International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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Volume 5 - Issue 2, February 2016 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
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Tinashe Honde, Dr Halil Zafer Alibaba

Analysis of vertical (greenery) landscape, an alternative to our historical horizontal landscape which lost its control due to urbanization and deforestation. Urban cites are increasingly expanding upwards and spreading horizontal which is now a direct negative impact on landscape and health. As Population increase there is demand of land for shelter and health also. This paper seeks to analysis if vertical landscape helps to link this gap which is increasingly expanding – (shortages of clean air, natural environment, exposed to direct light etc.).The paper sorely use three case studies which are in three different climates so as to give wider decision when applying vertical landscaping. The selection of case studies is based on their role as pioneers of vertical landscape and the benefit which is now at stake. This is achieved through research and literature reviews on those case studies. This paper seeks to provide better alternative when design building with vertical landscape, and tries to lay out some of the critical principles to consider when design a green façade (vertical landscape). Finally the writer define the benefit of using vertical landscape to natural environment, manmade environment and users as well.

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Zulkipli, Aminuddin Ilmar, H.M. Djafar Saidi, Slamet Sampurno

A mandate of the constitution of the Republic of Indonesia as the highest law is the creation of Indonesia people that is just and prosperous, and then the development in all sectors becomes a necessity for achieving that goal. To achieve continuity and development success, the enforcement of law supremacy in the form of prevention and eradication of corruption is a necessary condition (condition sine qua non). Type of legal research conducted is normative. This research was carried out by discussion of concepts, doctrine and theory (principles) as well as legislation, which is correlated to the philosophical construction on state finances. The results of the research indicated that law enforcement of corruption against the management of limited state-owned enterprises during this that damage SEOs (state) is one of the important parts in the form of control the management of SOEs whose responsible and integrity. Though on the other hand, the debate over the use of the criminal instruments in resolving the problems that occurred in the transaction of SOEs state that damage will continue to occur, but against the actor of state-owned companies still put forward the principle of prudence in running the business, because in some judicial practice has been expanding/constructing carelessness be a part of unlawful action in corruption crime.

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F. Helmi, K. A. M. Khaidzir

'Reinterpretation' is one of the activities that occur in visualization, the role of reinterpretation is restructuring half form idea, and it can be performed with applying sketch as a useful tool, and creation, development, evaluation, communication and sharing of ideas can be facilitated by sketching. ‘Reinterpretation’ basically is the outcome of the lateral thinking process. Investigating of the reinterpretation of some designers indicate that externalizing a design may not be the solitary approach of designing visually and for expert architects sketching is not a crucial action in the early stages of conceptual designing. Moreover, experts could progress in design by thinking only. However, novice students have problem in reinterpreting patterns in their mental image whether tools such as sketch could help in the better performance of the reinterpretation process. This paper raises a fundamental question that if the sketch of novice students can support their mental imagery, in order to answer this question, this paper uses documentary method to investigate the previous studies in this field. Finally in accordance to the weakness of novice’s sketches, this study concluded that their sketches could not support their mental imagery.

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Amin Rezaei, Fariborz Rahimi

In linear control systems, Evans’ rules are used to manually sketch the root locus. One of these rules concerns identifying break-in or breakaway points. Multitude of analytical methods can provide such break points. However, even to verify the existence of break points, each method requires solving an equation. In this paper, using Bolzano theorem, we propose a method of checking the existence of break points in a specific interval without need to solve any equation.

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Ang Kean Hua

Education plays important role in developing country especially science education. Last few centuries ago, Islamic countries fall behind in science and technology compared to Western countries although in the previous time Islamic country renowned as a nation that produce lots of new scientific discoveries and lots of countries had submitted to Islamic nations during the Golden Age time. Generally, science education can develop a country and economy for a better life. This article will discuss about the problem that Islamic countries faced, which contribute to science education that fall behind among Islamic countries and tried to overcome with solving the problems.

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Aarif Jamal, Ramesh Kumar, R.P. Singh, Nilesh Pratap Singh, Anup Kumar Digarse

The life of bucket teeth in shovel and dragline deployed in handling of overburden rock is an important contributor to the stores cost and is also responsible for the loss of valuable availability and utilisation time of these critical equipment. To ascertain the effect of rock type on longevity of bucket teeth, a study has been conducted in two large opencast mines of Singrauli Coalfields. The results of this study is presented in this paper. There was a significant variation as compared to the actual figures of the mine, it establish useful relationship between the type of mineral present in the overburden and the life of bucket teeth of shovel and dragline.

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Dimas Galang Prakosa, Sri Andayani, Maftuch

Aeromonas hydrophila bacterium is one of the bacteria which frequently attack fresh water aquaculture and cause the farmer experience terrible loss. In order to cope with the diseases caused by A. hydrophila bacteria, the usage of natural antibacteria was more recommended as it does not give negative effects to the environment. One natural antibacteria which can be used against A. hydrophila is from the white turmeric extract (Curcuma zedoaria). The aim of this study is to know the active compound content in white turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria), to determine the most effective solvent and the effective maceration duration to extract Curcuma zedoaria as antibacteria against Aeromonas hydrophila using disc diffusion method. The study used descriptive and experimental method with treatments to 3 different solvents (ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform) and 3 repetitions. The data acquired from the results of the study were then analyzed descriptively. Results showed that Curcuma zedoaria extract from the phytochemical test contained saponins, alkaloid and flavonoid. The best solvent was ethyl acetate with maceration for 2x24 hours and inhibition area width 11.34 mm.

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Nadine Jaan D. Caldito, Eusebelle B. Dagdagan, Mark G. Estanislao, Kim Leonard B. Jutic, Mary Regina B. Apsay, Marissa G. Chua, Jeffrey F. Calim, Florocito S. Camata

Recognizing plants is a vital problem especially for biologists, agricultural researchers, and environmentalists. Plant recognition can be performed by human experts manually but it is a time consuming and low-efficiency process. Automation of plant recognition is an important process for the fields working with plants. This paper presents an approach for plant recognition using leaf images. In this study, the proponents demonstrated the development of the system that gives users the ability to identify vegetables based on photographs of the leaves taken with a high definition camera. At the heart of this system is a modernize process of identification, so as to automate the way of identifying the vegetable plants through leaf image and digital image processing. The system used the Gabor Filter, Edge Detection, RGB Color and Grayscale Image to acquire the physical parameter of the leaves. The output parameters are used to compute well documented metrics for the statistical and shape. Base on the study, the following conclusion are drawn: The system can extract the physical parameters from the leaf’s image that will be used in identifying Vegetable`s. From the extracted leaf parameters, the system provides the statistical analysis and general information of the identified leaf. The used algorithm can organize data and information to useful resources to the future researchers.

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Andi Sofyan

The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System (Act No. SPPA) confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA, but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts, and threats of punishment under seven (7) years, and not a repetition criminal (recidivists). This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice, not promote the interests of protection for child.

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Eyo Asro Sasmita

This research is aimed to test and identify empirical evidence regarding the effect of capital structure and loan to financial performance of cooperative, where the relationship between loan and financial performance is moderated by non-performing loan. The population of this research is 257 Financial Service Cooperative (hereinafter referred to as “KJK”, as the abbreviation for Koperasi Jasa Keuangan) of Urban Village Community Economic Empowerment (hereinafter referred to as “PEMK”, as the abbreviation for Pemberdayaan Ekonomi Masyarakat Kelurahan) in Jakarta, 2011 to 2013. Sample is determined by using purposive sampling method. The data is secondary data which is obtained from the Revolving Fund Management Unit (hereinafter referred to as “UPDB”, as the abbreviation for Unit Pengelola Dana Bergulir) Jakarta. Hypothesis is tested by using multiple linear regression analysis with SPSS 20.00. The number of sample used in this research is 120. Research findings explain that (1) Capital Structure (hereinafter referred to as “SM”, as the abbreviation for Struktur Modal) has positive and significant impact on financial performance (hereinafter referred to as “KIN” as the abbreviation for Kinerja Keuangan), because the probability value of 0,000 is smaller than α 0.05. Calculation shows that if the capital structure rises 1%, assuming that the loan and non-performing loan variables remain the same, then the financial performance will increase 0.017%. (2) Loans (hereinafter referred to as "PIN", as the abbreviation for Pinjaman) given has positive and significant impact on KIN, because the probability value of 0,001 is smaller than α 0.05. If the loan rises 1%, assuming that the capital structure and non-performing loan variables remain the same, then the KIN will increase 0.013%. (3) Non-performing loan has negative and significant effect on KIN, because the probability value of 0,000 is smaller than α 0.05. PBR varible increase 1%, assuming that the loan and capital structure variables remain the same, KIN would fall 0.001%. It can be concluded that the level of KIN in KJK PEMK Jakarta is determined by the relationship or interaction between the capital structure, loan, and non-performing loans.

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Emy Agren

The remarkable developments in mobile-based technologies have brought prominent impacts on human life style. Today, life is running on mobile electronic devices, smart phones, tablets, gaming devices and video-players. Generally, the users acquaint with the features and properties of products after emotionally and physically interacting with the devices. The interaction, in return influencing our moods, depending on the feelings the technology creates. The focus of this study lays on the uses of tablets or also called PC tablets and its effects on its user’s emotional responses. To discover possible emotional responses with the tablets, the data in this work were collected through a survey questionnaire from participants belongs to various backgrounds, age groups and genders. The model of emotions was adopted in order to classify the emotional responses.The study has found that during or after the interaction with the tablets, the users may get positive or negative emotional responses of a different kind. The user’s mood can also be affected by awakening such emotional feelings as happiness, sadness, frustration, etc.

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Okoffo, E. D., Ofori, A., Nkoom, M., Bosompem, O. A.

The physicochemical properties of cocoa growing soils were assessed in four cocoa growing communities in the Dormaa West District of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana, to ascertain the variations in selected soil properties and the quality of these soils for cocoa production. Thirty-two (32) soil samples were collected between December 2014 and February 2015 from sixteen (16) selected cocoa farms and analysed using standard procedures. The results of the physicochemical properties of soils were in the ranges of: pH (7.35-8.49), EC (203-251 µS/cm), %OC (1.38-6.25%), %OM (2.38-10.8%), %TN (1.64-2.13%), Available phosphorous (0.63-2.47 mg/kg), Available potassium (0.35-0.85 ppm), NH4+ (34.8-45.0 mg/L), NO3- (25.7-40.6 mg/L), %Sand (50.8-67.8%), %Clay (11.7-25.0%), and %Silt (9.96-24.3%). The texture of the soils were generally sandy loam. In this study, the scientifically measured soil properties showed significant variations (p<0.05) in some of the soils properties except EC, available K, %TN, NH4+, %Clay, and Exchangeable K. Soil properties such as organic matter, electrical conductivity, available potassium and available phosphorous were below the minimum required value of soils for cocoa cultivation. In addition, total nitrogen and pH were above the recommended limit required for cocoa production. However, percent organic carbon and exchangeable potassium were within their respective critical limits for cocoa production. A guided application of fertilizer and manure is recommended to cocoa farmers for improved cocoa productivity.

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Suman Kumari, Shahnawaz Alam

The Panchayats are expected to play an important role in rural development in India, particularly after independence. Plan documents of both the central and state governments and various committees have emphasized the importance of these bodies in the policy. Sustainable and inclusive growth of overall rural development of Panchayat Raj Institutions. Empowering rural population to participate in rural development programs for improving their quality of life. Providing rural infrastructure and socio-economic growth opportunities for the poor people in rural areas. Accountable and efficient functions of Panchayat Raj Institutions. Providing opportunity for rural livelihood. Development of rural areas has a bearing on improved agricultural production and related economic activities, availability of natural and financial resources and their development, improvement of service delivery - paving way for improved human development. The department is striving hard to improve the livelihood of the rural populace and to inculcate awareness in the economic, social and political spheres through effective implementation of decentralized administration and implementation of programmes decided particularly by the rural populace.

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Lince Romauli Panataria, Dharma Bakti, Elisa Julianti

Strawberries are kind of fruit that easily go bad after they are harvested from the orchards. Thus it is needed good post-harvest handlings to retain the fresh quality of the fruits. One of the handlings is coating the fruits with chitosan. It is expected that this coating the fruits with chitosan can prolong the storage of the fruits after they are harvested. This occurs because chitosan can slow down the ripening process of the fruits wheile they are stored. Research has been done to derive what the best concentration of chitosan used in storing some varieties of strawberries is. This research was conducted in Medan, North Sumatera. The design was Random, Complete Factorial Plan consisting of two factors namely, three varieties of strawberries and chitosan of (0-150 ml/L) concentration at environmental temperature of 25°C. The statistics showed that the application of the highest water content and CO2 was on the application of V1K0 (local variety, no chitosan); the lowest was on the application V2K2 (Chandler variety, 150 ml/L liquid chitosan). The highest O2 was on the application V2K0 (Chandler variety,nochitosan); and the lowest oxygen was on the application V1K3 (Loal variety, 150 ml/L liquid chitosan). The application of the highest fiber content was on V2K3 (Chandler variety, 150 ml/ L liquid chitosan); the lowest was on the V1K0 (Local variety, no chitosan). The highest vitamin C content was found in the application of coating with 150 ml/L liquid chitosan; and the lowest was on the application with no chitosan applied.

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Ian Phil Canlas

The foregoing is a part of a developmental study that attempted to investigate the prior knowledge of students on the process of seeing and perception of colors using the Grounded theory approach. One hundred twenty-two (122) university students in their first year taking programs under the College of Education and College of Arts and Sciences enrolled in a course on biological sciences took part in the study. Explanations of the students related to light absorption in photosynthesis were analyzed to establish an illustration on how they understand the process of seeing and perception of colors. Results revealed that a gap in their understanding of these concepts existed despite its introduction during their basic education. The use of common phenomena and daily context as a form of diagnostic assessment and the importance of integrated lessons were also discussed in this paper.

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Badru, R.A., Alwadood, J.A., Atijosan, A.O., Oloko-Oba, M.A., Babalogbon, B.A., Jesuleye, I.A., Alaga, T.A, Shaba H.A.

Efficient placement of radio facilities for the communication base transceiver station (CBS) of the two small global system for mobile communication (GSM) has being an area of research due to fast growing of GSM market in Nigeria. In line with this development, Nigerian Communication Commission NCC and Nigeria Environmental Standard and Regulation Enforcement Agency, NESREA have stated the setback between communication base station and the nearest infrastructure as 5 m and 10 m respectively. To evaluate the degree of the implementation of these setbacks in Ile-Ife (the study area), the research study identified the spatial locations of the CBS using a global communication for satellite GPS receiver and also employed the use of a high resolution satellite imagery which were processed using geo-spatial techniques. The results of this study revealed that 45.6% and 59.5% of the CBS had setback to building structures at 5 m and 10 m respectively, with spatial variability between 30 m to 17074 m, at elevation between 193 m to 377 m.

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Irma Setyawati, Sugeng Suroso

The purpose of this study was to analyze some of the critical factors in the socio-economic variables that influence the sharia financial literacy. This research used a descriptive design which is intended to obtain a picture about the reality or test braid on the fact that already exists or is already underway on the subject. Within this design, researchers did not do manipulation treatment or placement subject. Data obtained by distributing questionnaires to lecturers in Indonesia. The population in this study are all lecturers at institutes in Java. Based on data obtained from PDPT Higher Education, the number of lecturers is 2,611 people. To determine the sample size, we used the formula Slovin with an error rate of 5%, the samples obtained was 347. Socio-economic characteristics influence on financial knowledge, financial behaviors and financial attitudes. The level of financial knowledge, financial behaviors and financial attitude Indonesian lecturers determined by the interaction of socio-economic characteristics possessed lecturer, which consists of the interaction between the characteristics of age, gender, level of education, domicile, expenditure per month and marital status.

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Nurul Hermina, Yuyus Suryana

The business performance within the Internet industry in Indonesia needs to be upgraded. The main objective of this study is to analyze the influence of Industrial Competition Intensity and Capabilities on Business Strategy and Performance within the Internet industry in Indonesia. This study has utilized a representative sample of 70 Internet Service Providers (ISPs) with a web survey sampling technique. The collected data are analyzed using Partial Least Squares Path modeling. The analysis shows that variables such as industrial competition intensity and capabilities have significant positive impacts on business strategies and business performance. Out of the two variables, it is found out that capabilities provide greater influence.

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Kurniawan, Sucherly, Septiadi Padmadisastra

Recreational parks services industry in West Java have problems due to low business performance caused by the difficulty of companies to compete, whereas tourism services right now are yet offered unique characteristics products due to the product is relatively similar with competitors. Based on that background, the research aims to obtain a study on the influence of business partnerships and competitive strategy on business performance in recreation park service industries in West Java. Research conducted using an explanatory survey. In this study, the target population is a company incorporated in the tourism service industry in West Java. Time horizon is a cross-sectional, which research is done in one time simultaneously. The data analyzed through verification. Hypothesis is tested using partial least square (PLS). The research findings reveal that there is a simultaneous and partial influence of business partnerships and competitive strategy on business performance. The influence of competitive strategy is more dominant than business partnership in improving business performance, the rest influenced by other factors not examined in this study. Based on that it would need to the management of recreation park services companies in West Java to increase the competitive strategy as the first priority in efforts to improve business performance.

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Sigit Rahardjo, Sucherly, Ernie Tisnawati Sule

Oil and gas production in Indonesia has been declined since 1995 up to now, the effort to increase the production has been done but it does not result yet. In contrast, day by day the investment is getting increased and huge; on the other hands, it becomes a problem and a challenge for Indonesia to meet oil needs as raw material for refined fuel oil either for transportation or industries. Day by day the needs of refined fuel oil is getting increased and huge as it is correlated to the increasing of the number of motorcycles either two-wheeled or four-wheeled as well as the increasing of oil and gas or non-oil and gas industries. Oil and natural industry (Resource Base) has specific characteristics those are internal factor that uses resource such as high technology, huge investment/ cost, as well as competent human resources. Besides, the external factor those are good regulations either in the central and regional levels as well as the sector which is very important toward the production performance and the of company management’s strategies to manage this industry. This paper attempts to figure out the impact of internal factor in the form of resources and external factor in the form of regulation as well as the effect of production performance toward petroleum companies of upstream sectors in Indonesia and management’s role, especially, petroleum industrialists in managing the company. The wane of oil production and the increasing of refined fuel oil need in Indonesia as well as the increasing of oil production cost then it will affect the industrialists’ strategies in managing the companies. The resources consist of human resource, oil reserve as well as petroleum technologies. While, regulation consists of law, central and regional government regulations and rules in oil and gas sector. Whereas, the company’s strategies are explained by production volume and selling volume of oil. Company’s performance which sets to work in upstream sector is influenced by various factors which are interconnected and it impacts on the companies at the same time. In addition, for the moment, the companies which engage in upstream oil and gas sectors in Indonesia are quite a lot either domestic (National Oil Company) or International Oil Company (IOC). Currently, companies in Indonesia are in the form of Production Sharing Contractor, Joint Operating Body and Cooperation Operation (KSO), and currently upstream sector companies specifically which are producing are more than 50 companies.

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Rina D. Pasaribu, Dwi Kartini, Yevis M. Oesman, S. Padmadisastra

Broadband telecommunication is significantly important to support and improve country’s competitiveness level. However, Indonesia performance, especially in Fixed Broadband is poor as the penetration rate is very low and far behind from other ASEAN countries. The industry is served by multi operators with one dominant operator. This dominant operator will be studied representing the industry in this study. A qualitative study (Pasaribu et al., 2015), related to this paper, has found that poor fulfillment of Customer Demand and poor Supplier Performance are two dominant external factors that cause the low performance. A model is proposed to frame the work, it consists of four variables: Customer Demand, Supplier Performance, Competitive Strategy and Business Performance. This study aims is use that Pasaribu et al. model directly to business units level to identify and analyze the relationships within the model and significance level of each relationship accordingly. By understanding the priority levels, the improvement program could be more effectively planned and implemented. This study is expected to contribute on Fixed Broadband research wich is still very rare especially in Indonesia The research methodology is quantitative methods using survey technique. The respondents are management and customers of the dominant operator business units. Clustering by province regions gave 32 samples from the population of 58 business units. Partial Least Square modelling was used to analise the datas. The main result of this study is that the most significant relationship in the model is Supplier Performance to Competitive Strategy. Furthermore, from indicators of Supplier Performance, it was found that Quality Relationship has a very high effect among other indicators. By prioritizing these significant constructs, it could be expected the related improvement program could be more effective.

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Dr. Ozge Razy, Nadia Mohamed Ben Amer

This study attempted to investigate foreign students’ feeling and behaviour towards learning English and different other languages. The study found out that there is any significant difference in the students’ aspects attitudes positive and negative towards learning English language inside and outside the school based on their response to 25 items. A total of participants were 18 took a questionnaire as an instrument to qualify their attitudes. The participants showed positive attitudes in the high level towards foreign languages such as English. The study presented recommendation to improve other languages in the future as English.

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Budi Wardono, A. Fauzi, A. Fahrudin, A. H. Purnomo

The development of fisheries sector is intended to improve the role of creating a strong linkage with other sectors by increasing the value added, absorbing labor forces and increasing people’s income so that this can make the economy grow well. The value added is a value that increases due to a commodity that has been processed, transported or stored in a production. Lamongan and Pelabuhanratu regencies are one of fisheries centers on the north and the south coast of Java Island. The aim of this research was to know the value added and the business margin of fisheries from the processing and marketing aspects. The research was carried out in two locations; Northern coast (Lamongan regencies) and Shouther coasts (Pelabuhanratu regencies), Indoneisa. The data used were primary data; the people involved in the business including fishing, marketing and processing product. The results showed that the process of fisheries product yielded the value added and margin that were created from the incorporation of business benefit, added input contribution/ other input and direct reward for the labor forces. The value added and the business margin of product processing can reach 2 to 3 fold from the main input value. The value added and the business margin of fisheries product processing were very big. This was the source of economy growth there. The effort to develop the business of fisheries product processing in the small scale need to be supported with various programs especially in the market access and funding.

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Easter B. Belandres

The study proves that conjoint analysis is a robust measure of preferences as it offers to be a promising technique in determining the leadership preferences in the military service. The process of conjoint analysis in this study employs both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative result shows that the ideal military leadership style in Baguio City and in Benguet is authentic, servant, transformational, and transactional leadership. The findings led to the construction of a data gathering tool for the quantitative method to determine the average importance utility weight that the respondents attach to their preferences on military leadership. Quantitative results reveal that the respondents give a higher degree of importance to military officers who carry out transformational, transactional, servant, and authentic leadership, in decreasing order of importance.

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Hermanus Hattu, Achmad Ruslan, Syamsul Bachri, Marthen Arie

The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia as the highest law has been asserted that in urgency, the President shall be entitled to stipulate a government regulation in lieu of law. Then, the government regulation shall be approved by the House of People’s Representative in the subsequent meeting. As it turns out in practice, however, it has certain weaknesses, particularly in view of the accountability and legitimacy aspects of its establishment. This research was conducted by using normative legal research, a theoretical studies on the legal aspects of a rule of law includes a process to make the rule of law, principles of law, as well as legal doctrines in order to answer the legal issue at hand. Data collecting techniques consisted of a literature study, observation, interview, and questionnaire. In this study, data collection techniques used was in-depth interviews against the informant and literature study. The results of the research indicated that to implement the people’s sovereignty, Parliament is equipped with 3 (three) functions, namely: a) the function of budgeting; b) the function of supervision; and c) the function of legislation. As it turns out in practice, however, the system of legal norms that are intended for normal circumstances cannot expected to be effective to be used in order to achieve the goal of law that guarantees the aspect of fairness, certainty, and usefulness.

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Abdullah T. Al-fawwaz, Jacob H. Jacob, Turkia E. Al-Wahishe

Phenol is an organic hazardous pollutant that exerts toxic effects on living cells at relatively at low concentrations. Moreover, accumulation of phenol exhibit toxicity towards the biotic components of the environment. Phenol bioremoval is a very useful approach to clean up the residual phenol from the environment. This study aims at isolating green microalgae and fungi from local dry environment to test their ability to remove phenol. Subsequently, two green microalgal species have been isolated and identified as Desmodesmus sp. and Chlamydomonas sp.. Also, two fungal species have been isolated and identified as Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp. Phenol bioremoval capacity as well as the effects of some physicochemical factors on the bioremoval process were then studied. These factors include initial phenol concentration, contact time, and the synergistic effect (Desmodesmus sp. and Rhizopus sp.) on the bioremoval process. Both microalgae and fungi showed phenol bioremoval capacity. The highest phenol removal percentage among algae was found (75%) by Desmodesmus sp. after 25 days at 25 mg/L, while the highest phenol removal percentage among fungi was found (86%) by Rhizopus sp. after 25 days at 100 mg/L. Bioremoval of phenol by the consortium (Desmodesmus sp. and Rhizopus sp.) was found to be 95% at the phenol concentration 25 mg/L.

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Alireza Jashooei, GHolamhossein KHalaf

one of industries that have been focused by experts and industrialists is transportation and logistics industry. The present research analyzes, describes, and investigates evaluation factors according to experts’ (professors at universities, university students, and employees in automotive industry) point of view in Shiraz city. To assume studied variables normality, single sample t-test was used and Friedman testing factors for ranking was used. According to experts point of view, effectiveness of technology factors was 3.06, technical factors was 2.84, financial-economic factors was 2.78, organizational factors was 2.52, and environmental factors was 3.79 on production of hybrid solar vehicles.

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Erlinda, Yuyus Suryana, Faisal Afiff, Arief Helmi

Franchisee is the party that play important role in the franchising, because most of franchise outlets managed and operated by franchisees. Nevertheless in the process of business operating there would be the conflict of interests between franchisor as the owner of brand with the franchisee as the buyer of franchisor’s brand to operating retail outlet.and bound with futures contract. Therefore franchisee trust is needed in order to maintain franchisee intention to remain in franchise system. One of the most important elements in franchising is franchisor’s brand image because basically franchise is selling the brand. Therefore this study aims to examine franchisee intention to remain in franchise system through franchisee trust that influenced by franchisor’s brand image. This study is conducted in Aceh province, Indonesia. Using causality-explanatory approach, with primary data in the form of perception, opinions and attitude of 134 franchisees as individual research object. The method of data collection is survey using questionnaire. Regarding time dimension is one shot study. Partial Least Square is used to analyze the data. The result shows that franchisor’s brand image have a positive significant influence greater through franchisee trust than a direct influence of franchisor’s brand image to franchisee intention to remain in franchise system.

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Drs. Oktoruddin Harun, SKM., M. Kes; Ando Fikri Hakim, S. Kep., Ners., MAN; Lilis Sartika, S. Kep.

Background : reproductive health is a problem that most important to get attention especially among teenagers, an effort to get to the healthy have to start at least in the early adolescence, because teenagers to be prepared either knowledge, attitude, or the act of which reached at reproduction healthy. An incident the occurrence of the average dysmenorrhea in young women between 16,8% – 81%. Some of them are yet resulted in heavy dysmenorrhea so as to interrupt activities such as not going to school. The purpose of this research is to knowledge of menstruation relations with dysmenorrhea handling effort on classes XII students at SMA Negeri 1 Parongpong. The method is applicable study analitik with a method of approach cross-sectional. The total sample 62 students classes XII with been gained through total sampling, data collection techniques directly from respondents with the methods in the form of a questionnaire. The results of this research is 62 student on classes XII at SMA Negeri 1 Parongpong having a lack of knowledge of the menses that is some 20 (32,3%) students, and the level of knowledge have enough that is some 25 (40,3%) students, while the level of knowledge have good that is some 17 (27,4%) students. In efforts to handle dysmenorrhea so that the level of handling pain diminished that is some 33 (53,2%) students, and with the level of handling so that pain increase that is some 29 (46,8%) students.

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Mathew Masinde Egessa, Janet Nangila Manyasi

The main purpose of this study was to establish the effect of ICT related training on customer service delivery in Machakos County, Kenya. Being a descriptive and correlational cross-sectional survey, self-administered questionnaires and interviews were used to collect primary data from the respondents. The collected data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Significant variations between groups were determined using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Pearson correlation was also used to examine relationships among variables. The study concluded that there is a strong positive relationship between ICT related training for staff (r=0.752, p =0.000) and customer service delivery. The study recommends that County Governments allocate more funds towards ICT related training for their staff and where possible, the ICT related training should be sponsored by the government to ensure uniformity in the training for its staff based on identified needs.

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Sona Kumari, S. K. Sinha, R. K. Choudhary

Lead titanate is one of the family member of ABO3 structure (perovskite) having piezoelectric as well as pyroelectric properties in nature. It shows highl ferroelectric property as ceramic materials. Ca modified lead titanate termed as P1-xCXT synthesized by HEBM at 270 C of room temperature. The stoichiometric ratio was taken as Pb1-xCaxTi03 where Ca0 was taken in various ratio . Structural and electrical properties were studied by taking measurement with standard instruments (LCR metre). Analysis of XRD gives that doping of calcium produce a decrease in tetragonal size and hence the volume . As a result on A-site substitution observed. Graph of electrical parameters shows that impedence decreases exponentially with frequency.

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Vigneswari Muthukumaresan, Bindu.B

The current energy crisis has prompted the need for efficient production and judicious usage of the available energy resources. According to an approximation by the International Energy Agency, the overall standby power demand of the domestic sector in developed countries amounts to nearly 15 GW. This paper focusses on a device ‘Deluminator’, installed at the door/gateway which keeps count of the number of people in a room and aids in eliminating electrical wastage due to unwanted functioning of various appliances in the room by switching off the appliances when there is no one present inside the room. Several devices can be integrated to keep count of how many people are inside the room as they enter and exit through multiple doors/gateways and thereby regulate the electrical appliances in use. This device has a high scope in offices where unnecessary lighting of cabins doubles the company’s electricity bill annually. This not only serves as an energy saving device but can also ensure safety in case of any emergency situation such as fires by displaying the number of people present in the room at a given time and aiding in effective rescue operation.

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Nurmukhamedova Shoira Zahidovna

As in ancient architecture of Greece and Rome there was an interconnection between picturesque and monumental forms of arts, in antique period in the architecture of Uzbekistan there was a tight connection between architecture and such forms of picturesque arts as monumental painting, sculpture. Determinant factor of their application was the scale of the monument itself, the height of the walls, the conditions of viewing. These forms of arts represented an organic unity in regard to architecture, improved it by color and plastic solutions, underlying and emphasizing the architectonics of the interior by art means.

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Ardin, Aminuddin Ilmar, Sukarno Aburaera, Marthen Arie

This research aims to identify and to analyze the legal status of the Election Organizer Ethics Council in the General Election in Indonesia. This research is a normative research by using statute approach, official records and the judge’s verdict which is then described qualitatively. These results indicate that the legal status of the Election Organizer Ethics Council in the general election in Indonesia as supporting organ that serves to uphold ethics (rule of ethics) and guarding democracy. The authority of Election Organizer Ethics Council in the general election in Indonesia sometimes out of authority. Ideal concept of the legal status of the Election Organizer Ethics Council in general elections was as supporting organ which have the infrastructure, secretary general and administrative staff, so it has a public legal entity as similar to the Election organizers serve as code of ethics enforcement agencies code of ethics and can equated to other state institutions.

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Kamaluddeen, Kabir, Yerima, Mohammed Bello, Abu, Tijjani Rimi, Deeni, Yusuf

A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of sewage sludge on biodegradation of engine oil in contaminated soil. Soil samples were collected from a mechanics workshop in Sokoto metropolis. The Soil samples were taken to the laboratory for isolation of engine oil degrading bacteria. About 1 g of soil sample was used to inoculate 9 ml of trypticase soy broth and incubated at 28oC for 24 h. The growth obtained was sub-cultured in mineral salt medium overlaid with crude oil and allowed to stand at 28oC for 72 h. The culture obtained was then maintained on tryticase soy agar plates at 28oC for 48 h. A combination of microscopy and biochemical tests was carried out to identify the colonies. The sewage sludge was obtained from sewage collection point located behind Jibril Aminu Hall of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto and processed (i.e. dried, grounded and sterilized). A portion of land obtained in a botanical garden was divided into small portions (30 X 30 cm) and the soil was excavated in-situ and sterilized in the laboratory. A polythene bag was subsequently used to demarcate between the sterilized soil and the garden soil. The sterilized soil plots were artificially contaminated with equal amount of used engine oil to represent a typical farmland oil spill. The plots were amended with various amount of processed sewage sludge i.e. 200 g, 300 g and 400 g respectively. A pure culture of the bacteria was maintained on trypticase soy broth and was introduced into the sterile amended soil. The plots were watered twice daily for ten days. The degree of biodegradation and heavy metal content were assessed using standard procedures and the results obtained indicate a remarkable reduction in poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and heavy metal content.

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Abdullah Almutairi

Although the Amish are admired for their lifestyle and religious beliefs, there are some health issues that exist in the Amish community because of the isolation that is a strict part of their beliefs. According to the Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, (Payne et al), there is a database for these genetic diseases that users can access to find out he different genetic disorders common to the Anabaptist groups. Some of these genetic disorder diseases that are more common among the Amish are Polydactyl, extra fingers and toes, which is a symptom of Ellis-Van Creveld Syndrome and is common among the Amish of Pennsylvania. In addition, the primary mode of transportation in the Amish community has been the horse and buggy for generations. Today, traffic in the Amish community is increasing due to an increased rural population and a growing tourist industry. The community and the Amish have worked together on a committee to implement methods of marking all horse drawn vehicles with safety symbols to control the number of accidents that occur between horse drawn vehicles and motor vehicles.

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Abdullah Almutairi

Several risk factors contribute to the prevalence of suicide among white men in Wyoming. When the suicide situation in Wyoming is viewed in relation to the use of the Social-Ecological Model, it is possible to develop an argument that the ultimate goal of this approach to understanding suicide is the development of preventive measures against the vice. The four levels of the social-ecological model provide a platform that facilitates an understanding of suicide in Wyoming and the possible effects of potential preventive strategies. Additionally, the predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model can be essential in the development of an understanding of the contributing factors and the possible contributors.

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Irwan Sutirman Wahdiat

This research purpose to analyze the concept of Lean Manufacturing, which is influenced by the role of JIT. This research uses a theoretical approach. This study portrait thinking companies that have yet to implement lean manufacturing and after doing the concept of lean manufacturing. This study shows that the concept of lean manufacturing can make the company more efficient and effective. This paper shows some lean manufacturing dimensions of the researchers previous researchers. This study also confirmed that lean manufacturing will not be separated from the concept of balance scorecard.

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This study aimed to examine the effect of competence, independence, the quality of internal audit at the regional inspectorate officers. Common problems in this research are the findings of the audit were not detected by the apparatus inspectorate as an internal auditor, but was found by the external auditor, in this case the Supreme Audit Agency (BPK). Operationally variable of this research is reinforced by several indicators. Variable independence has three main indicators including independent organizational, individual objectivity and reporting. While variable competence of internal auditors will be strengthened into five indicators, namely knowledge, expertise, skills, education and experience. To improve the quality of internal audit can be done by increasing the independence of the internal auditor, internal auditor independence higher it will improve the quality of internal audit. Similarly, if a variable internal auditor competence of internal auditors is increasing the quality of internal audit at the regional inspectorate will also increase.

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Elkheir H.A, Yunus M, Muslimin M, Rinaldi Sjahril, Nurlina Kasim, Muhammad Riadi

Seed Priming Is Famous Technique To Accelerate Seed Germination Behaviors. This Experiment Was Conducted To Study The Effect Of Polyethylene Glycol-8000 (Peg-8000) As Priming Agent On Seed Germination Behavior Of Some Aerobic Rice Cultivars (Oryza Sativa L). Experiment Was Carried Out By Using Two-Factor (Three Aerobic Rice Cultivars And Peg) With Four Replications, Which Arranged In Factorial System Design And Conducted With Completely Randomized Design. The Factor Was Varieties Which Were Inpago 8 (V1), Ir64 (V2) And Situbagendit (V3), Combine With 4 Levels Of Peg Concentrations (0,100, And 200 Gl-1) And Control With No Treatment. Experiment Was Repeated 4 Times So Total Number Of Experimental Units Were 48). Germination Parameters Measured Were Germination Percentage, Germination Index, Days Of 50% Germination, Seedling Fresh Weight (Mg), Seedling Shoot Fresh Weight And Root Fresh Weight (Mg), Seedling Dry Weigh (Mg), Seedling Shoot Dry Weight And Root Dry Weight (Mg), Shoot/Root Ratio, Seedling Length (Cm), Seedling Root Length (Cm) And Shoot Length (Cm) And Seed Vigor Index. The Results Indicated That Seed Priming Significantly Affected Germination Behaviors Compared With Control Depending Upon Varieties. The Highest Germination % Was Obtained Under Laboratory And Greenhouse Condition By The Treatment Of Peg 200 G L-1 On The Situbagendit And Ir-64 Variety (90.25% And 93.33%, Respectively), Compared To Control In Inpago-8 In Both Laboratory (75.75%) And Greenhouse (80%) . As Implementation To Increase Seed And Seedling Vigor Of Rice It Is A Best Practice To Use Peg Priming With 200 Gl-1 Solutions Depend Upon Varietal Response, And We Suggest That More Research About The Effect Of Peg As Seed Priming Techniques On Seed Germination Behavior Of Many Grain Crops Is Needed To Confirm The Methodology.

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