International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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IJSTR Volume 3- Issue 1, January 2014 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Hocine Ghembaza, Abdellatif Zerga, Rachid Saim

Abstract: The emitter formation constitutes a crucial step in the manufacturing of the crystalline silicon solar cells. Several techniques are used in the photovoltaic industry and the most well-known one is based on the POCl3 diffusion in cylindrical quartz tube. Despite the efficiency of this technique to be reproducible, economic and simple, it presents the major inconvenient to have a heavily doped region near the surface which induces a high minority carrier recombination. To limit this effect, an optimisation of diffused phosphorous profiles is required. Our modelling of phosphorus profiles is summarized in the presence of an erfc distribution near to the surface and other Gaussian distribution in the bulk region of the emitter. However, this work is devoted to study the effects of the temperature, diffusion time, surface concentration and doping profile on the crystalline silicon solar cells performances by using the new parameters. The first results of our numerical modelling carried out by the Silvaco Atlas® simulation package show the possibility to improve the efficiency by 2.78%. This result is also confirmed by the IQE calculus which present an obvious enhancement in short wavelength region (380-450nm) about 23%.

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K. Veeranjaneyulu, G. Krishnaveni, G. Lakpathi, Dr. P. Rajanikanth

Abstract: It is evident that through Apparel making & Embroidery training program there is about 151.6% gain in knowledge among the Trainees. It is evident that from the study on Apparel making and Embroidery Training given by KVK, Kampasagar every trainee has become an earner of supplementary income. The beneficiaries got hands on experience during the training program and started individual units in their respective villages and also got employment in the nearby apparel companies. The KVK is offering necessary technical support during the follow up visits. There is good demand for Apparels. The Apparel making & Embroidery has given a boost to livelihoods of rural women and giving supplementary income and additional employment especially to house wives.

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Rasika Lele, Rohit Jainani, Vihang Mikhelkar, Aniket Nade, Mrs. V. Meshram

Abstract: We plan to re innovate the age old method of Encryption namely The Book Cipher, which can be done by removing the constraints that made it obsolete in the first place. This can be done by providing a computerized touch to the Book Cipher, reducing the size of the formed Cipher Text after encoding, and creating an Encrypted Key for this Cipher. This system also provides an Infinite Key Space for the formed encryption. To introduce another level of security to this Cipher text, we plan to further Hash the encrypted key, and introduce an Auto-Destruct functionality to the Cipher Text.

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M. Natsir Djide, Sartini, Latifah Rahman, Nursiah Hasyim

Abstract: Ganoderma sp provides bioactive compounds that claim to posses antibacterial activity. The aim of this research is to know antibacteriall activity of various extract of Ganoderma. Fruiting bodies of Ganoderma were extracted by maceration method using 50 % aceton, 50 % ethanol, methanol and boiling water, respectively. Antibacterial activities were done against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aureuginosa using disc diffusion assay. The result showed that the extracts had antibacterial activity and methanolic extract at concentration 500 ug/disc had higher antibacterial activity than ethanolic, acetonic, and water extract, with diameter of zone inhibition was 13.04 mm.

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Tunwari, B.A., Nahunnaro, H

ABSTRACT: Screen house trials consisting five plant extracts including a synthetic fungicide (Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas Linn., Alium sativum, Ocimum gratissimum, Chromolaena odorata and Benlate ) were tested at the Taraba State University(TSU) Research Farm centre (Ardokoa: Latitude 080 53′N and Longitude 110 19′E) in a completely randomized design arrangement. The results of the screen house experiments proved that the plant extracts (Garlic, Ocimum, Chromolaena and Benlate) led to 15.56 to 15.22% reduction of severity respectively, which culminated in to 31.18 to 30.26%, 14.04 to 15.79%, 21.21 to 21.76%, and 12.83 to 20.29% increased in capsules per plant, seeds per capsule, 1000 seeds weight and seeds yield per plant in 2011 and 2012 respectively over the unsprayed control treatment.

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Odumodu, Chukwuemeka Frank

Abstract: The Benin Formation is well exposed along the Atamiri River, which traverses Uli town, in the Niger Delta Basin of Southeastern Nigeria. Lithologic sections were measured, described and sampled so as to decipher the paleodepositional environment, using an integration of lithofacies data, pebble morphology, grain size and paleocurrent analysis. The lithofacies study suggests that the Benin Formation consists mainly of two facies association; sandstone and clay facies. The pebbly sandstone subfacies indicate braided channel bars, while the coarse grained sandstone subfacies and medium grained sandstone subfacies are interpreted as fluvial channel bars. The bioturbated medium grained sandstone suggests near shore shallow marine influence while the clay and sandy clays are interpreted as floodplain deposits. Results of studies of form indices of large particles from the Benin Formation show that the coefficient of flatness (55.84 ± 3.89), elongation ratio (0.787 ± 0.035), maximum projection sphericity (0.731 ± 0.030) and oblate prolate index (- 0.473 ± 1.489) are all indicative of fluvial sedimentation. The mean of these indices confirm a fluvial origin for the pebbles. Bivariate plots of coefficient of flatness against sphericity, and sphericity against oblate - prolate index are all indicative of fluvial sedimentation. Plots of simple skewness measure against simple standard deviation and 3rd moment skewness against 2nd moment standard deviation supports the fluvial origin of the sandstones. Plots made on the sphericity form diagram suggest that sphericity decreases with increase in pebble sizes. This study is significant in providing evidence for the fluvial (braided stream) origin of the Benin Formation during the Oligocene - Miocene times.

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Lakhdar Salim Guebboub, Massaoud Hamiane, Saidi Mohammed

Abstract: Our study aims at developing compatible raw compositions of earth with building materials in the desert zones, for an adequate restoration. To arrive at our objective, we developed compositions of adobes in bases of the local raw materials (red clay of Adrar, sand of dune, the black sand and the chopped straw). The results of the mineralogical characteristics, physical (density, the humidity and the grading analysis) used raw materials, showed successful and compatible characteristics with the building materials of the Saharan ksour. The formulations are based on compositions witnesses as reference (1 Volume of clay + 2 Volume of sand + water). The objective of this study, concerns the identification of the various mechanical characteristics (mechanical resistance in the flexion and in the compression), followed by an ultrasound study (mechanism of change in front of hydric behavior), of the compatible adobe with the local building materials.

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James Ransford Dankwah

Abstract: Laboratory studies on the production of metallic iron from iron oxide using blends of coconut shells (cocos nucifera) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) as reducing agent have been performed through experiments conducted in a horizontal resistance heating tube furnace. Composite pellets were formed from mixtures of iron oxide and carbonaceous materials consisting of chars of coconut shells (CNS), HDPE and three blends of CNS-HDPE. The iron oxide-carbonaceous material composites were heated very rapidly in a laboratory scale horizontal tube furnace at 1500 °C in a continuous stream of pure argon and the off gas was analysed continuously using an infrared (IR) gas analyser and a gas chromatographic (GC) analyser equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). Elemental analyses of samples of the reduced metal were performed chemically for its carbon and oxygen contents using a LECO carbon/sulphur and LECO oxygen/nitrogen analysers, respectively. The extent of reduction after ten minutes and the level of carburisation were determined for each carbonaceous reductant. The results indicate that metallic iron can be produced effectively from iron oxides using CNS, HDPE and blends of these carbonaceous materials as reductants. It was revealed that the extent of reduction improved significantly when CNS was blended with HDPE. The results also revealed that blending of the carbonaceous materials has a beneficial effect on the environment through decreasing carbon dioxide emissions.

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Osama A. Muhieldeen, Elamin. A. Ahmed, Abdelgani M. Shalih

Abstract: The study was conducted at the experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gezira University, Wad Medani, Sudan, during the winter of 2004 and autumn 2005, to investigate the effects of adding bagasse, cattle manure and sand 5n some physical and chemical properties of the soil and production of Sunflower. Each of the treatment was applied at a rate of 0, 30, 45 and 75 t/ha in a RCBD with three replications. The study showed that increasing the rate of the bagasse and cattle manure resulted in a highly significant reduction in soil bulk density, but the addition of sand resulted in increasing the bulk density. Also it was found that porosity was increased highly significant when adding bagasse and cattle manure, and a highly significant reduction in porosity when adding sand to the soil. Bagasse was most effective in reducing bulk density followed by cattle manure and sand. The study showed that increasing the rates of addition of each treatment resulted in small increment in exchangeable potassium, total soil nitrogen and phosphorous. The highest production of sunflower (3.25 and 3.74 t/ha) was obtained by addition of 45 t/ha of cattle manure to the soil, which increased the production by 34.6% and 37% when compared to the control in the first and second season, respectively. Also the production increased by 21.6% and 29.3% when adding 45 t/ha of bagasse to the soil in the first and second season, respectively, and the addition of 45 t/ha of sand to the soil increased the production of sunflower by 19.3% and 24% for the first and second season, respectively.

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Ronald Chikati, Nkosinathi Mpofu

Abstract: Developing countries are massively weighed down by the influence of digital divide. Soon after the world summit on forming millennium goals, there was a scramble for Information communication Technology (ICT) acquisitions and installations by many countries throughout the world. Coupled with huge reduction in the prices of the paraphernalia of technology, the concept was well adopted and to some extent well executed by many countries. In the rush to deal with access (first level) digital divide, most developing countries did not pick it early enough that by arresting one problem, another one was spawned. Today, it is more than a decade and no convincing evidence is there to show that the national endeavours benefited the majority. Perhaps efforts are thwarted by the competency (second level) digital divide. It is from this standpoint that we propose strategies for mitigating this new spectacle of digital divide.

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Mohammed A Elawad, Kamil M Ali, Abdelsafi A gabbad, Omran F Osman, Ahmed M Musa

Absract: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoan disease caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by phlebotomus sand fly. The disease is endemic in Sudan and large area of tropics. It has been reported in eastern Sudan since the beginning of the twentieth century. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Tabark Allah Village, eastern Sudan to measure the seroprevalence of visceral Leishmaniasis. Samples of blood sera were collected from 373 individuals selected by systematic random technique. The samples were examined using Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) to detect the anti-leishmania antibodies. Demographic and socio-economic data were obtained by direct interview with the study group using a pre-tested questionnaire.The seroprevalence at a cut off ≥ reciprocal titre of 3200 was found to be 17.2% which was more prevalent among children (70.2%) with p value of 0.000, compared to adults. Family income had a significant association with the seroprevalence of visceral Leishmaniasis (p value: 0.05).

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Olaniyi Balogun, Changki Mo, A. K. Mazher

Abstract: The gas turbine-burner engine was first proposed by Professors Liu and Sirignano in 1999. A detail exergic analysis was performed on this engine. A turbofan engine core was used as a study system for this analysis. The first and second principles of thermodynamics were applied to each component of the system. An exergy balance was derived for each component of the system. An exergetic analytic study was performed to each component and the results were compared. Results show the combustor having the highest exergetic value. A comparison of the exergy of the conventional and the turbine-burner engines was completed based on ideal gas and reversible process assumption. Results shows less than 5% increase in the exergetic value of the turbine-burner to the conventional turbine.

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A. Sudha, K. Vanitha, A. NooralShaba

Abstract: In Secure embedding, the data sent to the client in encrypted form along with a client specific decryption key. The decryption process and watermarking process are securely interwined, so that decryption result in a different uniquely watermarked content copy personalized for the client. The main objective of the project is to introduce the audition to identify whether the received image is original or not. To do that it maintains the authorized users fingerprint. For sending the image, the sender has to encode the finger print with the original image. While encoding, the senders fingerprint will be embedded behind the original image. After receiving the fingerprint images the receiver has to decode the image. While decoding the image the receiver can extract the fingerprint which is embedded in the image. Then the forensics detector checks the extracted finger print with the collected fingerprints. If the fingerprints are matched then the received image is original image otherwise the received image has been modified by the hackers.

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Singaram M, Finney Daniel Shadrach S, Sathish Kumar N, Chandraprasad V

Abstract: The goal of this work is to preserve full coverage-target area while minimising the number of active nodes.The nodes which are available in the wireless sensor networks consumes more energy even when the nodes are not sensing or covering the target area. Radio energy models are being used to find the energy consumed during access of the nodes at various modes like transmit, receive, idle and sleep mode. When the nodes enters the sleep state and doesn't sense or cover any target area then there will be an occurrence of blind point and that particular spot where the blind point occurs can be said as an blind spot. The issue of energy saving is significant since in a battery-operated wireless node, the battery energy is finite and a node can only transmit a finite number of bits. The maximum number of bits that can be sent is defined by the total battery energy divided by the required energy per bit. The blind point can be removed using the back of mechanism and that's the major part of the work.

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Suman Chowdhury, Mohammad Mahbubur Rahman, Swapan Kumar Saha, Utpal Kanti Das, Chandan Kumar Sarkar

Abstract: This paper tries to investigate the wind power potentiality in Bangladesh based on wind velocity data. For this purpose wind velocity data are taken for various locations in Bangladesh. From the data analysis, it is seen that the maximum wind potentiality is existing in Chittagong from the aspect of wind velocity.

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Shedage Kishor Ashok, Yasushi Kuwabara, Shunnosuke Abe, Eugene Hayato Morita

Abstract: Pig Growth Hormone regulates growth, development and various metabolic activities in body. It releases from anterior pituatory gland of hypothalamus region of brain. Till now the sequence variation for GH has been carried out only in normal pig and minipigs. This is first report showing GH gene sequence variation in Microminipigs, smallest pig in the world developed by Fuji Nojo Service, Japan which weighs about 6-7 kg at its maturity. In present study, coding and intronic region of GH was determined for polymorphism with direct sequencing PCR. Coding region of pig GH is 651 bp and represents 216 amino acids containing initial 26 amino residues codes for signal peptide. Current investigation showed that, there were total of 6 synonymous and 4 non synonymous changes found, among them, two of each were common in MMP. Non synonymous changes were Val9 and Gln22 were majorly observed in signal peptide of MMP GH. Further analysis study showed that, intronic region was highly polymorphic and sequence variability observed was 7.5 %, 2.7 % and 26.2 % in normal pigs, minipigs and Microminipigs respectively.

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Suman Chowdhury, Swapan Kumar Saha, Mohammad Mahbubur Rahman, Utpal Kanti Das, Chandan Kumar Sarkar

Abstract: This paper tries to observe the site potentiality with respect to wind velocity for various height conditions in Bangladesh. From the analysis, it is seen that around 42.19% higher wind velocity is obtained in Cox's bazaar than the wind velocity of Dhaka location for 50 m height.

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Macalood, J.S., Vicente, H.J., Gorospe, J.G., Boniao, R.D., Roa, E.C

Abstract: Infestation problems are among the top concerns of many farmers worldwide. The use of synthetic pesticides as one of the pest control methods had been employed which caused many negative impacts both in the environment and human health. Effectivity of synthetic pesticides is only short-term which cannot compel for its undesirable impacts. Researches investigating plant potentials as an alternate pesticide for pest control were suggested as a promising solution without sacrificing the environment and its components. Carica papaya L. latex is known to contain a lot of phytochemicals including papain, a cysteine proteinase thought to effectively involved in plant defense against herviborous insects, mollusc, fungi and other farm pests. Hence, this review summarizes the C. papaya L. latex potentials as pesticide, molluscicide and fungicide in order to pave the way for an alternate pests control without damaging the components of the ecosystem and environment.

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Noor Azida Batubara, Jaeni

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to seek the relations between self-concept and family circle on student religious behavior. Methodology of this research is used descriptive analytics method by survey, that is correlating regression which described the affect on variable inquired. Questionnaire score was using Likert scale, and the data compiled through questionnaire counted by regression statistics formulation. This research held on class VIII of MTs PUI Cikijing at Majalengka Regency, and involved 78 students as the research object. The result of research showed that the correlation of self-concept and family circle toward student religious behavior make positive and significant relationship.

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Dr. Bhavtosh Awasthi

Abstract: In this paper, we study the hand-off performance in personal communication system using splitted rating channel technique. As the number of mobile users in cellular systems increases, the user mobility becomes the dominating factor for guaranteeing quality of service. In order to support quality of service for mobile users, The rapid increase in mobile users, handoff become a major issue in mobile network. Handoff is an action of switching a call in progress in order to maintain continuity and the required quality of service of the cell when a mobile user moves from one cell coverage to another cell coverage. Here the arrival of calls in personal communication services network are modeled according to a Markov Arrival Process (MAP). Each cell of the network consists of a finite number of channels and a buffer with finite size of handoff calls. Channel exist in each cell can be used by splitting the original rate if necessary into two channels with different rates when a handoff call arrives and find all the channels busy. We construct three tractable models (1) loss model ( 2) finite capacity model (3) finite population model with integrated traffic using fixed channel assignment scheme. The purpose of our study is to improve the performance of the cellular mobile system by using directed retry scheme with splitted-rating channel technique & cut-off priority scheme. The balking and reneging behaviors of the calls have also been taken into consideration. The expression for various performance indices viz. blocking probabilities for different traffic, overall blocking probability, offered carried load etc. are determined.

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Ulaa Alhaddad, Dr. Wajdi Al jedaibi

Abstract: Participation in social networking sites has dramatically increased in recent years. Social networking sites like Facebook1 or MySpace allow users to keep in touch with their friends, communicate and share content, ideas, activities, recommendations, with them, as well as engage in other multiuser applications. Services allow millions of individuals to create online profile and share personal information with vast networks of friends and often, unknown numbers of strangers. There are potential attacks on various aspects of user privacy. It is not well understood how privacy concern and trust influence social interactions within social networking sites. The continuous number of high-profile Internet security breaches reported in the mass media shows that despite an emphasis on security processes that there is still a gap between theory and practice. I intend in this research paper to propose a new model base on suggested model on social networking analysis and suggest a new security metrics to improve security and reduce the risks associated with users.

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Gonzales, Maria Victoria M., Tolentino, Angelina G.

ABSTRACT: Antiseptics are being used to prevent the growth of pathogens which are major causes of diseases. Unfortunately, not everyone can use these antiseptics because of its price in the market. With this, the use of plants as sources of antiseptics gives rise to the continuous study of indigenous plants. Extraction and isolation of constituents such as alkaloid are commonly studied. It is believed that the isolated alkaloids can be formulated into drugs or antiseptics. This study aimed to investigate on the antibacterial potential of the alkaloidal extracts from the bark of Samanea saman which could be a raw material in the formulation of effective antiseptics that can be used to combat diseases, thus, this study was conducted. Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions: 1) to determine the percentage yield of the crude acacia extract and alkaloid-rich fraction from the acacia bark, 2) to find out the number of alkaloids present in the acacia bark extract, 3) to test the antiseptic potential of the isolated alkaloids against the bacteria Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and lastly, to determine the implications of this study to science and technology and to other areas of science. Based on the outcome of this research, similar studies should be conducted to the acacia bark using other solvent in extraction. The use of other solvent systems for the determination of the number of components of alkaloids should be encouraged. A follow-up study concerning the determination of functional groups and elucidation of isolated alkaloids are suggested. Conduct further study on the antibacterial potential of acacia tree against other bacteria, fungi and virus to extend its clinical uses. Organic chemistry classes may conduct experiments on the local production of indigenous plants that are possible sources of alkaloids. Community outreach program may involve the conservation and propagation of acacia tree to increase the source of alkaloids.

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Atanlogun S.K., Edwin O. A. Afolabi Y.O.

ABSTRACT: In this study GLS and OLS estimating techniques were compared. To achieve the goal, GLS and OLS estimating techniques were applied on a simultaneous equation models (that is Per Capital Gross Domestic Product equation model and Foreign Direct Investment equation model). Annual data was collected for Per Capital Gross Domestic Product, Foreign Direct Investment, Lending Rate of Interest and Exchange Rate Index for the period of 1983 to 2008 from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulleting (2009). Results from the analysis showed that GLS and OLS estimating techniques produced the same values of coefficients and standard errors in the two equations. The study however concluded that the two estimators are both efficient alike, which shows that the GLS estimator is an OLS estimator of a transformed isomorphic model. The R-package of statistical software was adopted. The two estimators provide BLUE (Best Linear Unbiased Estimator) under heteroscedasticity/serial correlation.

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Beni Setha, Amran Laga, Meta Mahendradatta, Firdaus

Abstrak: This study aims to analyze the antibacterial activity of leaves extract of Jatropha curcas against Enterobacter aerogenes, and determine of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. The extraction process is done by maceration method using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Extracts obtained test antibacterial activity against Enterobacter aerogenes. Concentration all extract of Jatropha curcas is 1%, 10%, 20%, and 30% (w / v). Positive control using synthetic antibiotic ampicillin and negative controls used dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The results showed that the negative control (DMSO) and positive control (ampicillin) do not provide inhibition against test bacteria. Positive controls that do not provide inhibition against test bacteria showed that bacteria tested was resistant to antibiotics ampicillin used. All types of extracts with concentrations of 1% to 30% (w / v) gave inhibition against test bacteria. The highest inhibition diameter found in the chloroform extract with a concentration of 20% (14.83 ± 1.66 mm) and the lowest was in 1% hexane (6:53 ± 0.18mm). The diameter of the inhibition of the bacterium Enterobacter aerogenes to all types of extracts tended to increase with increasing concentration of the extract. MIC values for all existing extract at a concentration of 0.75% (w / v).

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Rudrarup Gupta

ABSTRUCT: Time is a crucial and universal asset at every individual second for mankind. Every individual does depend upon this from morning to night to be gradually acclaimed for an assignment. Through a process of time when it is managed by a systematic channel and when it is entirely fabricated and managed to enrich a real magnificence of a specific goal as per the segregation of time that is Time Management, which does reform the new spectacular organizational phenomenon to lead people in the structured skill of leadership. Time Management is an exceptional platform of planning which is very relevant for control over the span of time spent on any particular activities.

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Dejan Romih, Klavdij Logozar

Abstract: This paper discusses the importance of economic diplomacy for a small open economy in the case of Slovenia. Additionally, it also discusses the importance of foreign trade and foreign-trade promotion for growth and development of a small open economy, in the same case. Nowadays, economic diplomacy plays a very important role in restoring economic stability, which is, in addition to political stability, essential for peace and prosperity, both in Slovenia and elsewhere in the world.

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Deepak T.J., Albarra Elsayed., Noor Hassan, Chakravarthy. N, Siow Yun Tong, Mithun B.M.

Abstract: Pozzolanic materials in concrete works are increasing, and are expected to continuously increase in the years ahead because of technological advancement and the desire for sustainable development. This study presents some experimental results on the behavior of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) in concrete. Specimens containing 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45% POFA were prepared at constant water-cement ratios of 0.5 with superplasticizer content of 0.5% with cement. Workability in terms of slump and strength properties were studied, and compared with control specimen. The Study discovered that the workability of POFA concrete was quite satisfactory in the expected range, while the compressive, tensile and flexural strengths increased with POFA replacement up to 25%, 15% and 15%. Consequently the general optimum strength for all variable hardening tests was found at 15% POFA replacement.

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A. M. Monem

Abstract: Most of time series that appear in many economical geophysical and other phenomena are driven by non- Gaussian white noise ( a_t), in this paper investigate some probabilistic properties of Gaussian and non- Gaussian mixed with identification methods of ARMA model. We have theoretically derived the characteristic function the first of (four moments) of skeweness and kurtosis coefficients for white noise (a_t) with Gaussian and non- Gaussian (Poisson) distribution, simulation experiments were used to confirm the accuracy of the theoretical results. Declared the identification sample Autocorrelation function (ESACF) and (Kumar) method (C- table) which depending upon the pad approximation and suggested new method depending upon the extended sample partial Autocorrelation function (ESPACF) and find ascertain efficiency of suggested method.

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Tran Nhat Nam, Nguyen Phuoc Minh, Dong Thi Anh Dao

Abstract: Cashew is one of the most important plantation crops and widely grown in tropical areas as India, Brazil, Nigeria and Vietnam. Cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) is not a true fruit, but swollen peduncle to which the nut is attached. Unlike cashew nut kernel, which has an indisputably exclusive fine taste and a commercial attractiveness of its own, cashew "apple," despite its high nutritive values (high content of vitamin C and minerals, i.e., Ca, P, Fe) and economic potential, is virtually an unknown product in the consumer market. The edible cashew apple is the thick receptacle or "false fruit" to which the cashew nut or true fruit is attached. Cashew apple is considered as a waste in cashew nut processing industry. Various value added products such as juice, fenny, wine, dried cashew apple, syrup and jam can be prepared from cashew. Not many researches mentioned to cashew apple dietary fiber. So the aim of this research will investigate a new approach utilizing cashew apple residue to produce dietary fiber. By hydrolization, soluble fiber is pectin by enzym pectinase, carbohydrate by with following conditions ratio of cashew apple residue: water (1:6); pH 4.5; temperature for hydrolization 400C; enzyme concentration 0.3% (v/w), dietary fiber 87%.

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B Devikiruba

ABSTRACT: The proposed work is an attempt to control the speed of the vehicle designed with computer software to enable the third party or owner to get the location, speed and activity of the driver. To achieve this, the system can transmit the information in real time. The use of GSM/GPRS technologies allows the system to track the objects and provide the up-to-date information. This information is authorized to specific users over the internet as the server gets the information. It is the tele-mointoring system to transmit data to the remote user. Thus the applications are used in real time traffic surveillance. This paper proposes a prototype model for location tracking using Geographical Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) technology. The development is based on the windows phone 8 application by means it can provide flexibility and portability for the user to get the information from anywhere. As these GPS technologies having greater range of frequencies, the user can get the information as quicker as possible. This system is very useful to speed control at specific traffic roads.

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Christiana C. Nyarko, Christine Unson, Peter K. Nyarko, Martin Koduah

ABSTRACT: The paper seeks to determine the prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis infection in Tarkwa-Nsuaem Municipality and explore the relationship between age, gender, symptoms and diagnosis. A laboratory screening test for chlamydia trachomatis was employed with patients aged between 3 and 50 years. The swab specimens were collected randomly from Patients who were attending a normal routine checkup and were diagnosed of chlamydia-related symptoms. The sample size is comprised of 186 individuals, 17 years and older who were screened for Chlamydia in two hospitals, the Government Hospital in Tarkwa and the Ghana Manganese Company Hospital at Nsuta in the Western Region of Ghana. Among the 186, 17 were diagnosed with a sexually-transmitted infection (STI) other than Chlamydia, and 2 were children younger than 15 years. Of the remaining 167 patients, 127 (76.0%) were women and 40(24.0%) were men. The samples were collected from February 2011 to August 2011. The most common symptoms among the women were vaginal discharge (54.3%), followed by vulva vaginitis (23.6%); while among the men, urethral discharge accounted for 52.5% and burning sensation accounted for 37.5%. The prevalence rate for Chlamydia was 20.4%. Prevalence rates were not significantly different for men and women, across symptoms or age groups. However, among the women presenting vaginal discharge, the women with a negative diagnosis were significantly older with an average age of 31.8 years and standard deviation (SD) 6.6 years, whereas women with a positive diagnosis had an average age of 25.6 years and SD = 4.8 years. Among men presenting urethral discharge, the men with a negative diagnosis were older (Mean = 31years, SD = 4.7 years) than those with a positive diagnosis (Mean = 24years, SD =7.2 years). The study found a positive relationship between symptoms and age and between symptoms and positive diagnoses of Chlamydia among young adults in Tarkwa-Nsuaem Municipality.

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Hegler Tissot

Abstract: This paper describes an experiment where classifiers are used to identify potential diagnoses on examining textual content of medical records. Three classifiers are applied separately (k-nearest neighborhood, multilayer perceptron and support vector machines) and also combined in two different approaches (parallel and cascading); results show that even accuracy point to a best alternative, ROC analysis show that choosing an approach depends on an acceptable error level.

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Sadia Anwar, Sana Shahab, Arif Ul Islam

Abstract: In this paper the geometric process is used for the analysis of accelerated life testing for Marshall-Olkin Extended Exponential (MOEE) distribution using Type I censored data. Assuming that the lifetimes under increasing stress levels form a geometric process, the parameters are estimated by using the maximum likelihood method and the original parameters instead of the developing inference for the parameters of the log linear link function are used. The asymptotic interval estimates of the parameters of the distribution using Fisher information matrix are also obtained. The simulation study is conducted to illustrate the statistical properties of the parameters and the confidence intervals.

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Camille Adam Kouame, Nestor Kouakou Kouassi, Aissatou Coulibaly, Denis Yao N'dri, Asare Kingsley Kwadwo Pereko, Georges Gnomblesson Tiahou, Adrien Lokrou, Georges N'guessan Amani

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three traditional sauces commonly consumed in Cote d'Ivoire on glycaemic index of rice. On different occasions, human volunteers consumed 50 g of carbohydrate from white rice without sauce and with the palm nut sauce, groundnut sauce and eggplant sauce after 10-12 h overnight fast. Glycaemic index values were calculated after measured capillary-blood glucose before and after ingestion at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. The addition of the palm nut sauce (GI = 34) and groundnut sauce (GI = 45) had a lowering effect on the GI of white rice (GI = 54). Eggplant sauce increased GI of white rice (GI = 76). White rice, rice with the groundnut sauce and rice with the eggplant sauce recorded high glycaemic load values of 27, 24 and 38 respectively. Rice with palm nut sauce seems to be the best food due to its low glycaemic index and medium glycaemic load (GL = 17). The present survey reveals a significant effect of Ivorian traditional meal sauces on glycaemic index. Data showed differences of clinical importance and could be basis for dietary counseling of diabetic subjects in Cote d'Ivoire.

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Onuke Oscar Sunny

ABSTRACT: This study critically assessed the available energy resources and their relevant to socio-economic development and probable energy demand in Nigeria. The study also examined the energy policy and shortfalls on the implementation. With all these as a base, the study critically examined some of the methodology to forecast energy requirement and used it to estimate the energy demand of Nigeria in the year 2022 Result was derived from the applicable methods used, such as, by eight-year growth pattern, by analogy with Brazil which is comparable with End-used estimate by Prof Salawu (1985).

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Zahraeni Kumalawati, Yunus Musa, Nur Amin, Laode Asrul, Ifayanti Ridwan

Abstract: A survey considering the occurence of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi in sugarcane plantation field in South Sulawesi were conducted with the aim to exploit the site spesific genetic resources in relation to plant growth promotion. Eleven soil samples were collected from sugarcane rhizosphere in three districts of South Sulawesi province, Indonesia. Six samples of sugarcane varieties CM 2012, PS 862, PS 864, TK 386, BL, and Triton were taken from Takalar district; two samples of sugarcane varieties, CM 2012 and TK 386 were from Jeneponto district; and three samples taken from Gowa district were varieties of PS 862 and TK 386. The study informed that ten different types of AM fungi were found in three districts of South Sulawesi province included three families of the fungi i.e. Glomaceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Glomus and Gigaspora genera have similiar abundance and spores characteristics in three districts and indicate that these genera have a wide spread in and have high capability associated with sugarcane. The greatest mycorrhizal diversity was in Gowa district with four types of mycorrhizal genera found i.e. Glomus, Gigaspora, Acaulospora and Sclerocystis.

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Aronu, C. O., Bilesanmi, A. O.

ABSTRACT: This study examined the equality of export and import commodities price index in Nigeria. The source of data employed in this study is secondary data obtained from the Central bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin 2010. The statistical tool used in analyzing the data was the Permutation method for Hotelling T-Squared and Descriptive statistics. The result of the analysis showed that there exists a significant difference between monthly export and import commodities price index in Nigeria with a test statistic value of 58.31 and a p-value of 0.00 for 10, 000 permutations. Also, it was observed that across the years import commodities price index has been greater than export commodities price index. Hence, we conclude that export and import commodities price index in Nigeria are not equal and that import commodities price index has always been lager than export commodities price index. We advocate for more studies within the context of price statistics in Nigeria since the significance of price statistics in the economy of any nation cannot be overemphasized because they constitute a very useful tool for policy making, economic planning, analysis and monitoring. Also, price signals have been found to enhance better understanding of the degree of economic stability in any nation.

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Dr. Muhannad Akram Moqbel

Abstract: study examines the effect of accounting information systems for listed companies in the services sector in the Amman Stock Exchange on e-commerce using three main aspects: The presence accurate accounting information system imposes on companies that the development of its methods to handle e-commerce, The effects on accounting information systems under the E-commerce will relate to influence the components of accounting information systems and the last one is The effects on accounting information systems under the E-commerce will change the resources of the physical and human resources companies.

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K. Indirani, P. Sathishmohan, V. Rajendran

Abstract: In this paper some properties of gl±-I-closed maps, l±g-I- closed maps, wgl±-Iclosed, wl±g-I- closed functions are studied

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Dr Hassan Majdi, Azher M. Abed

ABSTRACT: Numerical investigations in the channel with lower and upper corrugated plate under constant heat flux conditions using nonafluids are carried out. CFD model by a finite volume method (FVM) with the structured uniform grid system is employed to solve the continuity, momentum and energy equations. The flow and heat transfer developments are simulated by using the k-ε standard turbulent model. The corrugated plates with corrugated tilt angle of 60° are tested with the height of the channel of 17.5 mm and wavy height of 2.5 mm. The model was simulated for the Reynolds number in the range of 5000 -20000. Studies are carried out for 〖"SiO" 〗_"2 " nanoparticles with different volume fractions in the range of 0%-4% and different nanoparticles diameters in the range of 20-80 nm. The results show that the heat transfer enhancement increased by using nonafluids as working fluid. The nanofluid with 〖"SiO" 〗_"2 " has the highest Nusselt number compared with base fluid . It is found that the average Nusselt number increased with the increase of volume fraction of the nanoparticles and Reynolds number, accompanied by a slight increase in pressure drop. It is found that with the decrease of nanoparticle diameter the Nusselt number increased for 〖"SiO" 〗_"2 " - water. Therefore, the nonafluids has a significant effect on the performance of heat transfer in the corrugated plate.

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Onumadu, F. N, Ekwugha, G. N., Osahon, E. E

ABSTRACT: The study examined the resource use efficiency in arable crop production in Oyi Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of arable crop farmers in the study area; determine system of land ownership; distribution of farmers according to quantity of fertilizer used; distribution of farmers according to cassava output and constraints to resource allocation to farmers. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 84 arable crop farmers registered with the Agricultural Development Programme in the study area. Data were collected with structured questionnaire and personal interview. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency count and percentages. While inferential statistics wasMaximum Likelihood Estimate of Stochastic Frontier Production Function, using Coelli 4.1 to estimate technical efficiency. The result showed that majority (64.29%) of the arable crop production were women. The farmers were in their active age, literate and small-scale farmers. Majority (69.05%) preferred local varieties of arable crops to improved varieties. Also, majority (72.62%) of the farmers were not visited by extension agents. Most of the land cultivated by the farmers were inherited and various quantities of fertilizer were applied to boost the soil fertility. Outputs of the crops were poor due to lack, inadequate, high cost of inputs among others. The MLE of Stochastic Frontier Production Function using Coelli 4.1 showed that the coefficient of age and sex were negative. The high MVP of farm size showed that there was high return to land which had important effect upon farm output. However, the MFC showed that small-scale cassava farmers could use additional financial capital effectively to produce more output. It was therefore recommended that policies and programmes that would enable farmers to have more access to land should be put in place. Extension services need to be improved in the study area so as to educate the farmers on how to optimally allocate the use of their resources as to have meaningful harvest.

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Meigy Nelce Mailoa, Meta Mahendradatta, Amran Laga, Natsir Djide

Abstract: This study aims to determine the antimicrobial activities of tannin extracts from guava leaves against pathogens microbial. The method used for qualitative analysis with the tannins are formed by the intensity of the color is blackish green FeCl3 compounds. In the quantitative analysis of tannins used variations of organic solvent (ethanol with a concentration of 30 %, 50 %, 70 % ). Levels of tannins in the sample solution was calculated with Tannates Acid Equivalent ( EAT ). Test of antimicrobial activities using diffusion agar method. The results showed levels of tannins in leaves of guava with ethanol 30 %, the which is 2.351 mg /g, ethanol 50 % is 1.728 mg g, ethanol 70 % is 1.835 mg / g. The best solvent to extract the highest levels of tannins with ethanol 30 % by value of tannin levels 2.351mg /g. Tannin inhibitory activity on five different pathogens microbial. This is because the composition of the cell wall of the microbe fifth different. The results showed that the tannins extracts can inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aureginosa, Staphilococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans.

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Mukasa Norbert

Abstract: This study undertook to discern the effect the production strategy dimension had on technological growth in a developing country. It utilized robust indicators that measured the penetration of advanced manufacturing technologies in the Ugandan machine tool driven industry. Poor or the lack thereof of comprehensive production strategies had a profound effect on the development of this industry. It modeled the relationships between these indicators and production strategies. The strongest strategic motivation that drove Ugandan firms to invest in advanced manufacturing technologies was its competitive advantage followed by reduction in labor costs. In addition some strategies presented formidable barriers to the adoption and penetration of advanced manufacturing technologies. The study brings to the fore results that contrast with what has been espoused in the developed world. It provides interesting insights into strategies that influence the growth of the manufacturing industry in a typical developing country.

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Amy L. Sullivan, Angie Garner, Christi D. Hardy

Abstract: The typical dental hygiene school admissions committee regularly considers an applicant’s intellectual potential to succeed upon entrance into the program. Since hands-on ability is considered an asset in the dental profession, this research investigates the applicants’ clinical potential by way of three very specific hands-on assessment tests. Each applicant was given a hands-on test consisting of the O’Conner Tweezer Dexterity, Grooved Pegboard, and Symbol Digit modalities following the standardized guidelines. The main findings suggest the best indicator of passing the clinical boards is the pre-clinic course grade, and the best indicators of success in the pre-clinic course are the O’Conner Tweezer Dexterity and Symbol Digits Modalities assessment tests. This displays some rationale for selecting a student with better-hands on ability prior to starting the program and can be done by way of these assessment tests.

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A. Poonguzhali

Abstract: IEEE802.11e is a new 802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN) standard, which supports applications with Quality of Service (QoS). It is widely considered to play a major role in multimedia wireless home networks. The Cell Broadband Engine is a new multicore microprocessor architecture for high performance computer applications. In this project, we are trying to provide a simple simulator framework for IEEE 802.11e as well as its implementation in CELL processor. The simulator will run in a uni-processor (x86) which will provide the performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11e MAC. The simulator in CELL processor will perform the same operation as the simulator developed for uni-processor, with additional speed up. The multicore processing capability of the CELL processor, will provide fast and reliable simulation results as it is done in a uni-processor machine.

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Nwosu O.B

Abstract: The new high resolution aeromagnetic data of parts of the middle Benue trough Nigeria have been analysed to appraise its hydrocarbon accumulation potential using Source Parameter Imaging (SPITM) technique. The regional-residual separation was done with a first order polynomial using POLIFIT program and this lead to the residual field data that corresponds to the target sources for further processing. The preliminary qualitative interpretation revealed that the area is made up of low frequency anomaly and high frequency anomaly sources, related to deep and shallow seated bodies which are possibly areas of deeper and shallower sediments. The general trend in the orientation of the magnetic contour closures are found to be predominantly in the NE-SW direction, an attribute of the Pan - African Orogeny trends. Quantitative analysis of the study area using SPI revealed two main magnetic anomaly sources depth represented by the long spikes (deep blue coloured) and the short spikes (light green and orange colored). The long blue spikes are areas of deeper lying magnetic bodies hence with thicker sedimentary cover and ranges from 2000m to 6291.5m with an average depth of 3245m and could be viewed as the magnetic basement depth of the studied area. The short spikes are areas of shallow seated magnetic bodies hence are areas of thinner sediment ranging from 159.067m to 2000m with an average depth 1079.5m. They may be regarded as magmatic intrusions into the sedimentary basins and these may be responsible for the Lead-Zinc mineralization found in the area. Several undulations found on the basement surface may likely act as trap. The significance of these results indicate that the marine sedimentary layer of the Albian Age, Coniacian - Turonian Age, and Turonian - Senonian Age have the potential to generate hydrocarbon if other conditions are met.

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Muzamil Bhat

Abstract: With the large cost involved in launching satellites, probes, sensors to keep an eye on the resources and entities of commercial value necessitates to strengthen the processing of procured data at ground stations. The emphasis is laid on enhancing the quality for easy human interpretation and reducing the quantity for easy storage and transmission. The first sine qua non involves the capturing of image and subsequent transfer to the ground stations, where the image is passed through various operations to retrieve the information of the captured area. The three pronged approach of capturing at suitable height, segmentation or edge roughening at the middle stage and retrieving the information from the base created by initial stages. With the arrival of new software's to enhance the quality, a single image serves the representative of the whole area. The processing of the images helps to get the information in shortest possible time and energy.

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I.U. Abhulimen, J.I. Achebo

ABSTRACT: The weld quality of Tunston inert gas welded joint has been investigated to identify the most economical weld parameters that will bring about optimum properties. Artificial neural network, has been used in the prediction and optimization of the Tunston inert gas weld of mild steel pipes. Neural network model was generated using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm with feed ward back propagation learning rule. Results show that the generated neural network model was able to predict tensile and yield strength to a mean square error of 34.2.

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Dipti Sharma

Abstract: Colour of food is an integral part of our culture and enjoyment of life. Colour is also an important parameter for sensory analysis and consumer preference. However using synthetic colour could be harmful for health of a consumer. Therefore in today's progressive world a shift from synthetic to biocolour is observed. The present article will enable to understand the what are biocolour, how they can be extracted and where they can be used.

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Mercy S, Mubsira Banu S, Jenifer I

Abstract: Fruit peels of Banana, Pomegranate, Sweet lime and Orange are highly rich in potash, ion, Zinc etc. Above fruit peels powder were formulated from the trace amounts and gradually increased for the preparation of three formulations as Formulation 1, Formulation 2 and Formulation 3. Three different formulations were applied for plant growth in two methods such as fruit peel powder, fruit peel powder extract as a natural fertilizer. Fenugreek seeds were used to test the utilization of fruit peel powder as a natural growth enhancer. After 45 days of application of fertilizer, plant growth was measured and the yield of fenugreek vegetables was counted. Among the three formulations of fruit peel powder and fruit peel extract, formulation 1 was found more suitable for plant growth. Cheapest and harmless materials were used in the present investigation.

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Onumadu, F.N., Osahon, E. E.

Abstract: The study investigated socio-economic determinants of adoption of improved rice technologies by farmers in Ayamelum Local Government Area by Anambra State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to: describe the socio-economic characteristics of rice farmers in the study area; identify the varieties of rice grown (local and improved); determine the level of adoption of improved rice varieties and identify the constraints that affected the adoption of improved rice varieties. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire from 120 farmers who were selected with multi-stage random sampling technique. Analysis of data were carried out using frequency count percentages, mean scores and multiple regression analysis. Results showed that 80% of the framers were within the age range of 30 years and 50 years. Majority (57.5%) were female farmers, both male and female farmers (60.0%) were married, 75.0% were literate, 75.0% had household size of 1 to 10 people, 87.0% were small-scale farmers, 63.3% had between 6 to 15 years of farming experience. However, majority (73.3%) were members of Farmers' Association. Also, majority (93.3%) cultivated swamp rice and the improved MASS 240 rice which had highest level of mean adoption score of 3.13. The farmers were constrained in the adoption of the improved rice farming technologies by scarcity of inputs and paucity of fund. The test of the hypothesis of the study showed that age, gender, education, farm size, farming experience and membership of Farmers' Association were significant in the adoption of improved rice farming technologies. It was therefore recommended that the Farmers Association should be assisted by Extension Agents to access credit from financial institutions. Also, Extension Agents should increase activities in the study area to make information available to the clientele on improved rice production.

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K. N’wuitcha, K. Palm, S.W. Igo, K. Atchonouglo, A. Ndiho, I. Ouedraogo, M. Banna, B. Zeghmati

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to contribute to environmental protection by reducing pollutants emission during municipal solid waste incineration. This paper presents the mathematical model for predicting the thermal treatment of the fumes produced by the combustion of municipal solid waste, in turbulent regime, before discharge into the atmosphere. Forced turbulent equations associated to radiative transfer equation are proposed and solved. The standard k-epsilon model was used for the modeling of the turbulence phenomena in the incinerator. The turbulence-chemistry interaction is depicted by Eddy-Dissipation model. Discrete ordinate method is used for the modeling of the radiative heat transfer. The equations are solved using an implicit scheme based on the finite volume method. The results show that the thermal treatment process is more efficient with low Reynolds number. The radiative transfer intensifies convective transfers and increases the temperature of the smoke. This transfer mode enhances the thermo destruction process effectiveness.

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K. N’wuitcha, S.W. Igo, K. Palm, K. Atchonouglo, A. Ndiho, I. Ouedraogo, M. Banna, B. Zeghmati

Abstract: A numerical study of the thermal destruction of the pollutant components of smoke generated by wastes combustion is presented. Calculations are performed for a cylindrical incinerator with an inlet and outlet port. Turbulent transfers are modeling using RANS equations and the k-ε model. These equation linked to the radiative transfer equation are solved using an implicit scheme based on the finite volume method. We analyze the effects of Reynolds number, inlet and outlet port position and radiative transfers on the velocity and temperature fields, and on the cleaning up of the smokes effectiveness. The results show that the thermo destruction process is more efficient for low Reynolds number. The radiative transfer intensifies transfers in the incinerator and enhances the thermo destruction process efficiency. The cleaning up of the smokes is better with an outlet port position shifted with respect to the inlet port location.

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Prajakta Doiphode, Chandan Bangera, Tazeen Shaikh

Abstract: A rectangular patch with a symmetric pattern for obtaining circular polarization with an axial ratio of 2.2 dBi and the same antenna can be operated at multiple frequencies 1.26 GHz, 1.73 GHz, 2.16 GHz and 2.59 GHz suitable for GPS, WLAN and WiFi applications is designed using IE3D software from Zeland. The microstrip patch is constructed using a single layer glass epoxy substrate, having dielectric constant = 4.3 and loss tangent tan =0.001.The patch is provided with a dual feed having 180° phase difference.

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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - January 2022 - Volume 11 Issue 1