International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home Archive Contact Us

Volume 4 - Issue 1, January 2015 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Terms and Conditions

Md. Mahbub Alam Prodip, A.H.M Kamrul Ahasan, Md. Liton Hossen

Abstract: The political parties introduced various kinds of political cultures in the political avenue after the independence of Bangladesh in 1971. Hartal is one of the most indispensable measures that political parties use to achieve their goals as well as to ensure the desire and demand of mass people. It was vastly used to overthrow autocratic regime to retain the Parliamentary form of democracy and to introduce a Non-party Caretaker Government system in Bangladesh. However, hartal is losing popularity due to its destructive features. In recent years, people expect that political Parties should maneuver new programs which will not make any negative impact on their daily life and country’s dynamics. In response to people’s demand, political Parties have been complied to precede new features in Bangladesh politics. Thus, Road March has been emerged as an in-offensive, non-violent and a peaceful way of protest of political parties. The paper depends on secondary materials including books, journal articles and contemporary newspapers. The study revealed that road March is a peaceful and non violent way of achieving goals of political parties rather than hartal with popular supports.

[View Full Paper]  


Jakalia, I. S, Aning, A.A, Preko, K. Sackey, N, Danuor, S. K.

Abstract: Continuous vertical electrical sounding (CVES) technique was used to investigate the soil moisture content of a maize farm at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Kumasi, Ghana. The soils of the maize farm were categorized into four different land preparation modes; ploughed-harrowed, ploughed, hoed and no-till plot. Time-lapse measurements with CVES was carried out using the multi-electrode Wenner array to investigate soil moisture variation with the help of the ABEM Terrameter SAS 4000 resistivity meter. The results showed a heterogeneous distribution of soil moisture content both spatially and temporally. Most of the water available for plants’ uptake was within a depth of 0.20 – 0.40 m which coincided with the root zones of the maize crops. In addition, the no-till plot was found to conserve more moisture during dry weather conditions than the rest of the plots. The research shows that CVES technique is applicable in monitoring shallow soil water content in the field and the results obtained could be used to optimize irrigation scheduling and to assess the potential for variable-rate irrigation.

[View Full Paper]  


Mouden Samira, Ahami Ahmad Omar, Mouilly Mustapha, Fayez Noureddine, Hajji Ahmad

Abstract: Also called sickle cell anemia Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease of autosomal recessive linked to abnormal structure of the hemoglobin which leads to the formation of hemoglobin S (HbS). The descriptive and cross that we conducted at the pediatric ward of the regional hospital Gharb study Chrarda benihessen Kénitra we were enjoying a work force of 164 children with sickle cell disease over a period of twenty four months ( from June 2010 to June 2012 ) . On average seven to eight (7-8) new cases per year. The majority of these children admitted to the exhibit acute complications that are typically associated either to a chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso -occlusive crisis, acute chest syndrome, or severe infections, which aims to identify factors likely to play a role in the occurrence of the sickle cell crises. This can cause severe functional consequences (with renal, lung, bone, etc.). In order to understand the problems and difficulties faced by sickle cell and their families in their daily lives, we have established a protocol form of a questionnaire exploring various aspects related to eating habits and lifestyle of these children. and their families, as well as family socioeconomic status, and the context of environmental life The size of the control group study consists of 60 children aged 7-14 years. Clinical and analytical information is collected from records, medical records and doctors during consultations of these patients. The results show that 71% of these children are from rural areas against 20% of children of urban origin, while 9% live in suburban area however. The majority of parents have irregular income, low educational attainment. 68% of these children use septic false in parallel they use well water in consumption and domestic use. Clinical examination and blood cell abnormalities formula revealed prevalence of 76% for fever cases painful crises severe recurrent and unpredictable also observed, as well as "acute chest syndrome " ( pneumonia or pulmonary infarction), a bone or joint necrosis unpredictable 43% for leukocytosis . As we noted the presence of diarrhea in this sample. In conclusion, the present study showed an association between the frequency of sickle cell crises especially infectious presented by the children studied and the environmental quality of family life in which the child develops.

[View Full Paper]  


Manya Sharma

ABSTRACT: This paper tells about the technologies used in PHP and how they are related to ASP.NET. The paper begin with the introduction of PHP, defining what and how technologies has been used in development of User Complaint Web Application. How thistechnology is related to ASP.NET in features such as implementation, functionality, validation and proactive behavior involved in validating user input from the browser, providing users feedback, overall time consumed in development and maintenance.

[View Full Paper]  


Andem, Andem Bassey, Okorafor, Kalu Ama, Ekanem, Sunday Ben

Abstract: Factor analysis were applied to investigate the most distributed and valuable factor as regards water quality parameters of Calabar River. Four sampling station were chosen along course of the River. Samples were collected monthly from January to December, 2013 usually between 7:00am to 10:00am. The physico-chemical parameters investigated in each case were surface water temperature, pH, dissolve oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS) and heavy metals, all from surface water. The result of this study shows that Conductivity, TDS and TSS recorded for high positive loading of 0.641, 0.873 and 0.836 respectively for the first component while in the second component high positive loading of 0.751 and 0.639 were recorded for DO and BOD and for third component copper and cadmium recorded for high positive loading of 0.657 and 0.522 respectively during the dry season. During the wet season, high positive loading of 0.912, 0.864, 0.806, 0.786, 0.755, 0.666, 0.637 and 0.628 were recorded for DO, TDS, chromium, TSS, conductivity, surface water temperature , BOD and copper in the first component. pH and Iron had high positive loading of 0.737 and 0.697 respectively for second component and Lead recorded high positive loading of 0.811 for third component. The study reveal that chemical factors were more distributed and valuable than the physical factors, this means that contribution of Industrial and anthropogenic activities discharge into the River were clearly indicated by factor analysis. In other to restore our aquatic ecosystem, there is need to re-enforce environmental laws and guideline standard for effective water quality management.

[View Full Paper]  


Andem, Andem Bassey, Okorafor, Kalu Ama, Oku, Ene Esien, Ugwumba, Adiaha Alex

Abstract: Evaluation and Characterization of Trace Metal Contamination in the Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo) Index of Ona River was conducted for six months. From the result of this study, the mean values of lead ranged between 0.004 mg/kg and 0.330 mg/kg, while the mean iron was highest (5.05 mg/kg) in station 4 and lowest (2.26 mg/kg) in station 5. The mean chromium value ranged from 0.007 mg/kg (station 1 and 2) to 0.021 mg/kg (station 3 and 4). The mean copper was highest (3.97 mg/kg) in station 1 and lowest (0.008 mg/kg) in station 2. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed the same trend in spatial variation of these heavy metals. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in lead, chromium and copper among the study sampling stations and insignificant difference (P>0.05) in iron among the study sampling station. The PLI values recorded for all the stations were below 1. Thus the sediment of the study stretch that Ona River is unpolluted. The Igeo values for chromium and iron fall in class ‘0’ in all the five sampling stations, indicating that there is no pollution from these metals in the Ona River sediments, lead fall in class ‘3’ in station 4indicating moderately to heavily contaminated condition and class ‘0’in station 1, 2, 3 and 5 and copper fall in class ‘3’ in station 4 and 5, in class ‘6’ in station 3 indicating extremely contaminated condition. The Igeo values were consistent with those derived for PLI. All trace metals had concentrations below the EPA regulatory limits for sediment except iron. From the results of this study, sediment quality reflects the impacts of anthropogenic activities on quality of the river. However, the continuous build-up of the metal contaminants can be checked if relevant government agencies ensure strict compliant of industrial standards which stipulate treatment of industrial waste before discharging such contaminated effluents/wastes into River. Therefore, perpetual assessment is highly recommended to minimize the potential health hazards of the people who surely depend on the River water for fishing and agricultural purposes.

[View Full Paper]  


Aluko J. Olubunmi, Omidiora E. Olusayo, Adetunji A. Bola, Odeniyi O. Ayodeji

Abstract: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is an eigen-based technique popularly employed in redundancy removal and feature extraction for face image recognition. In this study, performance evaluation of three selected PCA-based techniques was conducted for face recognition. Principal Component Analysis, Binary Principal Component Analysis (BPCA), and Principal Component Analysis – Artificial Neural Network (PCA-ANN) were selected for performance evaluation. A database of 400, 50x50 pixels images consisting of 100 different individuals, each individual having 4 images with different facial expressions was created. Three hundred images were used for training while 100 images were used for testing the three face recognition systems. The systems were subjected to three selected eigenvectors: 75, 150 and 300 to determine the effect of the size of eigenvectors on the recognition rate of the systems. The performances of the techniques were evaluated based on recognition rate and total recognition time.The performance evaluation of the three PCA-based systems showed that PCA – ANN technique gave the best recognition rate of 94% with a trade-off in recognition time. Also, the recognition rates of PCA and B-PCA increased with decreasing number of eigenvectors but PCA-ANN recognition rate was negligible.

[View Full Paper]  


J.A. Kupolusi, R.A Adeleke, O. Akinyemi, B. Oguntuase

ABSTRACT: In this research work, attempt was made to critically analyze the effect of Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) to various categories of road traffic accident in Nigeria for a certain period of time over all the states of federation including Federal capital territory. This was done by using panel data regression model. The conventional OLS estimator applied to panel data has over time led to inconsistent estimate of the regression parameters due to lack of adequately handling individual specific effect of the parameters. A better and preferable estimation method was exploited in this analysis to obtain a more reliable result that can be used for prediction of likely future occurrence. Among all the estimation methods considered, only the fixed effect panel data regression method with heteroscedasticity variance-covariance tools gives a consistent estimate of the regression parameters.

[View Full Paper]  


Oladejo Duduyemi, P.O. Ngoddy, B.I.O. Ade-Omowaye

ABSTRACT: Osmotic dehydration is a widely researched and advantageous pre-treatment process in food preservation but has not enjoyed industrial acceptance because if its highly concentrated and voluminous effluent. The Pearson’s square algorithm was employed to give a focussed attack to the problem by developing a user-friendly template for reconstituting effluents for recycling purposes using Java script programme. Outflow from a pilot scale plant was reactivated and introduced into a scheme of operation for continuous OD of fruits and vegetables. Screened and re-concentrated effluent were subjected to statistical analysis in comparison to initial concentrations solution at confidence limit of (p<0.05). The template proven to be an adequate representation of the Pearson’s square algorithm, it is sufficiently good in reconstituting used osmotic solutions for repetitive usage. This protocol if adopted in the industry is not only environmentally friendly but also promises significant economic improvement of OD process. Application: Recycling of non-reacting media and as a template for automation in continuous OD processing.

[View Full Paper]  


Obuka, Nnaemeka S.P., Utazi, Divine N., Onyechi, Pius C., Okoli, Ndubuisi C., Eneh, Collins O.

ABSTRACT:This study develops a computer application in Visual Basic computer programming language capable of computing the sensible and latent cooling loads of a single zone of a non-residential building taking all the influential factors into consideration, using the CLTD/SCL/CLF method.The developed program is enhanced with a special Graphical User Interface (GUI) to make it more User friendly. Basic equations relating to the problem were presented, these are mainly assumptions proposed by ASHRAE for its calculation of heat gain and cooling load.The calculation was based on the atmospheric condition and parameters obtainable in the month of March at 8hours interval between the 8.00hrs and 16.00hrs of the day. This space cooling load calculation was carried out for an actual building in University of Nigeria Nsukka (i.e. 3rd year lecture room in Mechanical Engineering Department) using the developed program and the maximum space loads which are required for the space are 11432 watts sensible and 4120 watts latent.

[View Full Paper]  


Jonatan Ginting, B. Sengli J. Damanik, Jamuda M. Sitanggang, Chairul Muluk

Abstract: There is a shade factor and low organic matter content of the soil is a problem that needs to be addressed in the development of upland rice cultivation as intercrops in the plantation area. Based on these considerations, then one study that needs to be done is to conduct experiments on the effect of shade factor combined with the the provision of the organic material to the some varieties of upland rice that has been recommended nationally. The objective of experiment is to study the influence of shade, organic materials and varieties on the growth and production of upland rice. This research using experimental design of Split - Split Plot Design with 3 treatment factors and 3 replications or blocks. The first factor is the treatment of shade with 3 levels shade percentage (0%, 20% and 40%). The second factor is the dosage of organic material consists of 3 levels (0 g / polybag, 25 g / polybag, 50 g / polybag and 75 g / polybag). The third factor is the treatment of varieties consists of 4 types of upland rice varieties (Si Kembiri, Situ Patengggang, Situ Bagendit and Tuwoti). The research results showed that the effect of shade on upland rice varieties decrease number of tillers, number of panicles, number of productive grains, grain production per hill of uplnd rice plants and total sugar content of upland rice plants. Effect of organic matter increases number of panicles, number of productive grains, grain production per hill of upland rice plants and total sugar content of upland rice plants. It is known that the the variety of Situ Patenggang provides better growth and production compared with three other varieties (Si Kembiri, Situ Bagendit and Tuwoti) in shaded conditions.

[View Full Paper]  


Aravinthan Arumugam, MohdAmizi Nor

Abstract: Resistance spot welding is a process which is widely used in the automotive industry to join steel parts of various thicknesses and types. The current practice in the automotive industry in determining the welding schedule, which will be used in the welding process, is based on welding table or experiences. This however may not be the optimum welding schedule that will give the best spot weld quality. This work concentrates on the parameter optimization when spot welding steels with dissimilar thickness and type using Grey Based Taguchi Method. The experimentation in this work used a L9 orthogonal array with three factors with each factor having three levels. The three factors used are welding current, weld time and electrode force. The three weld characteristics that were optimized are weld strength, weld nugget diameter and weld indentation. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) that was carried out showed that welding current gave the most significant contribution in the optimum welding schedule. The comparison test that was carried out to compare the current welding schedule and the optimum welding schedule showed distinct improvement in the increase of weld diameter and weld strengthas well as decrease in electrode indentation.

[View Full Paper]  


Abdul Rehman, Luan Jingdong, Yuneng Du

Abstract: This paper formulates and reviews Pakistan's last five years economic growth rate and its comparison with the growth rate of China, India and Bangladesh. As growth rate, "the amount of increment of a specific variable has gained within a specific period of time and context." In fact economic growth rate provides general direction and magnitude of growth for overall economy.

[View Full Paper]  


Agnes Puspitasari Sudarmo, Mulyono S. Baskoro, Budy Wiryawan, Eko Sri Wiyono, Daniel R. Monintja

Abstract: Many complex issues faced the livelihoods of small-scale fishermen in the town of Tegal, including problems of exploiting coastal resources, fish resource decline, changes in the contour of the coastal area, fuel crisis issues, urbanization, all of which put pressure on coastal areas. This study aims to describe the socio-economic characteristics of small-scale fishermen in the City of Tegal. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to determine the profile of respondents, analyzing the economic, social, health and education status. Location of the research was in the Muarareja village, a typical small-scale fishermen village on the coast of Tegal City, Indonesia. The research was conducted from July 2013 to March 2014. Sampling was taken purposively. The samples in this study consisted of 64 fishermen. The data was collected directly by using the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results show that small-scale fishermen in the town of Tegal is in good condition in terms of economic, social, health, and education status, or in other words the fishermen were on a high level of welfare.

[View Full Paper]  


Heliawaty, M.Saleh S. Ali, Darmawan Salman, Rahman Mappangaja

Abstrac: The purpose of this study to analyze the relationship between social capital affects economic behavior in producing coffee plants in improving coffee farmers' income. This study was conducted in the district of Bantaeng, South Sulawesi. Subdistrict Tampobulu selected purposively. The study lasted for four months of April to July 2014. The data used in this study consist of primary data and secondary data. It can be concluded that social capital is trust, networking and institutions affect economic behavior, namely the production of coffee plants. Trust improving technology adoption Robusta and Arabica coffee cuttings while distrust led to rampant theft of coffee is still green. Networking affect the price of coffee and institutions influence the behavior of farmers in obtaining venture capital through middlemen. It is expected that future studies should be focused on the factors that influence the innovative behavior in increasing the production of coffee plants.

[View Full Paper]  


Yusuf Sabilu, Nadira R. Sennang, Badron Zakaria, Elkawakib Syam’un

Abstract: The objective of research was to analyze the production of soybean (Glycine max L.Merr.) Anjasmoro varieties with the application of various doses of Azotobacter sp. and Mycorrhizae on ultisol, and to obtain the information on the dose of combination of Azotobacter sp. and Mycorrhizal optimal in order the combination can be applied to improve soybean production at the field scale. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse from August to December 2013 in the scale of polybags . The study was conducted with a completely randomized factorial design with two factors. The first factor is the Azotobacter sp., consists of three levels i.e. without Azotobacter; Azotobater with a density of 103 CFU ml-1; and Azotobater with a density of 106 CFU ml-1. The second factor is Mycorrhizae, consists of four levels i.e. without Mycorrhizae; Mycorrhiza 10 g; Mycorrhiza 20 g; Mycorrhiza 30 g, there are 12 combinations of treatments and was repeated four times. Soybean Anjasmoro varieties give different responses of inoculation of Azotobacter sp and Mycorrhiza on ultisol. Inoculation of Azotobacter sp and Mycorrhizae on ultisol significant effect on number of pods, number of pods main stem, number of pods branches, number of pods containing , weight pods, number of seeds, seed dry weight. Azotobacter sp. did not give significant effect in harvesting index, however, at Mycorrhizae real effect. Inoculation with Azotobacter sp density of 103 CFU ml-1 and Mycorrhizae of 30 g influence on the best of the number pods, pods main stem, number of pods branches, number of pods containing, weight pods , number of seeds, seed dry weight, harvest index and weight of 100 seeds dry. Highest protein content is the of treatment without Azotobacter sp. and Mycorrhiza 20 g.

[View Full Paper]  


Odoemelam, L. E, Alocha, O.C

ABSTRACT: Appropriateness of information is a critical factor needed to stimulate the right knowledge and attitude of farmers towards sustainable transformation of agriculture. The study investigated the information network that exists among rural communities in Akwa-Ibom States and its implication for effective extension delivery. Even though (AKADEP)Akwa-Ibom State Agricultural Development Programmes are highly involved in the dissemination process, it is important to analyze the information networks of the farmers to improve exchange of information with the following specific objectives; identify the different wealth groups in the study area, ascertain the information networks that exists in the area; analyze the different information types and assess the strength and weakness of the information sources. Data were generated through Focus Group Discussion and Participatory Observation, employing different methodologies like wealth ranking, information diagram and linkage matrix analysis using Likert’s scale type. Data generated were analyzed with simple descriptive statistics and means. Major results show that in wealth ranking two groups of respondents were identified the female households with mean score between 1.9 and male headed household with mean score of 2.00 – 2.99. on information network farmer to farmer with 21%, market 14%, church 15% were highest source of their information network. On perceived weakness and strength of the information network, the information quality, frequency of use, timeliness of information flow, and link up of information were adequate while reliability of information was not adequate. The results show that intra community information flow was suitable and accessible to rich farmers while inaccessible and often irrelevant to poor farmers. Therefore, in the face of threat to food insecurity prevalent in the country, it is important to put in place a platform that will afford farmers to ask questions and get substantive responses, not only from extension agents but through appropriate channels within their information networks.

[View Full Paper]  


R. Ananda Kumar, Dr. C. Selvamony, A. Seeni, Dr. T. R. Sethuraman

Abstract: Retrofitting works are immensely essential for deteriorated and damaged structures in Engineering and Medical fields, in order to keep, or return to, the originality for safe guarding the structures and consumers. In this paper, different types of methods of retrofitting review notes are given based on the experimental, numerical and analytical methods results on strengthening the Reinforced cement concrete (RCC) structures including RCC piles. Soil-pile interaction on axial load, lateral load reviews are also presented. This review paper is prepared to find out the performance of basalt fibre reinforced polymer (BFRP) composite retrofitted reinforced cement concrete single end bearing piles.

[View Full Paper]  


Saipul, Rakhmat, Hamka, Alwi

ABSTRACT: In the implementation of poverty reduction policies of Kutai Kartanegara regency factual research, communication in the form of co-ordination Unit (SKPD) with the Local Government and Regional Work Unit is not maximized, so that the Government's poverty reduction of Kutai Kartanegara Regency gives not optimal result, as a concept in policy implementation by Goggin (1990), the similarity perception in implementing the policy is an essential condition for the successful implementation of the policy, along with the division of functions and roles in the bureaucratic structure that implements public policy should be run, and the executor (implementor) implementation of government policies, either parallel or multilevel should make shapes (patterns) of certain communications, in order to facilitate in making the relationship of the parties involved in the implementation of government policy.

[View Full Paper]  


Syahruddin, Haselman

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to know and describe (1) implementation of service policy of birth certificate, (2) implementation of service policy of death certificate (3) constraints in the implementation of service policy in Department of Population and Civil Registrar Merauke. This study used a qualitative approach with data collecting techniques with a focus on both birth and death certificates service. Data collection techniques used in this research is interviews and documents and literature. The results of study found that the implementation of service policies of birth and death certificates in providing routine service quality based on community satisfaction index showed good results, but there are some elements of service needs to be improved is the speed of service, discipline officers and service schedule certainty. Variables encountered in the implementation of birth and death certificates issuance as follows: human resources, communications, disposition, bureaucratic structures and various obstacles in the field, facilities and infrastructure as service operational support, geographical circum stances that are difficult to reach, lack of socialization, and still in awareness of peoples.

[View Full Paper]  


Ebenezer Ankrah

Abstract: The information technology (IT) available today is being leveraged in customer acquisitions, driving automation and process efficiency, delivering ease and efficiency to customers. The study investigated the impact of technology on postal services in Ghana. The population for the study consists of all staff members of Ghana Post at the Head office. The entire population was used in the research since the researcher wanted to generalize the findings. The main instrument used is the questionnaire. Two hundred copies of the questionnaire were received, representing a return rate of 53.7%. The findings revealed that technology has improved the data processing at Ghana Post and staff member are giving frequent IT training. Subjecting all the three hypotheses to a chi square statistical test turned out that, (1) the birth of the internet has a negative effect on postal services, (2) organizational efficiency and productivity have increased as a result of technology and (3) technology has given rise to innovative products and services in Ghana Post.

[View Full Paper]  


Mohammad Abul Hossen, Farjana Akhter

Abstract: The Belgian coast and the Scheldt estuary are important for the Belgian economy. Coastal flood risks tend to increase due to climate change. This study was set out to investigate the wind speed, surges and rainfall in the Scheldt estuary. The study explored the changes in mean and extreme winds according to the recent ENSEMBLES climate models and examined the dependency of extremes between surge with wind speed and surge with rainfall. The dependence analysis between surge and wind speed aimed to investigate whether climatic changes in wind speed can be transferred to changes in surge, while the existence of dependence between surge and rainfall would require climate scenarios for rainfall upstream in the Scheldt basin to be correlated with climate scenarios for the downstream surge boundary. A special dependence measure χ, developed by Buishand (1984) and Coles et al (2000) was followed. Data was extracted and processed using Matlab and CDO. The analysis of wind speeds showed that future wind speeds in the estuary (based on the climate models) will remain stable in comparison with the past wind speeds. Also, wind direction will be mainly from 180°-300°, although slight shifts might appear towards more frequent south western winds. From the study of dependency, there was no significant dependency between sea surge at Oostende coast and rainfall at different stations. The definition of significant dependency is strong or conservative. Above all, the extremes events are more or less dependent. While the study has not found significant changes in wind speed and only slight changes in wind direction, it is important to further investigate the impact of these changes on the Scheldt estuary using hydrodynamic models. The assessment of changes in extreme rainfall and sea surge need to be further studied.

[View Full Paper]  


Santhy Wyantuti, Yeni Wahyuni Hartati, M. Lutfi Firdaus, Camellia Panatarani, Roekmiati Tjokronegoro

Abstract: A sensitive and selective differential pulse stripping voltammetric (DPSV) method is presented for the determination of trace amount Cr(III) using glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The method includes AuNPs fabrication and self-assembly GCE modification. This processes replaced the –H groups with –NH2 groups on the surfaces of GCE which increased the number of AuNPs attached to it. The GCE modified with AuNPS was used as electrochemical sensor of Cr(III) for the first time that gave a wide linear range from 0.5 to 75 ppb and a very low detection limit of 10 ppt (equivalent to 0.19 nM). The electrode exhibited high reproducibility in repetitive measurements with a relative standard deviation better than 2.4%. The effect of interfering ions study showed that Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Fe(III) ions did not have a significant effect on the measurement.

[View Full Paper]  


Oleksandr Fediv, Volodymyr Shevchuk, Oksana Olinyk

Abstract: Background and Purpose: Recent research in the field of hematology indicate that among the many pathogenic mechanisms of development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which occurs on the background of the metabolic syndrome, an important role is played by endothelial dysfunction and violations of haemocoagulation. The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of L-arginine as it corrects endothelial dysfunction and disorders of homeostasis haemocoagulation link in patients with NASH associated with the metabolic syndrome. Subjects and Methods: 128 patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with metabolic syndrome were examined. Some patients (63 persons) received standard treatment according to national guidelines. To another group (65 patients) on the background of basic therapy L-arginine hydrochloride, followed by transition to oral form of L-arginine aspartate was administered. Blood levels of stable nitrogen monoxide metabolites (nitrites, nitrates), endothelin-1 and plasma recalcification time, prothrombin time, thrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen plasma level, activity of antithrombin III and coagulation factor XIII, potential activity of plasminogen, plasma fibrinolytic blood activity were studied. Results: Originally significantly increased levels of endothelin-1 decreased after the therapy in all studied groups, but more noticeable changes in the group with L-arginine appointment were observed (p<0.05). In the studied groups normalization of stable nitrogen monoxide metabolites after treatment was also noticed. Significant (p<0.05) increase in all haemocoagulation time characteristics and activities of antithrombin-III and factor XIII was found. The positive effect of L-arginine on blood fibrinolytic activity was noted. Discussion and Conclusion: Combined therapy of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with metabolic syndrome, with a differentiated degreeal L-arginine assignment by double increasing the duration of use of parenteral form (L-arginine hydrochloride) and subsequent double increasing of oral form of the drug (L-arginine aspartate) in case of the classic metabolic syndrome and its phenotype (AH + AO + IGT/DM-2) compared with the scheme of his appointment in case of phenotype (AH + DLP + IGT/DM-2) and (AH + DL + AO) is more effective than traditional therapy (essential phospholipids, ursodeoxycholic acid, metformin) for correction of basic clinical and laboratory disease syndromes, restore the functional state of the endothelium and eliminate haemocoagulation violations.

[View Full Paper]  


Yumna, Irman Halid

Abstract: This study aims to determine the mangrove forest land cover change and farms based on the interpretation of satellite imagery and predict the extent and determine the area of mangrove rehabilitation based on the rate of change in land cover and land suitability analysis is based on the physical parameters of mangrove forests in the district Ponrang, Luwu. Land suitability classification refers to the Land Suitability Classification Framework Method According to FAO (1976) are divided into three classes, namely suitability Great Fit (Highly Suitable), Self-keeping (Moderately Suitable) and Not Available (Not Suitable). The parameters used in the texture of the soil, slope, salinity, temperature, flow velocity, wave and tidal. Making the land suitability analysis model for the growth and development of mangrove ponds Silvofishery system using weighted overlay (overlaying weighted). The study concluded that the analysis of the changes by using the image data in 1994 and 2002 image shows a reduction in mangrove area of 269.16 ha, whereas farms have additional land area of 587.65 ha. The pace of change by using the image data in 2002 and 2013 image shows an area of 36.28 ha of mangrove reduction and addition of 85.5 ha of pond area. Analysis of the trend of changes in the area of mangroves generate predictions of mangrove area in 2023 or 10 years down the road is 88.1 ha. Based on the analysis of land suitability, the area that includes the appropriate category for the development of Silvofishery pond has an area of 557.86 ha and the area is very appropriate criteria included its range of 1071.98 ha. As for the category Mismatch has an area of 301.67 ha.

[View Full Paper]  


Mousa Makey Krady

Abstract: In this paper is to present generalization of Lagrange interpolation polynomials in higher dimensions by using Gramer's formula .The aim of this paper is to construct a polynomials in space with error tends to zero.

[View Full Paper]  


Artemas Mambrisauw

ABSTRACT: The planning process undertaken by the government, both central and local governments that have implemented more dominant top-down approach and is unable to absorb the interests of society. This can be evidenced by the proposed rural development programs proposed by Development Planning Meeting., always alone can not be accommodated by the central government, and local government, even though the system has been improved planning reforms to use bottom-up planning, but the fact that planning is performed only performed the ceremonial start of the village, subdistrict, district, provincial to national level. Thus, the activities of development planning undertaken only to meet the demands of Act No. 25 of 2004. With regional autonomy granted to local governments through Act No. 32 of 2004 and Act No. 21 of 2001, the Province of Papua, the Raja Ampat government can implement a collaborative planning model for the acceleration of regional autonomy. Thus, the authors can examine three aspects namely; (1) how planning Raja Ampat about RESPECT program as an alternative to the acceleration of regional autonomy; (2) how the collaborative planning model that is done to support the acceleration of regional autonomy, (3) how the concrete manifestation of the acceleration of regional autonomy through the RESPECT program. Of the three aspects can be found that there is a form of collaborative planning undertaken by the Government of Raja Ampat Regency Strategic Plan, plan participation, and planning is done through the RESPECT program that can accommodate the needs of development programs needed by the people in each village or town throughout the territory of Raja Ampat.

[View Full Paper]  


P. Sreevani, R.V.Rao

Abstract: Wood, being a natural material is very variable. This variability is attributed mostly to variations in the anatomical structure of the wood. The wood structure of five clones at macroscopic level and microscopic level is provided for the first time. In addition study on the general features of all the clones are also described. Thus the information provided is a starting point to understand the wood structure of the clonal material as well as identification of some of the clones on the overall structure. The growth rings were delimited by flattened fibres and parenchyma in clone 4 and clone 7. It can be seen that within tree variation of all the characteristics studied are height related and in certain cases encompass the variation within the clones and also among the clones. Development of growth rings in the present study is clone specific. The database thus generated will be useful for any species development from the point of view of wood quality.

[View Full Paper]  


Firman Umar

ABSTRACT: The study aims to identify and explain the relevance of the substantive law of the Judicial Commission in conducting supervision to judges with the principles of independent judicial power, including the models used in monitoring the behavior of the Judicial Commission judges, and the impact of monitoring the behavior of judges. The study was conducted in Jakarta, the place of the Judicial Commission, as the targeted institution, because it focuses in supervising the activities of judges of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional. The type of research is empirical legal research through the three-level approaches of philosophy, dogmatic, and theoretical laws. The research sample was determined by purposive sampling technique. Data collection instruments used where interviews and documentation collection then analyzed qualitatively. Results of the study revealed that the substance of the law governing the authority of the Judicial Commission to supervise the activity of judges is broadly in line with the principle of independent judicial power, except the setting of membership composition and procedures of decision making of Honorary Judges. This is potentially affecting the independence of the judicial power. Judicial Commission applies the eclectic model of supervision, by combining the model of supervision; preventive (but not include the recruitment, promotion and transfer), limited repressive, and limited external supervision models (external quasi). The Model of Judicial Commission monitoring for the behavior of judges is not included in the checks and balances surveillance. The Supervision of the Judicial Commission for activity of judges is not implemented significantly in the form of supervisory authority (especially the preventive acts), the application of sanctions toward judges who violate the KEPPH, human resources (quantitatively), and yustisiabelen sound impact. It is recommended to the government and the Parliament to change the Article 22F par. 2 on the composition of 4 Commissioners and 3 justices to 3 Commissioners, 3 justices, and 3 elements of the society. Also, it is recommended to amend the Law No.18 of 2011 to expand the Judicial Commission oversight duties including the recruitment, the promotion, the transfer of judges, and in order to confirm the existence of the Judicial Commission as an external supervisor. The consequence is that the place of the Judicial Commission should be moved to outside the chapter of the judicial authority. In order to improve more on the effectiveness of supervision the activity of judges, it is necessary to have capacity building on the Judicial Commission. It is recommended to the government and parliament to significantly increase the budget of the Judicial Commission. Also, the Judicial Commission should improve more on the coordination, cooperation with the Supreme Court so that recommendation on more sanctions is effective.

[View Full Paper]  


Fayaz H. Kharadi, Mayur S. Jadhav, Sachin D. Kanhurkar, Penelope A. Pereira, Dr.Virendra K. Bhojwani, Suneeta Phadkule

Abstract: The word “bearing” comes from the verb “to bear”, a bearing is thus a machine element that permits one part to bear another, by allowing relative motion between them. A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion and reduces friction between moving parts to only the desired motion or it is a mechanical element which locates two machine parts relative to each other and permits a relative motion between them. Bearings are components that are used to reduce the amount of friction in a machine. The present work reported in this paper is specific to the selection of a bestgeometry among the selected geometries for flexure bearing used in linear compressor. This paper proposes FEM as tool to find the equivalent stress.Selection of geometry is one of the most important steps in the process of design. The best geometry is one which will serve the desired objective like performance and service life at minimum cost. The main objective of this paper is to investigate best geometry of flexure spring to enhance its performance and improve upon the life of the flexure of service. Performance of the flexure, service life of the spring can be enhanced by achieving lower operating stresses and higher factor of safety.

[View Full Paper]  


A.A.L.C. Amarathunga, E.P.W.C. Ellawala, G.N. Abeysekara, C. R. J. Amalraj

Abstract: Dermatology is a one of major session of medicine that concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases. Skin diseases are the most common form of disease in humans. Recently, many of researchers have advocated and developed the imaging of human vision or in the loop approach to visual object recognition. This research paper presents a development of a skin diseases diagnosis system which allows user to identify diseases of the human skin and to provide advises or medical treatments in a very short time period. For this purpose, user will have to upload an image of skin disease to our system and answer questions based on their skin condition or symptoms. It will be used to detect diseases of the skin and offer a treatment recommendation. This system uses technologies such as image processing and data mining for the diagnosis of the disease of the skin. The image of skin disease is taken and it must be subjected to various preprocessing for noise eliminating and enhancement of the image. This image is immediately segmentation of images using threshold values. Finally data mining techniques are used to identify the skin disease and to suggest medical treatments or advice for users. This expert system exhibits disease identification accuracy of 85% for Eczema, 95% for Impetigo and 85% for Melanoma.

[View Full Paper]  


Suhardiman Syamsu, Sangkala, Armin, Hasniati

Abstract: Looking for intergovernmental relations management model is a consequence of the decentralization of government from local to central government (provincial and district / city). Delivery of affairs to the position of actors in the region more involved than ever before. The actor was instrumental in determining the center of attention, authority patterns and methods of conflict resolution when to initiate and conduct a free educational program cooperation. Intergovernmental relations management effectiveness is determined by the role of actors in determining the center of attention, establish a pattern of authority, and choose a method of conflict resolution. Affairs of primary and secondary education is the authority of the district / city. If the provincial government to initiate treatment in the free education program, the pattern of intergovernmental relations management authority selected cooperation may, or may be of assistance (subsidy). For matters of primary and secondary education, the choice of co-administration is not appropriate. Choices made during this cooperation needs to be reviewed with due regard to equality, work together, mutual benefit of all parties cooperate. When cooperation to lead to conflicts, preferably selected pattern of relationships is the only province to provide subsidies allow the district / city alone is conducting the affairs of a free education. Options cooperation dominated by actors and actors governor regent / mayor refused to put forward its own program is an option for power from the owner of the sovereignty of the people as a constituent in the local elections in both provinces and districts / cities.

[View Full Paper]  


Asmawati, Abd.Wahid Wahab, Buchari, Paulina Taba

Abstract: A Cd2+ Ion Imprinted Polymer (Cd-IIP) has been synthesized by copolymerizaton of cadmium ion, quinaldic acid (complexing agent), 4-vynil pyridine (monomer), dimethyl sulfoxide (solvent), ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate, EGDMA (cross-linker) and 2,2-azobis-isobutyronitrile, AIBN (initiator). Polymerization was conducted using a microwave at a temperature of 70 oC with heating times of 45 minutes. The template (Cd2+) was removed by leaching the template with ethanol and 4 M HCl, washed by aquabidest and dried in an oven at the temperature of 60oC. The polymer particles (imprinted and nonimprinted) were characterized using fourir transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The result showed that using heating time 45 minutes at temperature 70 oC, the particle morphology is viewed like as the large homogeneous. So, the imprinted polymer had bands at 3483 cm-1 ,1726 cm-1, and 1155 cm-1 indicating the presence of OH, C=O and C-O, respectively.

[View Full Paper]  


Nurariaty Agus, Annie P. Saranga, Ade Rosmana, Ade Sugiarti

Abstract: Penicillium sp. (order Eurotiales, class Eurotiomycetes, family Trichocomaceae) is one of the entomopathogenic fungi that have the potential to be developed as biological control agent of pests.The study aims to determine the viability and spora production of Entomopathogenic fungi Penicillium sp. Experiments was conducted in Pests Identification and Biological Control laboratory, Department of Plant Pest and Disease, Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University. The fungus Penicillium sp. cultured in a liquid medium and then added chitin as treatment and others without chitin., The spora viability of fungi was observed on 12th and 24th hours, while spora production on 3nd, 6th, 9th and 12th days after application.The results showed that conidial viability of the fungus Penicillium sp. at 24 hours after application was higher if the medium given chitin than without chitin. The conidial production was higher if given chitin than without chitin. It was highest on 12th day, reached 143.4 x 106 conidia/ml if media given chitin and on 6th day if without chitin (0.50 x 106 conidia/ml).

[View Full Paper]  


Manab Kumar Dutta, Rishmita Mukherjee, Dr. Sandip Kumar Mukhopadhyay

ABSTRACT: Temporal variation of atmospheric O3 and its biosphere – atmosphere exchange were monitored in the Sundarbans mangrove forest from January 2011 to December 2011 on bimonthly basis. O3 mixing ratios at 10 m and 20 m heights over the forest atmosphere ranged between 14.66 ± 1.88 to 37.90 ± 0.91 and 19.32 ± 6.27 to 39.80 ± 10.13 ppbv, respectively; having maximal premonsoon and minimal monsoon periods. Average daytime O3 mixing ratio was 1.69 times higher than nighttime; indicates significant photo chemical production of O3 in forest atmosphere. Annual averaged O3 mixing ratio in 10 m height was 13.2 % lower than 20 m height; induces exchange of O3 across mangrove biosphere – atmosphere interface depending upon micrometeorological conditions of the forest ecosystem. Annual average biosphere – atmosphere O3 exchange flux in this mangrove forest environment was – 0.441 µg m-2 s-1. Extrapolating the value for entire forest surface area, the mangrove ecosystem acts as a sink of 58.4GgO3 annually, indicating significant contribution of Sundarbans mangroves towards regional atmospheric O3 budget as well as climate change.

[View Full Paper]  


Rindu Rika Gamayuni

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to test empirically the relationship between intangible assets, financial policies, and financial performance to the firm value at going-public company in Indonesia. Path analysis was used to ascertain the relationship between intangible assets, financial policies, financial performance, and firm value at going-public company in Indonesia in the year 2007 to 2009. This study also provides empirical evidence that Intangible assets, financial policies, financial performance have significant influence to the firm value simultaneously. Intangible assets has no significant influence to financial policies, but has positive and significant influenced to financial performance (ROA) and firm value. Debt policies and financial performance (ROA) influenced firm value positive and significant. Financial statements limitation in measuring and disclosing intangible assets is the cause of significant difference between book value equity and market value equity. Measurement and disclosure of intangible assets (intellectual capital) precisely and aqurately is very important, because intangible assets have a positive and significant effect to the firm value. Accounting standards should be concerned about this.

[View Full Paper]  


Henny Tribuana Cinnawara, Achmar Mallawa, Chair Rani, Rijal Idrus

Abstract: One bio-indicators the condition of coral reefs is a presence of reef fish. The purpose of research is to determine species composition, abundance, distribution and structure of reef fish communities in these waters. Data collection was conducted in April at six locations in the north and the south eastern Luwu. Mechanical Underwater Visual Cencus (UVC) and transect method (Line intercept Transec, LIT) with SCUBA equipment used for research data collection. Total reef fish species collected as many as 366 species belonging to 31 families, consisting of 150 species of fish target (fish consumption), 10 species of indicator fish (indicator species), 206 types of major fissh. The most dominant indicator type of fish is Chaetodon octofasciatus, while the major dominant family Pomacentridae, Labridae, and Apogonidae. Diversity index values ranged from 2.145 to 3.408. Dominance index (C) is in the range of 0.056 to 0.298. The result is expected to be a reference literature as basic data for the management of reef fish, especially in the waters of eastern Luwu.

[View Full Paper]  


Rohith Krishnan R, S. Krishnakumar, Reza Hashemian

Abstract: The actual response of the amplifier may vary with the replacement of some aged or damaged components and this method is to compensate that problem. Here we use op-amp Fixator as the design tool. The tool helps us to isolate the selected circuit component from rest of the circuit, adjust its operating point to correct the performance deviations and to modify the circuit without changing other parts of the circuit. A method to modify/correct the performance of amplifiers by properly redesign the circuit is presented in this paper.

[View Full Paper]  


Vidisha H. Zodape, Leena H. Patil

Abstract: Data mining is the automatic extraction of previously unknown patterns from the database. In order to better serve the needs of web based applications and to find the associated data from web, the overview of privacy preserving in mining association rule and the private dataset is given in this paper. Here protocols are proposed to allow secure association rule on distributed database.

[View Full Paper]  


Harpreet Singh, Durga Sharma

Abstract: Reactive power compensation capability of a fixed capacitor thyristor controlled reactor type static VAr compensator is being investigated in this paper. The TCR has the power transfer controlling capability only in the lagging power factor range. The range of TCR can be extended by connecting a fixed capacitor in shunt with the TCR. The compensated reactive power can be selectively controlled by appropriately changing the firing angle of the TCR circuit in lagging as well as the leading power factor range. The application of fuzzy logic for the controlling of the FC-TCR system to improve the load power factor is also being discussed.

[View Full Paper]  


Hussein Kh. Rasheed, Dhuha Imad

Abstract: (GaAs:Se) films with thickness 0.5 μm have been prepared by flash evaporation technique on glass substrate under vacuum of 10-5mbar. These films have been annealed at different temperatures ( 373 , 473)K. The surface morphological characteristics by atomic force microscope (AFM). The roughness was decrease with increasing annealing temperature for amorphous film but start upward when the films crystallized. The grain size increases with increasing annealing temperature upto temperatures (373,473) K . The spectral response of GaAs:Se was studied. The values of responsively, specific detectivity and quantum efficiency increases with increases annealing temperature but NEP decreases with increases annealing temperature. The Photoluminescence peak of a-GaAs:Se films located at 832.215, 829.87 and 827.538 for temperature at RT,100 and 200 oC which corresponding to an energy gap 1.49 , 1.494 and 1.498 eV respectively. This may be associated which that the electron in bottom of conduction band recombines with hole in the valance band.

[View Full Paper]  


N. K. Kaliraman, R. Raj, S. Chandra, H. Chaudhry

Abstract: This paper develops an economic production quantity inventory model for deteriorating items; the rate of deterioration is Weibull distribution deterioration with two parameters. The rate of demand is stock dependent. Shortages are not allowed. The aim of this study is to find the optimal solution for minimizing the total inventory costs. To optimize the model a numerical illustration has been carried out and a sensitivity analysis occurred to study the result of parameters on assessment variables and the entire cost of this model.

[View Full Paper]  


Eman Ali Hussain, Yaseen Merzah Alrajhi

Absract: In this project, A new method for solving Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) deriving by Wiener process numerically will be construct and implement using Accelerated Genetic Algorithm (AGA). An SDE is a differential equation in which one or more of the terms and hence the solutions itself is a stochastic process. Solving stochastic differential equations requires going away from the recognizable deterministic setting of ordinary and partial differential equations into a world where the evolution of a quantity has an inherent random component and where the expected behavior of this quantity can be described in terms of probability distributions. We applied our method on the Ito formula which is equivalent to the SDE, to find approximation solution of the SDEs. Numerical experiments illustrate the behavior of the proposed method.

[View Full Paper]  


P.Balaji, Dr. A.P.Siva Kumar

Abstract: It is difficult from possibilities to select a most suitable effective way of clustering algorithm and its dataset, for a defined set of gene expression data, because we have a huge number of ways and huge number of gene expressions. At present many researchers are preferring to use hierarchical clustering in different forms, this is no more totally optimal. Cluster ensemble research can solve this type of problem by automatically merging multiple data partitions from a wide range of different clusterings of any dimensions to improve both the quality and robustness of the clustering result. But we have many existing ensemble approaches using an association matrix to condense sample-cluster and co-occurrence statistics, and relations within the ensemble are encapsulated only at raw level, while the existing among clusters are totally discriminated. Finding these missing associations can greatly expand the capability of those ensemble methodologies for microarray data clustering. We propose general K-means cluster ensemble approach for the clustering of general categorical data into required number of partitions.

[View Full Paper]  


Nguyen ThiQuynhHoa, Nguyen Ngoc Phuong Diem, Nguyen Phuoc Minh, Dong ThiAnh Dao

Abstract: Hydrolysis of proteins involves the cleavage of peptide bonds to give peptides of varying sizes and amino acid composition. There are a number of types of hydrolysis; enzymatic, acid or alkali hydrolysis. Chemical hydrolysis is difficult to control and reduces the nutritional quality of products, destroying L-form amino acids and producing toxic substances such as lysino-alanine. Enzymatic hydrolysis works without destructing amino acids and by avoiding the extreme temperatures and pH levels required for chemical hydrolysis, the nutritional properties of the protein hydrolysates remain largely unaffected. In this research, we investigate the fat removal and protein hydrolysis from pork meat to produce the enteral tube feeding nutritional protein hydrolysate for patient. Our results are as follows: meat moisture 75.1%, protein 22.6%, lipid 1.71%, ash 0.5%, vitamin B1 1.384mg/100g; n – hexantreatment at 80oCin 45 minutes and drying 30 minutes in 90oC.Viscosity of the hydrolysate is very low 2.240 ± 0.092 cPand high degree of hydrolysis 31.390 ± 0.138 %. The final protein powder has balance nutritional components and acid amines; low microorganisms, which are safety for human consumption.

[View Full Paper]  


A. Ishak, Ahmad Nurrizal Muhamad, M. Rusop

Abstract: We were deposited the as-deposited amorphous carbon via a modified custom-made-CVD in the range of 350oC to 550oC at atmospheric pressure with constant of negative bias -40V, and argon gas for 1 hour deposition. We used vaporized of palm oil as a carbon source into the chamber. It was observed, above 90% of light were transmitted to the samples instead of sample 500oC (80%). The as-deposited thin film grown on glass and p-type silicon we found uniform, smooth, dark grey colored and thickness in the range of 155 to 190nm. It was found, thickness less than 170nm brought less significant impact to the reduction of transmission percentage. In relationship with structural image in FESEM, the absorption coefficient was found high as the size of particles were big, rough, and agglomerated. The result showed the optical band gaps for 550oC to 350oC were 0.5eV, 1.3eV, 0.1eV 0.7eV, and 1.4eV respectively. The optical band gaps of 400oC and 350oC were suitable for solar cell applications.

[View Full Paper]  


A. Ishak, Ahmad Nurrizal Muhamad, M. Rusop

Abstract: Boron doped amorphous carbon (a-C:B) film fabricated on n-type silicon using waste palm oil precursor by low positive bias voltage is presented. The rectifying curve were found for all samples under dark measurement revealed that those samples were p-type semiconductor. The +30 V was found the optimized of the electronic properties with the open circuit voltage (VOC), current density (JSC), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (%) were approximately 0.259034 V, 1.299456 mA/cm2, 0.240011, and 0.080788 %, respectively. The conversion efficiency of a-C:B has been improved under the influenced of low positive bias.

[View Full Paper]  


Vinay K. Pandey, Ajai Mishra, Shashank S Mishra

Abstract: Continuing climate change is predicted to lead to major changes in the climate of the Himalayan region. Casualties and damage due to hazards in mountain regions will increase irrespective of global warming, especially where populations are growing and infrastructure is developed at exposed locations. But climate change will definitely increase risk due to the fact that expected increases of heavy rainfall, heat waves, and glacier melt will amplify hazards in Himalayan region. The rapid release of melt water and rainfall may combine to trigger debris flows and flash flood in higher ranges, including the formation of potentially dangerous lakes. These lakes may breach suddenly, resulting in discharge of huge volume of water and debris. Himachal Pradesh had experienced a large number of incidences of Hydro-meteorological disaster (HMD) since its inception in 1971. Flash flood of March 1975, Dec 1988, Satluj flash flood of August 2000, July 2001, June 2005, Flash flood of July 2005 and Cloud burst in June 2013 are the major natural calamities in Himachal Pradesh. Due to continuous HMD brought heavy toll to the state as the loss was estimated in several thousand millions of rupees and also killed several hundreds of people besides large number of cattle heads. Through this paper, we carried out a comprehensive study of past HMD and mitigation measures, solution and concluded that these disaster are by their nature difficult to predict and control but it is possible to reduce the risk to lives and property through develop mitigation strategy and plan to construct dams/barrages with awareness and knowledge among local communities about the impacts of global warming, natural disaster and the threat to the ecosystem, communities, and infrastructure are generally inadequate.

[View Full Paper]  


Rajesh P. Diwate, Prashant Deshmukh

Abstract: Vehicle interiors are primary source of injuries when occupants interact with them in the event of an accident. The extent of injuries is depending on energy dissipating characteristics of interiors and severity of accidents. For side impact tests vehicle interiors energy dissipating characteristics are assessed by FMVSS214 and ECE R95. Side impact test assesses occupant protection by door panel as vehicle interior during side intrusion test on door. In this paper, a certain type of car’s side impact performance is discussed. The purpose is to express the relationship of the side impact response during door trim intrusion and safety. First, A Finite Element Model (FEM) of door trim is established which is based on a logical method to solve the problem during the modeling process. Then, the analysis the evaluates the indexes of side impact safety, traces the designing, got the side impact feature and point test data of this type of car, and verified the practicability of simulation result in the door developing process. Finally, expresses the connection between the side impact response for door intrusion and safety of door, aiming at discussing the occupant safety during side impact. The FE model is produced using Hypermesh 11 softwares and LS-Dyna solver is used for the simulations. The simulation results shows side impact protection system is capable of absorbing and dissipating required energy for protection of Pelvis.

[View Full Paper]  


Rohan Hundia

Abstract: This paper describes the development and testing of an interface system whereby one can control external devices by voluntarily controlling alpha waves, that is through eye movement. Such a system may be used for the control of prosthetics, robotic arms and external devices like wheelchairs using the alpha brain waves and the Mu rhythm. The response generated through the movement of the eye (detecting and controlling the amplitude of the alpha brain waves) is interfaced and processed to control Robotic systems and smart home control. In order to measure the response of alpha waves over different lobes of the brain, initially I measured these signals over 32 regions using silver chloride plated electrodes. By the opening and the closure of the eyes and the movement in the up-down, left-right directions and processing these movements, measuring them over the occipital region I was able to differentiate the amplitude of the alpha waves generated due to these several movements. In the First session (testing period), subjects were asked to close and open their eyes and they were able to control limited movements of a Robot and a prosthetic arm. In the Second 2session the movement of the eyes was also considered (left-right, up-down) along with the opening and closure, during this time span they were able to control more dimensions of the robot, several devices at the same time using different eye movements.

[View Full Paper]  


L. Suresh, S. Senthilnathan, M Sathiah, Dr. Aramvalarthan

Abstract: As population increases that need more food production and other activities like industrialization, power generation etc for which scarce water should be economically utilized. Irrigation is the key input in crop production. Full benefit of crop production technologies such as high yielding varieties, fertilizer use and multiple cropping and plant protection measures can be derived only when adequate supply of water is assured. The irrigation infrastructure that is the backbone of the irrigated areas is in considerable need of modernization and a new paradigm for operations and maintenance. The Irrigated Agriculture Modernization and Water-Bodies Restoration and Management (IAMWARM) project has been formulated converging the roles of all the line departments. The project aims to improve the service delivery and productivity of irrigated agriculture with effective integrated water resources management in a sub-basin framework in Tamil Nadu with the many broad objectives. A study was contemplated to understand the economic impact of irrigation intervention and scope to improve it in Sivagangai district. The main objectives of the study were (i) to assess the impact of water bodies restoration in the study area on water level in open wells, (ii) to assess the impact of water bodies restoration in the study area on water level in bore wells and (iii) to assess the impact of the project on the yield and income. 225 farmers were selected for the study following at five stage sampling procedure, in which random sampling was followed in the last three stages. Impact on groundwater level was 22.84 per cent increase in the open well and 25.06 per cent increase in the bore well. Paddy yield has increased by 5.23 per cent and it was 3.50 per cent for chillies. Net benefit realized by the entire sample respondents by participating in the IAMWARM project was . 2,60,236. Difference in paddy yield between project villages and non project villages was 839.50 Kg./ha in the vaigai system fed tank area. It was 41.68 kg./ha for cotton. Net gain received by the sample respondents for cotton in the project village over non project village was . 1,87,826. In the rainfed tank irrigated farms, difference in paddy yield between project villages and non project villages was 452.30 Kg./ha. It was 41.68 kg./ha for chillies. Net gain received by the sample farmers in the project village over non project village was . 66,214. IAMWARM project had good impact in terms of groundwater recharge, yield and income at arm level.

[View Full Paper]  


Odeniyi, O. Ayodeji, Lawal, N. Tunde, Kareem, A. E. Adebowale

Abstract: A new kind of business, ‘digital age middleman’, which ordinarily may not have been possible, has emerged. An instance is Groupon, an e-commerce platform which allows a small group of merchants to reach a large number of customers using internet and social media technologies to provide discounted deals. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to appraise the Groupon e-business model. Firstly, the brief profile and business model was examined. Thereafter, an in-depth Social, Legal, Economic, Political, Technological, Ecological/Environmental and Competitive (SLEPTEC) analysis of the business model was carried out. Then, the elements of the business model and the resulting growth and advantages that bring about competitive and profits in the modern markets for Groupon were evaluated. The findings shows that simple technologies of email and social media can be leveraged for business success especially in massive subscribers' base as currently witnessed by Groupon. The study revealed the associated problems with the Groupon e-business platform, and thus conclusively recommends how the business model can be improved via considerations of other technological factors.

[View Full Paper]  


Baba, Suratman, Muhammad Yunus, Hasniati

ABSTRACT: Local government leadership in Raja Ampat, based on the writer's observation, yet effectively perform conflict resolution organizations in the area of financial management. This is evident from the acquisition of predicate disclaimer that occur repeatedly. Disclaimer predicate occurs repeatedly in the area of financial management in Raja Ampat because the local government leadership has not been effective in reducing conflicts that have a negative effect on the performance of individuals and the performance of positions in all SKPDs; not implementing more effective management strategies in order to moderate the conflict related to disagreements about the task, policy and other organizational issues; and less effective in stimulating the learning process SKPDs level with regard to financial management area. Based on the above description, organizational conflict studies in the area of financial management in Raja Ampat is important and urgent to do. The importance of this study because of financial management in Raja Ampat still face the task of conflict situations and conflict relations in the budget planning. The purpose of this study is to: 1) Describe the forms of organizational conflicts in planning, budget in Raja Ampat.2) Describe the sources of conflict in the organization of planning, budget in Raja Ampat. 3) Analyze the conflict resolution organizations in planning, budget in Raja Ampat. Based on several conclusions can be drawn as follows : 1)In the budget planning are forms of task conflict and relationship conflict. 2) Sources of conflict in the budget planning is the difference in the organization's goals, criteria that do not work worth it, and the inequality of treatment between sub-units. 3) Conflict resolution is a budget planning by providing an understanding of the meaning-Term Development Plan and the area and ask for advice and input from the Regent, to accommodate the pricing to be more flexible to adjust to market conditions, and the translation of the priority programs to sub-units and requested assistance to the government officials and TAPD.

[View Full Paper]  


Farooq Alam Khan, Basheer Ahmad

Abstract: Much literature on electronic government services research could be found on adoptability issues from government and service provider’s point of view. Many studies have looked into adoptability factors from user perspectives and majority captured adoptability perspectives of frequent Internet users, the ones who use Internet applications for more than 10 hours a week. On the contrary the perspectives of majority of Pakistani users which use Internet applications for less than 10 hours per week are never inquired. This paper tries to fill this gap by looking into electronic government adoptability perspectives and expectations of such Internet users of Pakistan which are much greater in numbers than others. An amended UTAUT model with all its moderators is used in this study and the results demonstrate that performance level, ease of effort and social influence strongly effect behavioral intention of users in using electronic government services in Pakistan. The individual’s behavioral intention along with presence of appropriate facilitating conditions triggers use behavior of users. The results show that only gender moderates majority of UTAUT relationships and accordingly a modified UTAUT model is presented. The paper provides certain insights for people making policies and academicians for performing further research while it stresses for service proliferation with special attention towards female population.

[View Full Paper]  


P. Osei Bonsu, R. Owusu Bio, H. Omae, F. Nagumo

ABSTRACT: Experiments were conducted at the CSIR-Crops Research Experimental station at Kumasi, Ghana, to determine the effects of seed sorting and planting device on yield of maize in the 2014 major growing season. Two jab planters were used to plant sorted and unsorted seeds. The control treatment was cutlass planting of unsorted seed. One of the jab planters was imported from China; and the other was fabricated in Ghana. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 3 replications. Planting one hectare of maize with the Chinese planter took about 10 hours, 36 minutes; the local planter took 12 hours 39 minutes, whilst cutlass took 29 hours 36 minutes. Seed sorting and planting device had no significant effect on maize yield. However it was faster, cheaper and economically more viable to plant with jab planter than with cutlass.

[View Full Paper]  


Ali Adel Ali Ibrahim

ABSTRACT: This paper is” Building and Increasing the productivity of Human Resource Management”. It aims to determine what are the factors that may affect the efficiency of company work and its result on performance. There may be some problems that face you during the work, you have to destroy it. You may be forced to face conflicts or crises. We will discuss how to build the structure of your work and how to develop the Human Resource Structure or if you have an existing one but you need to develop it. Finally we will learn how to make a strategic plan and we will discuss a case study about making vision and mission to the company.

[View Full Paper]  


Meiryani, Muhammad Syaifullah

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of business process to the quality of the accounting information system. This study aims to examine: the influence of business process on the quality of the information system of accounting information system. The study was theoritical research which considered the roles of business process on quality of accounting information system which use secondary data collection. The results showed that the business process have a significant effect on the quality of accounting information systems.

[View Full Paper]  


Upasana, Dr. Neetu Gupta, Dr Yogesh Kumar Goyal

Abstact: In this paper, MATLAB has been applied on differential difference equation to obtain availability, MTTF etc. of a complex system. Though availability can also be found by other methods like matrix method [2], Laplace transformation method [7] etc., but with the help of MATLAB it is easy to find availability compared to other methods. Zaidi, Zeenat et. al. [3] applied the method of MATLAB to a simple system. We in this paper applied the MATLAB to a two element standby system having perfect switching and also compared the result with matrix method and found that results obtained match completely.

[View Full Paper]  


Samer Farkh, Nafez Harb, Katia Haddad, Zaher Zeaiter, Samir Farkh

Abstract: The U-Th method, also called series method of uranium, is improved by a new experimental protocol and successfully applied to the impure calcite (with uranium concentration <0,05 dpm/g) which was previously difficult to be dated accurately. Our experiments performed on 15 calcite samples taken from France and Morocco, have highlighted the importance of this methodological improvement by enabling: (i) the elimination of 100 % of clay residues, (ii) the reduction of calcite quantity necessary to the chemical manipulation from 20g to 5g, (iii) the analysis of calcite samples poor in uranium and on the other hand rich with clay and (iiii) the reduction of the lower limit of the U-Th method from 10 Kyrs to 6 Kyrs. The optimization of U-Th method in this work provided a better dating of the accurate age of calcite. Thus, this technique is important for the chemical analysis of stalagmite floors of different caves in the region of the Near East.

[View Full Paper]  


Iman Surya, Sangkala, Muhammad Farid, Hasniati

ABSTRACT: Electronic government needs to carry out in a fundamental public services of democracy. But in practice, BPPTSP (one door integrated permit service board) of Samarinda not able to perform the activities. The aim of this research described analyzing electronic government and public services in a democracy. The methodology used in this research using descriptive qualitative approach, the study was on the one door integrated permit service of Samarinda, respondents in Samarinda, the mayor head of Samarinda, the citizen, private group of government agencies and interests. Then variable measured in electronic government includes support, capacity, value and public services, including democratic information, consultancy and participation. The results of research shows that the variables measured having a deficiency and inability in accommodate aspirations built between citizens and the government in developing electronic democratic government. It is influenced by the absence of elements of liaison which is justice, diversity and access electronic between government and public services that make democratic BPPTSP the inability of the city of Samarinda to make changes in depth in an effort to build and create a public being communicative with citizens.

[View Full Paper]  


Andi Amin Akhiruddin, Rakhmat, Juanda Nawawi, Muhammad Rusdi

Abstract: This study aims to describe the identification of regional Organization Structuring South Sulawesi Provincial Government under Government Regulation No. 38 of 2007 and Government Regulation No. 41 of 2007, knowing Planning Implications regional organization based on Government Regulation No. 38 of 2007 and Government Regulation No. 41 of 2007 on Performance government of South Sulawesi, and analyze models of regional Organization Structuring South Sulawesi Provincial Government ideal based on Government Regulation No. 38 of 2007 and Government Regulation No. 41 of 2007. The method used is descriptive to assess the condition of the South Sulawesi provincial government organizations as a result of the implementation of Government Regulation No. 38 of 2007 and Government Regulation No. 41 Year 2007 on Organizational Structure Model of the Region of South Sulawesi Provincial Government and the resulting impact on South Sulawesi Provincial Government Performance. Data collection techniques used were interviews, questionnaires and study documents analyzed by descriptive qualitative and quantitative (in percentage). The results showed that the arrangement of the South Sulawesi Provincial Government Organizations related mass organizations using maximal patterns based on Government Regulation No. 41 of 2007 has not kept pace even found no addition of several fields and sub-sub-fields in the affairs handled by the regional work units of South Sulawesi Province. But seen from the Organization Structuring implications arising on the performance of the Government of South Sulawesi showed quite good results, this is in line with some of the responses of respondents who said it was very appropriate views of some of the indicators used by the author in a variable rate Accountability, Responsibility and Innovation as a parameter in describing South Sulawesi provincial government performance. Structuring the ideal model of the regional organization of South Sulawesi Provincial Government granted an analytical nature writer and still require a more in-depth studies, especially concerning aspects of potential and needs, as well as regional financial competitiveness.

[View Full Paper]  


Risbar Novrianto R. Gauk, Daud Malamassam, Sumbangan Baja, Roland Barkey

Abstract: Water playing important roles in human activities. The change of land use or land cover and weather can caused the change at human water source condition. This fact has strong related in the availability of water. The main problem availability of water in number, quality and its distribution influenced by dynamics of land cover and people activities in Bua-bua and Parappa rivers basin. Bua-bua and Parappa is the important rivers in Selayar Island Regency, South Sulawesi. All of the people activities depend their life in water from the rivers. The average of monthly water change very influenced by rainfall period. Based on Maracov analysis, projection of Bua-bua land cover in 2023, the mangrove secondary forest decreasing about 10,52 hectare and increasing grasslands about 122,46 hectare, respectively. Increasing significantly for urban about 1570,51 hectare.

[View Full Paper]  


Asia, Sudirman, Budimawan, Natsir Nessa

Abstract: The aim of research is to know the size composition of lenght and weight of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) caught in three region fisheries management i.e. WPP 714, WPP 715 and WPP 716. Its result indicate that the size composition measure of skipjack tuna were caught in three WPP different each other. In WPP 714 was domination of size measure 38 cm - 44 cm, WPP 715 domination by 32 cm and WPP 716 predominated the size measure 38 cm.. The relationship between lenght and weight of skipjack tuna are the important information for development and sustainability of fish management.

[View Full Paper]  


Henry Kesaulya., Baharuddin., Bandron Zakaria., Syatrianty A. Syaiful

Abstract: Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of bacteria that colonize the rhizosphere and can enhance plant growth directly or indirectly. Bacteria rhizoshere can induce substances like IAA and GA that can contribute to the improvement of potato growth, is crucial for sustainable potato cultivation. The present study was undertaken to screen the rhizosphere bacteria isolated from potato var. Hartapel growing regions of Buru Island for their physiological characteristics, including IAA and GA production. Of these isolates, 36 isolates were capable of producing IAA, and GA. Among the selective isolates, HB8 produced the highest amount of IAA (5.816 mg l-1), while isolate HB32 produced the highest amount of GA (6.879 mg l-1).

[View Full Paper]