins from the old method, reduces fatigue and increases productivity. The results of this finding will be very useful in small scale industries with regard to improving productivity in Nigeria.

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J.A., Houngue, G.H.T., Cacaď, M., Zandjanakou-Tachin, N.C., Azalou-Tingbe, C. Ahanhanzo.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a starchy root plant of great economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa and particularly in Benin. Its production is confronted to virus diseases which cause a considerable losses of yield. This work aims to determine the impact of thermotherapy and chlorothalonil in the production of cassava material of plantation. Cuttings of four varieties: RB89509, BEN86052, 91/02319, 92B/0057 are cultivated under two conditions of thermotherapy and a control under greenhouse during 4 weeks. These different conditions are: a closed drying oven with 16 hours photoperiod at 40 °C the day and 36°C the night; a drying oven “Binder” with photoperiod of 12 hours at 38°C the day and 28°C the night and the control carried out under the conditions of the greenhouse. The media used was Murashige and Skoog (MS) added with various amounts of chlorothalonil: 0.6 g/l and 2g/l and control without chlorothalonil. Both techniques of thermotherapy eliminate the virus symptoms of cassava at the rate of 0 seedling infected in thermotherapy against 16 seedlings in natural condition. The technique of closed drying oven significantly favors the production of nodes at 5% level (p=0.000) and shoots (p=0.02) on the other hand Binder drying oven has no significant effect on the production of shoots (p=0.68). The chlorothalonil had a positive effect on in vitro infestations elimination of cassava (p<0.05) but influenced the growth and development of cassava explants by reducing of nodes production (p<0.01) without a lethal effect on the plantlets until the dose of 2g/l.

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Ola Homaidan Noueddine

Rural development is progressively seen as an important for solution for expanding the financial viability of large areas, stimulating social recovery and enhancing the life style of rural groups. Many countries try to eliminate rural neediness and to have substantial potential in attracting visitors and social development looking for new progress. This paper argues that the social event of sustainable activities and attractions, and the development of rural life, empowers co-operation and organizations between groups and government. Meaningful community participation, together with public sector support, presents opportunities for the development of small-scale original sustainable and community projects in less developed areas. This paper interrogates the development of rural routes in Lebanon and highlights factors critical to its success.

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Ifo suspense Averti

In Republic of Congo, forests occupy 64.6 % of the territory. They spread from north to south over nearly 22,106 ha distributed in three major zones: the forest of the Northern Congo (68%), the forest of Chaillu (16%) and the forest of Mayombe (7%). The remaining 9% are mosaic forests and savannah, mostly gallery and forest clump (HF) forests like in the Iboubikro site (3°11’S, 15°28’E). Currently characterized by a positive dynamics for at least five or six centuries, these natural forests could play an important role in the mitigation of CO2 in the atmosphere. The objective of this work: i)-quantifying carbon stock in forests and savannah; (ii) following deep inputs of organic matter originated from savannah and forest. The results obtained showed that the total carbon up to one meter is more important in the gallery and secondary forest than under the savannah. We obtained up to one meter 6.4 kg.m-2 in the GF, 6.2 kg.m-2 in SF and 4.6 kg.m-2 in the savannah. The three means of total C are differ from one site to another (p=0.0001). A Study of the variation of δ13C with profile depth showed that in the forest, the δ13C values were close to those of C3 (-26‰), δ13C decrease in depth until -19‰ in the deepest at -100 cm. Under savannah, the δ13C values are close to those of C4 vegetation (-13.6 ‰). In all the profile under savannah, we observed that the δ13C values are constant. We concluded that there is a clear mixture between old organic matter from savannah and the new organic matter from trees. The result suggests a net effect of the growing of forest on the old savannah vegetation due to climate change in this area.

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Nasrin Sayahi

One of the types of renewable energy, is the wind energy that has been caused using doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) widely. When the wind speed is lessor more than allowable range, wind turbine is isolating main Grid. And when the wind speed place in permitted range, it is connected to the Grid again. Reconnected Wind turbine to the main Grid cause that turbulences in the current and the output voltage of the generator and reduce power quality. In this paper, reconnected wind turbine to the main Grid is doing in presence battery storage source in order to increasing stability, reducing turbulences and increasing power quality. Battery storage source by control interface inverter, cause increasing stability, reducing turbulences and increasing power quality in reconnected wind turbine to the main Grid. Results of simulation confirm good and proper performance of battery storage source in reconnected wind turbine to main Grid.

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Yogesh Yadav, Rajas Walavalkar, Sagar Suchak, Abhishek Yedurkar, Swapnil Gharat

Object Detection with small computation cost and processing time is a necessity in diverse domains such as :traffic analysis, security cameras, video surveillance etc .With current advances in technology and decrease in prices of image sensors and video cameras , the resolution of captured images is more than 1MP and has higher frame rates. This implies a considerable data size that needs to be processed in a very short period of time when real-time operations and data processing is needed. Real time video processing with high performance can be achieved with GPU technology. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of different image and video resolutions on the processing time, number of objects detections and accuracy of the detected object. MOG2 algorithm is used for processing video input data with GPU module. Fuzzy interference system is used to evaluate the accuracy of number of detected object and to show the difference between CPU and GPU computing methods.

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Mahadeva Nayak, A. Nagarajan, Muhammed Majeed, Lakshmi A. Mundkur

Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. belongs to Moraceae family and is endemic to Western Ghats and Kerala in India. This species is found to be effective in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, diarrhea and pimples. However, extensive biological evaluation on each component of this specific species rarely appears in the literature which restricts its applicability as medicinal herb. The leaf, bark and wood of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. were separately extracted with hot ethanol. The wood extract was further fractionated to isolate major active molecule whose structure was determined from its NMR spectra and LCMS analysis. All the extracts of A. hirsutus Lam. were then studied in vitro to evaluate their potential on tyrosinase inhibition, free radical scavenging activity by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Furthermore, their effects on melanogenesis inhibition were also evaluated by using murine melanoma cells. Activity guided fractionation of wood extract yielded a pure molecule that was characterized as oxyresveratrol. It was observed that antioxidant activity was higher in wood extract compared to the leaf and bark extracts. Isolated pure oxyresveratrol exhibited a significant antioxidant potential with ORAC value of 36,653±2570 µmol Trolox equivalent/g and having an IC50 of 4.3 µg/mL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This molecule was found to be effective for the tyrosinase inhibition with an IC50 of 0.1 µg/mL and melanogenesis inhibition in cultured melanoma cells by 44.62% at 0.2 µg/mL. Oxyresveratrol also exhibited significant inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion from J774A1 murine macrophage cell lines. This study provides substantial evidence for the presence of oxyresveratrol in the wood of A. hirsutus Lam. with promising anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin lightening property.

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Abdul Manaf Tubaka, Hamka Napping, Armin Arsyad, Tasrifin Tahara

This study has five objectives. Firstly, why religion of Noaulu can survive in the Midst of social change Increasingly. Secondly, how the relationship that has developed between Naulu Community and the government maintains Reviews their identity. Thirdly, how the government treats the minority of Noaulu along with Reviews their existence. Fourthly, how the factors of social ,, culture and politics influence the sustainability of the political dynamic of Noaulu community in Sepa. Sixthly, how the shared value that has been applied by Noaulu community and the political identity as addressing the political dynamic of the social structure of society. This study used a qualitative method with the approach of verstehen or understanding to dig the data is from inside (inside view) of values or meanings that comes from the subject of the study through the individuals and the phenomenon of political identity in Noaulu community. Data were gained through the observation, depth interview and documentation. The analysis of data begins with making the abstraction, Categorization, coding, checking the correctness of the data and then interpreting the data is and drawing the conclusion. Results of the study Showed that; firstly, the religion Becomes the adhesive strength of identity that Allows the sustainability of Noaulu Community. Secondly, each of the minority community, it will adapt Strategically to the power of the state in the relations of Resistance in compliance. Thirdly, the New Order State has made the space plurality of race, religion and ethnicity in the political stability that is rigid, Thus it turns off the articulation space of religion and cultural identity of each minority group. Fourthly, factors of social, cultural, political and give impact in the area of social relations, culture, and politics as well. Fifthly, each of minority community, always possess shared values such as high trust, commitment to the religion, loyaity to the group, and the value of reciprocity where everyone helps each other, keep exist. Reviews These practices Become a marker strength to the identity politics of Noaulu minority community in maintaing Reviews their beliefs of religion and culture.

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Ahmed Ibrahim Safana, Muesser C. Nat

The research conducted a systematic review on peer reviewed literature of Massive Open Online courses that encapsulated the finding of more than 40 articles, by employing the procedure of meta-analysis and primary-analysis in the bid of addressing the research question, is MOOCs a way out to African Institutions? An open code context method was applied to validate the articles for the sake of comparisons. The validation result shows a certain level of overlapping based on the Open Code Context procedure on the reviewed literature researched, which led to meta-analysis that minimized the overlap. The primary data collected have been analyzed using the primary-analysis procedure. Even though, the size of the random effect means was as minimum as 0.23, hence, a significant difference from zero statistically. A heterogeneous distribution of fixed effect model was applied to the primary- analysis and the mean effect size was 0.21 and 0.22 using the random effect model. The result, the gaps, the implication and the prospect future of the research was particularized and discussed.

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