International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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Volume 2- Issue 12, December 2013 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Nwaogbe Obioma, R., Ukaegbu, S.I, Ibe Calistus, C.

ABSTRACT: This study examines Abuja Urban Mass Transport Company (AUMTCO) and Nationwide Unity Transport Company's (NUTCO) service efficiency, passengers' perspectives and bus route deficiencies. The aim is to evaluate urban mass transit systems in Abuja and its transport problems of equitable bus service distribution to the masses in Abuja, Nigeria. The research uses efficiency indicators to evaluate the overall efficiency of the transport system quality in Abuja. It is observed that the current efficiency of the organized bus transit operators in Abuja is poor. There are service deficiencies in the areas of passengers' volume, vehicle kilometers and revenue generation, although the system is overstretched for the current fiscal and financial capacity, at the cost of quality. Structured questionnaires and past literature were used as sources of data. The primary data included road networks, number of trips per day by operators, operating speed, and purpose of travel, passengers' security, vehicle speed, and waiting time. The study was conducted by using two questionnaires: one for the operators and the other for tricycle users. The total number of completed questionnaires for the survey was 350 for users. The sampling technique used was random sampling from several zones of the study area. Data were analyzed using percentage and Chi-square statistical techniques for testing the hypotheses. The researcher observed that the operators of urban mass transit in the study area were operating at average of 6 trips per day. 43.49% of the respondents responded that they wait more than 15 minutes at the bus stops. The hypothesis test was used to study people's feelings about the attributes of the service provided for urban mass transit users, such as affordability, regularity, maintenance of arrival and departure time, comfort and safety. It was found that there are significant differences at the 5% level between the various categories of these respondents.

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P. Usharani

Abstract: We consider the problem of discovering association rules between items in a large database of sales transactions. We present two new algorithms for solving this problem that are fundamentally di erent from the known algo-rithms. Empirical evaluation shows that these algorithms outperform the known algorithms by factors ranging from three for small problems to more than an order of mag-nitude for large problems. We also show how the best features of the two proposed algorithms can be combined into a hybrid algorithm, called AprioriHybrid. Scale-up experiments show that AprioriHybrid scales linearly with the number of transactions. AprioriHybrid also has ex-cellent scale-up properties with respect to the transaction size and the number of items in the database.

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Age, A. I., Demenongu, T. S., Ajumah, S.

Abstract: A survey was conducted to determine the socio-economic importance and methods of controlling weeds among rural farmers in Yala Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. The population of the study consists of all rural farmers in Yala Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 150 respondents were randomly selected from the five council wards of the study area. Data for this study were collected mainly from primary sources using a well structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using frequency tables, percentages and Kruskal Wallis (H) test. It was found that most (32.4%) of the respondents fell within the age range of 40-49 years, while majority (72.6%) of them were male farmers. It was also found that 71.9% of them were married, and 43.8 % of them had primary school education. About 63.7% of the respondents took to farming as their major occupation and 46.6% of them have been earning between N35, 000 and N85, 000 per annum, and only 28.8% of them had the largest farm size of 2.0-2.5 hectares. Common weeds found in the study area were spear grass (12.5%), elephant grass (12.4%), guinea grass (12.4%), Southern gamba grass (12.2%), Northern gamba grass (12.0%), giant star grass (10.0%), bahama grass (7.3%), bush marigold (7.0%), goat weed (7.0%) and strigas (6.9%). It was found that 88.4% of the rural farmers used round up to control spear grass, 72.6% used premium to control strigas, 82.2% used glycel to control tridax, 94.5% used force up to control northern gamba grass, 93.8% used round up to control bahama grass, 85.6% used round up to control wire weed, 91.8% used round up to control guinea grass, 87.7% used round up to control giant star grass, while 94.5% used glycel to control goat weed. Kruskal Wallis test (H) reveals that Hcal (0.28)< X2tab (9.49) at 0.05 level of significance. This indicates that there is no significant difference in the methods of weed control in the five selected council wards.It was recommended that Government, as well as the private sector should subsidize the cost of herbicides to make them accessible and affordable to rural farmers andfarmers should be educated on the economic importance of weeds, and on the effective use of herbicides for optimum results.

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Khalaf R. Allwayzy

Abstract: Back ground: Wound healing is a complex process, which is influenced by multiple factors. Wound management still remains an important focus of researches . The use of natural products as an alternative treatment has been on the rise in the last few decades. blackseed and honey are of the oldest alternative medicine. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of locally applied blackseed oil and honey mixture on experimental wound healing in rabbit. Material and methods: Twenty four young male rabbits from animal house, College of Medicine, University of Mosul were used in this study at 1st of June to 30 of November 2012. The animals divided into two groups after induction of circular wound by 4 mm sharp circular punch in both ears of rabbit under anesthesia . The first group is experimental , the wounds treated daily by local application of black seed oil and honey mixture, the second group is control, no local treatment applied. In the end of 1st , 2nd , 3d , 4th weeks three animals from both group were anesthetized and the wound area and excised. The wound area estimated and the specimens prepared for histological examination for the wounds healing. Results: The mean wound areas in experimental group at the end of 1st, 2nd, 3rd , 4th were 22, 11.7, 7. 5, and 2.3 respectively , while in control group were 22.3, 13.8, 10.5 , and 7 respectively, the difference between two means was significant only at end of 4th week ( p value = 0.003). The histological examination of wound site in experimental group at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks shows histological scoring 6.12, 8.33, 10. 66, and 11.5 respectively, while in control group 5.66, 7.56, 8.2, and 10.16 respectively. The difference between the two means was significant at the end of 3rd and 4th week. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that a locally applied blackseed oil and honey mixture enhances healing in experimental wound in rabbit ear.

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Demenongu, T.S, Ukohol F.Y, Daudu, S.

Abstract: The study estimated trend equations for budgetary expenditure on Nigeria agricultural sector between 1977 and 2004.Secondary data in the form of budgetary expenditure records were obtained from various publications of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Federal of Statistics (FOS).Results from the fitted trend equations showed that budgetary expenditures on agriculture were generally low and insignificant (p>0.05). Annual compound growth rate of expenditure on the sector was also low (1.02%) and fluctuating for the entire period under review. Furthermore, the fitted quadratic equations in time variable showed the absence of either significant acceleration or deceleration in expenditure growth on agriculture. This, therefore, confirms that expenditure growth on agriculture had been stagnant, suggesting a case of financial neglect of the sector. Based on these findings, the study recommends deliberate efforts by Government to increase funds to agriculture in order to boost self-sufficiency in food production and reduce poverty in Nigeria.

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Peter Mtui

ABSTRACT: Numerical modeling technique based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to study the gasification and combustion of chipped scrape tire in a two-stage system for recycling scrape tire for heat recovery. Effect of equivalence ratio on the syngas composition and combustion behavior was investigated. Results indicated that it is possible to recover energy from recycled waste tire through this two-stage system. Optimal gasification of chipped tires was achieved in the primary chamber at equivalence ratio around 0.3 in which the average syngas composition constituted of 0.22 and 0.17 for of CO and H2, respectively. Further, the high velocity staged air injection to the secondary chamber created "turbulent jet mixing" effect thereby uniform temperature distribution is achieved and is contained in the upper half of the secondary chamber. The uniform temperature distribution and the increased wall heat flux at optimal equivalence ratio, clearly indicates better heating rate of the water tubes located in the secondary chamber for steam generation. This study contributes additional understanding of the complex phenomena occurring in a two-stage gasification and combustion system of scrape tires in addressing the environmental challenge of recycling scrap tires.

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Jimoh, S. 0, Abhulimen, U.I, Kubeyinje, L.I

Abstract: Nigeria's economy is dependent largely upon highway transportation, making it expedient to focus significant attention on road construction. The cost of road construction in Nigeria is very high, and the rate of road failure is alarming. One of the reasons for this is the inefficient management and utilization of construction materials. With proper research, many locally available materials and technology can replace imported ones, leading to reduced construction and maintenance costs, and eventually with more facilities in place. The relevance of engineering materials to nation's economy was highlighted with reference to iron and steel industry. Some of the achievements of the engineering research institute and industry in Nigeria were highlighted to justify its crucial importance to the mandate of the iron and steel industry. Some of the achievements include the modification of Bricks making machine design, and construction of a melon shelling and separating machine, fabrication of interlocking paving stone making machine and the interlocking Brick machine developed by Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute. The fabrication of portable gas cooker developed was also mentioned. These are some of the hard technology developed. Some of the soft technologies developed were also stated in the paper. This includes the national techno-economic assessment of enterprises in the engineering materials sub-sectors, survey investigation on the cause of high casting defects in Nigerian steel industry and proffer solutions.

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Mohammadali Rajabi, Aliasghar Alesheikh, Alireza Chehreghan, Hassan Gazmeh

Abstract: Forest Fire causes considerable environmental damage and brings about a significant change in the ecosystem of the region. It is a humanistic and national duty to protect against fire the forests. Most of such forest fire incidents result from human nonchalance. Other causes such as thunderstorm, glass objects and etc. are also considered as triggers of such incidents, this paper mainly focuses upon the human factor. The considered parameters such as distance from the road, residential areas, river, slope, climate and type of vegetation, and GIS play a significant role in the analysis and determining the factors impacting fire incidents. GIS was used for the analysis and calculations required in regard with these parameters. Therefore the locations with fire risk are determined by a combination of experimental model, fuzzy inference system and GIS. The obtained results indicate high accuracy and good efficiency. Results discussed extensively in paper. To evaluate the proposed method, the obtained results were compared with fire incidents of past years. The comparison results indicate an improvement in predication by this method in comparison with other methods.

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Swapan Kumar Saha

Abstracts: Business to business marketing primarily refers to trade dealings between two businesses. This business can be between manufacturers and wholesalers or between wholesaler and retailers. Business-to-business marketing is currently one of the fastest-growing areas of marketing in Asia pacific region as well as all over the world. As technology brings more businesses together, companies are beginning to court each other far more aggressively. Business-to-business marketers target only other companies; they have significantly more targeted businesses than customer marketers. Even when marketing vary specific products for a fairly small subset of individuals, the latter type of marketer has a far larger audience than the former. However, b2b transection is growing in Asia pacific region very rapidly. Especially it's transection through internet is noticeable; it is higher than the past situation. The marketing mix of b2b is very much different than consumer marketing. In marketing mix you have to understand the cross-culture issue for any product. When you are going to segment your b2b market, you have to understand the several type's b2b byer's nature and mind. Target market segmentation is especially important in B2B markets, as there is often little to differentiate one product from another. Future of B2b is promising but there are some ongoing and upcoming challenges. But if we could overcome them, B2b will remain the ultimate form of trade transactions as current and future prediction.

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M.R.D.L. Kulathunga

Abstract: Cereal crops mainly cultivated as a rainfed crops, where grain yield is often limited by terminal drought stress. Therefore, ability of plants to withstand drought is an important aspect of crop production in water limited conditions. In this context grain yield is closely related to post-anthesis water availability. Hence, grain yield can be increased by restricting pre anthesis water use to maximize post anthesis water availability. Therefore, identification of traits associated with water utilization of crops is important to increase crop productivity under terminal drought stress. The increase of post anthesis water availability could be achieved by manipulating traits associated for increasing water accessibility and reducing water use before anthesis. Root architectural traits that increase the soil volume explored and increase water extraction from explored soil are important aspects for increase water accessibility. Reduced water use before anthesis can be attained through smaller plant size via reducing tillering or early anthesis. Higher harvest index in water limited condition could be achieved by increasing water use efficiency through altering plant size, stomatal regulation, crop growth rate around anthesis and reducing competition between reproductive and vegetative organs. This review provides detailed inside to important crop physiological processes of transpiration, transpiration efficiency and biomass partitioning which determine crop adaptation to drought.

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G. N. Chavan, P. B. Belavi, L. R. Naik, B. K. Bammannavar, K. P. Ramesh, Sunil Kumar

Abstract: Nickel substituted cadmium ferrites with general formula Cd1-xNixFe2O4 (where x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) were prepared by solid state reaction method. The particle size of the ferrite samples were estimated from X-ray diffraction studies after the confirmation of the formation of single phase spinel structure of the ferrites. The two prominent IR absorption bands (γ1 & γ2) of the samples observed in the regions 600 cm-1 and 400 cm-1 are assigned to vibrations of tetrahedral and octahedral complexes respectively and using these IR band frequencies the force constants for tetrahedral (KA) and octahedral (KB) sites were estimated. SEM images of the sample shows increase of the average grain diameter with the increase of nickel content in the cadmium ferrite. The purity and stoichiometry of the compositions after final sintering were confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. DC resistivity, measured as a function of temperature shows the break at Curie temperature indicating the transition from ferrimagnet to paramagnet region. The dielectric constant (ε' ) and loss tangent (tan δ) measured at room temperature as a function of frequency (40 Hz to 110 MHz), as a function of temperature at certain frequencies (1KHz, 10KHz, 100KHz, 1MHz, 10MHz,) shows dielectric dispersion. Dielectric constant and loss tangent decreases with increase of frequency, indicating decrease in polarization. Infact, dielectric constant (ε') and loss tangent (tan δ) reaches a constant value for all the samples above certain higher frequency. The plot of dielectric constant with temperature shows two broad peaks one around 1800C and another around 380oC for frequencies in the range from 1KHz - 100KHz. Saturation magnetization and magnetic moments of the ferrite samples estimated from VSM analysis were found to increase with Nickel content.

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J.N. Lambi, C.W. Adegoke

Abstract: Poly-crete™ is an engineered asbestos-free alternative building material product recently innovated from polyethylene waste materials. Mould design and fabrication is an important step in the final production of prototype 600 mm x 600 mm ceiling boards of Poly-crete. Hardness, strength, durability and weight of moulds have been found to be directly related to the mix ratio of Portland cement, sand aggregate and gypsum (plaster of paris- pop) used in the production of moulds. It is established in this study, through the measurement of hardness (on the Mohs' Scale) and final weight of production trials, that a mix ratio of 1 1/2 sand + 3/4 cement + 3/4 pop (by volume) produces the best durable mould with a setting time of less than 30 minutes and a hardness of about 3.25. Even though the mix ratio of 2 sand + 1 cement + 0 pop demonstrated the highest hardness/strength characteristics, with a hardness of about 3.75, it was considered to be too heavy and bulky for routine use. Its setting time of about 24 hours was also considered to be too long (cf. 30 minutes for product with 3/4 pop) for its mass production to be economical and profitable. A third mix ratio of 1 1/2 sand + 1/2 cement + 1 gypsum (pop) also gave a product with a fairly good setting time of about 30 minutes and a hardness of about 3.25. On the other hand, a mix ratio of 1 1/2 sand + 1 cement + 1/2 pop took more than 4 hours to set/harden and with a hardness of about 3.5. The studies, therefore, indicate that the addition of pop to a normal sand-cement mix serves to reduce the setting time - that is, the mix hardens more quickly, though with a corresponding decrease in strength/hardness. Unacceptably long setting time results are obtained with products containing cement in higher proportion than that of pop. In other words, the ration of pop in the mixture must be either equal to or greater than that of cement to obtain a short setting time. On the whole, however, it was found that the mould mix with equal proportion of cement and pop gave the best and optimum mould production in terms of both short setting time and hardness/strength considerations. This was the case with the mould cast at a mix ratio of 1 1/2 sand + 3/4 cement + 3/4 pop and is therefore recommended for future poly-crete mould production. It is estimated that a typical SME - (Small Medium Enterprise) polycrete production factory based on Franchise Business Model would require about 300 moulds for optimal operation.

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J. V. Ferreira, I. Domingos

Abstract: This work presents the results of the thermal and environmental performance of a new residential building, as a function of the heating system used, designed to Viseu, a moderate climate zone in Portugal. A case study has been conducted on a conventional residential building, modeled according to Portuguese Thermal Building Regulation (that is complying with EN ISO 13790 and EN 15603) and Life Cycle Assessment methodologies. Two scenarios were studied: the scenario 'VIS-HP' where a heat pump is used as the heating system and the scenario 'VIS-WH' using a wood heater as the heating system. In terms of energy, the results show that the scenario 'VIS-WH' is about 2.4 times more efficient than scenario 'VIS-HP'. According to Portuguese Energy System Certification, the scenario VIS-WH is labeled as class (A+) and the scenario VIS-HP as class (A). From an environmental point of view the 'VIS-WH' scenario has a lower environmental load than the 'VIS-HP' scenario if a very high weight is given to 'Resources' while a very low weight is given to 'Human Health' and 'Ecosystem Quality'. Otherwise, the opposite is true

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Sowley, E. N. K., Damba, Y.

Abstract: Tomato, an important fruit vegetable used in almost every meal in all homes, chops bars and restaurants to create appetite and taste. It has the potential of becoming a corner stone in alleviating poverty of smallholder farmers in Ghana especially Northern Ghana but its production results in low yield due small size and rotten tomato fruits at harvest. Higher yields can be realized when famers adopt best agronomic practices to enhance yield to match consumption demand of the 'Red Gold'. This research was therefore carried out in the Northern Region of Ghana, the second largest tomato growing region after the Upper East Region, to determine the effect of staking and pruning on the growth and yield of tomato. It is equip tomato farmers in the Savannah Ecological zone of Ghana with best agronomic practices to among other things increase marketable yield of tomato. Three cultivars of tomato namely, local, F1 titao, and Pectomech were used. The experiment was a 2*2*3 factorial with 12 treatments each replicated 3 times. The factors were pruning, staking and variety. These were laid in a randomized complete block design. The study measured seven parameters which included fruit yield, plant height, and number of branches, days to flowering, number of flowers, and number of fruits, dry matter and fruit yield. The results of the experiment showed that the all the parameters were cultivar dependent except fruit yield. Pruning affected plant height negatively and unstaked-unpruned plants were significantly higher than unstaked - pruned and staked - pruned plants. Staking did not show significant differences among treatments. At harvest, unstaked-unpruned and staked-unpruned plants indicated higher number of fruits per plant with small fruit size as compared to the other plants. Stake - prune and unstake - prune plants few number of fruit per plant but fruits size bigger than staked-unpruned and unstaked - unpruned. The local cultivar ripped earlier than F1 titao and pectomech cultivars. Marketable fruit yield was obtained in staked - pruned of local and F1 titao cultivars similar to staked - unpruned. The study concluded that the effect of staking and pruning on growth and yield of tomato was cultivar depended. Staking and pruning gave clean and bigger fruits with an increase in total marketable fruit yield by weight. The study therefore recommends that tomato farmers should adopt staking and pruning to obtain higher marketable yields that will fetch them good prices but must be guided in their cultivar selection.

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Samah Ali Mohsen Mofreh, M. Najib Ghafar, Abdul Hafiz Hj Omar

Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the perceptions of lecturers on their teaching functions at Community Colleges (CC) in Yemen. The role and functions of lecturers in teaching were reviewed in this study based on the two different views of teaching theories. This paper gives more attention on constructivism view for making change on lecturers' roles in teaching for improving teaching practice. The study survey results show that there is a gap between the lecturers' perception on teaching functions and their roles on teaching at CC in enhancing their professional knowledge and experience.

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Rayees.A.Wani, Sanam Sheema, Niyaz Ahmad Dar, Sonam Angchuk, G.A.Parray

Abstract: The drought tolerance is a very important property of grapevine rootstocks. For that reason the breeding and selection of new rootstock varieties is focused on the evaluation of their drought tolerance. In this experiment, 5 rootstocks of grape were compared and evaluated with local rootstock. The maximum height of shoot was observed at scheduling of irrigation at 0.3 bar (66.80cm) in Doddridge while as maximum average height of shoot (61.96cm) was recorded for 1103-P and minimum average height of shoot (41.89cm) for Local rootstock with different scheduling of irrigations. Maximum diameter of shoot (4.35cm) was observed by 1613-C with scheduling of irrigation at 0.3 bar, where as Doddridge attained the highest average diameter of shoot (3.50cm) with different scheduling of irrigations. The maximum number of shoots per vine (19.42) was observed in 1613-C at 0.3 bar where as Local rootstock showed the minimum average number of shoots per vine (8.96) while as maximum average number of shoots per vine was observed for 1103-P (14.80) .Regarding the length of internode, 1103-P recorded the maximum length (7.41cm) at 0.3 bar and maximum average length of internode (7.01cm). The maximum relative leaf water content at scheduling of irrigation at 0.3 bar (84.6%), at 0.5 bar (79.3%) and at 0.7 bar (75.6%) was observed in 1103-P followed by Doddridge and Salt Creek. Based on the effect of different irrigation regimes on grape rootstocks, the drought tolerance of grape rootstocks can be ranked as 1103-P>Doddridge>Salt Creek>1613-C>1616-C>Local.

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Maminiaina Alphonse Rafidison, Andry Auguste Randriamitantsoa, Paul Auguste Randriamitantsoa

Abstract: This paper presents a supplementary module of x-ray scanner to analyze the evolution of disease for a patient. The previous image medical examination which is stored on database will be compared with the current image scanner output. The new function is inserted between image reconstruction and visualization module. The algorithm is based on image segmentation which is handled by a particular neural network called PCNN or Pulse Coupled Neural Network. We compare the PCNN output of both images by calculating the percentage of cured/deterioration of the target and differentiate the concerned region with color marking. It will help the doctor to take an immediate decision for his patient instead of spending time for manual comparison.

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Mosud Y. Olumoye

Abstract: Information systems have become an integral part of every corporate organization, especially the insurance industry in facilitating decision-making, planning process and the prospect of achieving organizational goals and objectives. The enormous numbers of employees engaged in the insurance sector coupled with numerous customers made decision taking and dissemination of information by the management time consuming thereby leading to inefficiency. In order to tackle this challenge it becomes imperative to introduce information systems into the management of the organization so as to facilitate decision-making. This study uses field survey responses from senior management staff of five different insurance companies to empirically examine the relationship of information systems as used by the management for decision-making, speed, availability of information and involvement of subordinates in decision-making. Simple percentage and Chi-square statistical method were used to analyze the data. However, the result of the study clearly indicated that information systems would expunge traditional, geographical and marketing limitations; hence the management of every organization is embracing information systems.

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Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, Liza khanam, Mohammad Abdullah Mahfuz

Abstract: The study is focus on the sector wise investment of Chinese companies in Bangladesh. Here we try to present the statistical data and the sector wise entry mode of FDI which is preferred by the most of the Chinese companies and also try to determine the most to the least investment areas. We also identifies the areas where Chinese companies has the potentiality to invest here and to take the opportunities that offered by the Bangladeshi govt. rather than other countries. Flourishing sector wise FDI depends on market structure, geographical position, affiliation with the host country. Most of the Chinese firm prefers wholly own subsidiaries entry mode for investing Bangladesh because they try to adopt the host country's market strategies as well as to compete with local and foreign companies in Bangladesh. In case of enlarge market structure a number of Chinese companies prefer to work with joint venture.

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David. I. Igwesi, M. Sc., Otobong. S. Thomas, M. Sc.

ABSTRACT: A comparison of the dose transmission factor for Polythene and Borated Polythene against Am/Be neutron source have been investigated to ensure safe working environment for radiation workers. The Dose transmission factors for the materials were estimated using the Monte-Carlo transport code for incident neutron energies ranging from 0.025eV to 10MeV and the measurements were taken at three different neutron source-detector distances of 50cm, 70cm and 90cm by changing the position of the neutron source while the detector remained at fixed position. This study experimentally demonstrates that, by using suitable shielding material around Am/Be neutron source, the dose transmission factor of borated polythene is small compared to the dose transmission factor of polythene for any given thickness, and that the neutron source-detector distance of 90cm being a position where the Am/Be neutron source is very close to the centre of the water tank was found to be the best position for the neutron source to guarantee the safety of the radiation workers.

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Alaa Mohammed Hussein Wais, Dr. Jassim Mohammed Salman, Dr. Ahmed Ouda Al-Roubaiy

Abstract: Friction stir processing (FSP) has the potential for locally enhancing the properties of pure AL. A cylindrical tool with threaded pin was used. the effect of FSP has been examined on sand casting hypereutectic pure AL. The influence of different processing parameters has been investigated at a fundamental level. Effect of (FSP) parameters such as transverse speed (86,189,393) mm/min, rotational speed (560,710, 900) rpm on microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. Different mechanical tests were conducted such as (tensile, microhardness and impact tests). Temperature distribution has been investigated by using infrared (IR) camera; the thermal images were analyzed to point out the temperature degree on limited points. The results show that the heat generation increase when rotational speed increase and decrease when transverse speed increase. Hardness and impact measurements were taken across the process zone( PZ), and tensile testing were carried out at room temperatures. After FSP, the microstructure of the cast pure Al was greatly refined. However, FSP caused very little changes to the hardness of the material, while tensile and impact properties were greatly improved.

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Mandip Kaur, Simpel Jindal

Abstract: Skew detection and correction is very important task before pre-processing of an image and it is a major problem in scanned documents, if it not detected correctly it will lead wrong result in future during image analysis. During the scanning of the document, skew is being often introduced in the document image. To measure the processed time and speed taken by skew detection algorithm, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique is applied as it is fast approach for finding the angle of skewed document. This technique is used by firstly applying DCT compression and thresholding on image to reduce timing computation and after that Fourier spectrum is obtained. Further this spectrum is divided into four quadrants and detected skewed angle of each quadrant is measured. And finally Input image is rotated by using bilinear interpolation method.

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Chandana Napagoda

Abstract: Data mining is a technique which is used for identifying relationships between various large amounts of data in many areas including scientific research, business planning, traffic analysis, clinical trial data mining etc. This research will be researching applicability of data mining techniques in web site visit prediction domain. Here we will be concentrating on time series regression techniques which will be used to analyse and forecast time dependent data points. Then how those techniques will be applied to forecast web site visits will be explained.

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Ishaq M., Ibrahim U.H., Abubakar, H.

Abstract: Off-grid (stand-alone) photovoltaic (PV) systems have become widely adopted as reliable option of electrical energy generation. In this paper, the electrical energy demand (load) of the Government Technical College (GTC), Wudil Kano was estimated based on watt-hour energy demands. The estimated load is 48.787 kWh/ day. An off grid PV system was designed based on the estimated load. Based on the equipment selected for the design, 72 PV modules, 20 batteries, a voltage regulators and an inverter will be required to supply the electrical energy demand of the college. The proposed off-grid PV system requires copper wires of cross-sectional areas 1.22 mm2, 32 mm2and 3 mm2 for its installation. The cost estimate of the system N2 124 972 is relatively high when compared to that of fossil fuel generator used by the college. The payback period of the system is estimated to be 2.8 years, which is obviously much shorter than the lifespan of the selected PV modules which is 30 years.

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Aremu, D.A., Aremu, J.O., Ibrahim, U.H.

Abstract: Mubi clay was investigated to examine if the deposit can be used as a furnace lining material. The result shows that the clay has a bulk density of 2.3g/cm3, apparent porosity of 13.70%, firing shrinkage of 9.6%, thermal shock resistance of 8 cycles, cold crushing strength of 253 kg/cm2, loss on ignition of 4% and refractoriness of 1,300 0C. The percentage composition of impurities is generally below 2.0% while iron II oxide account for 5.986%. The chemical analysis shows that the percentage composition of Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) is 18.1% while the Silica (SiO2) content is 67.7%. The results obtained from Mubi clay showed that the clay can be used for lining of heat treatment furnace, melting furnaces for low melting point metals, liquid metal ladles and portions of blast furnaces.

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Ibrahim, U.H., D.A. Aremu, Unwaha, J.I.

Abstract: The provision of adequate and sustainable power supply to the country's citizens has been a mirage since the 80's when the nation neglected signals to improve its power generation capacity. The rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities necessitate the injection of solar photovoltaic technology into the nation's energy mix. This paper therefore is an attempt to design a stand-alone solar photovoltaic system for residential application. in this study, direct current (DC) appliances (lighting, fan, DVD player, radio) and alternative current (AC) appliances (television, refrigerator, and blender) were considered. The total load power of these appliances is 1981w. The array to load ratio determined as well as the daily watt-hour load shows that the use of hybrid system in this design is not recommended. To power these appliances, 64 modules with power rating 13052.8W under standard test condition (STC), 56 batteries in the battery bank with system battery capacity of 4900 Ah and one charge controller are required. Therefore, for sustainability, reliability and accessibility of power, the use of stand-alone solar photovoltaic technology is recommended.

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Gaffar G. Momin

ABSTRACT: Two experiments were carried out.first to study mixed convection Al2O3 water nano fluidinside an inclined copper tube surface. The effects of nanoparticles concentration and power supply on the development of the thermal field are studied and discussed under laminar flow condition. Results show that the experimental heat transfer coefficient decreases slightly with an increase of particle volume concentration from 0 to 4%. Two new correlations are proposed to calculate the Nusselt number in the fully developed region for horizontal and vertical tubes volume concentrations up to 4%.and In second experimental work, a fully developed laminar convective heat through a uniformly heated circular tube using Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid is presented. For this we synthesized Al2O3-Cu nanocomposite powder in a thermo chemical route that involves a hydrogen reduction technique and then dispersed the prepared hybrid nano powder in deionised water to form a stable hybrid nanofluid of 0.1% volume concentration. The convective heat transfer experimental results showed a maximum enhancement of 13.56% in Nusselt number at a Reynolds number of 1730 when compared to Nusselt number of water. The experimental results also show that 0.1% Al2O3-Cu/ water hybrid nanofluids have slightly higher friction factor when compared to 0.1% Al2O3/water nanofluid. The empirical correlations proposed for Nusselt number and friction factor are in good agreement with the experimental data.

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Ishaq M., Ibrahim U.H., Abubakar, H., A.A. Baba

Abstract: In this paper, the electrical energy demand (load) of the Faculty of Engineering Bayero University Kano (BUK) was estimated based on watt-hour energy demands. A stand alone Photovoltaic (PV) system was designed based on 10% of the estimated load to supplement power supply to the faculty. Based on the equipment selected for the design, 96 PV modules, 24 batteries, 5 voltage regulators and an inverter will be required to supply 10% of the electrical energy demand by the faculty. A computer program was developed for the system for ease of design. The cost estimate of the systemN2 788 272 is relatively high when compared to that of standby fuel generator used by the faculty. The payback period of the system is estimated to be 3.6 years, which is obviously much shorter than the lifespan of the selected PV module.

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Ruslan, Abd. Wahid Wahab, Nursiah La Nafie, Muh. Nurdin

Abstract: There had been done a thin layer preparation of N-TiO2 nano-sized, which is attached to the substrate Ti Plat. Preparation of thin layers (films) N-TiO2 was done by dip coating into the sol-gel prepared by reflux and then calcined at 4500C. Characterization was conducted towards the film by DRS, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and potentiostat. DRS measurement results indicated wavelength in the visible region, XRD measurement showed that the resulting film was dominated by the N-TiO2 in the anatase form and has a crystal size (crystallite size) of 13.47 nm. While the results of the FTIR characterization indicated Ti-O bond, -NO and Ti-N. Meanwhile, SEM measurements show that small crystal size. Photoelectrochemical test with potentiostat, by placing the film N-TiO2/Ti as the working electrode produces light flow response to N-TiO2/Ti. This system can be developed into a useful sensor for determining COD in a way that has never existed before.

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Chinmoy Samajdar

Abstract: Iron ore and coal together account for about 72% of cost of input materials in Indian steel plants. Moreover, sourcing iron ore and coal for steel plants is posing multitude of challenges including availability, quality and logistics. At present it is found that high quality input materials are hard to reach and easy to reach ones are of lower quality. Hence efficient utilisation of lower quality input materials has assumed greater significance for the sustainability of the steel plants. Accordingly the focus should be on beneficiation and agglomeration of lower quality input materials and development & application of new technologies for efficient use of the same in the steel plants. It also requires a paradigm shift from adopting technology dependent primarily on high quality input materials to introducing and absorbing alternate and mixed routes of production, which can efficiently utilise lower quality input materials.

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Felix A. Uba, Emmanuel A. Sarsah

Abstract: Wrong sizing of equipment is often the result of inaccurate procedures employed to estimate the cooling load of the air conditioned space. Long term weather information was used to develop cooling load temperature differential (CLTD) values made of materials commonly used in Ghana. The CLTD are produced from ASHRAE mathematical models and weather information of Accra, Ghana. The CLTD was obtained for each wall and roof type after dividing the results from the Transfer Function Method, TFM by the overall heat transfer coefficient of the envelope material. This method makes hand calculation of cooling load possible and gives satisfactory results when compared with complex cooling load tools.

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Auwalu M. Abdullahi, Z. Mohamed, Mustapha Muhammad, AA Bature

Abstract: Vibration is an unwanted phenomena and difficult to handle in the control of flexible manipulators and it becomes more difficult with increased in the payload values to the system. In this work two control schemes- fuzzy logic control and pole placement control are designed and compared for the control of both vibration and tip deflection which occurs during its operation as a result of both rigid-body motion and elastic (flexible) motion of a single link flexible manipulator. The fuzzy logic control scheme was designed with the joint angle error and its derivative as the input of the controller. By computing the control signal using the error and its derivative, the fuzzy controller add damping to the joint thereby controlling the vibration and tip deflection of the system. On the other hand, a model based pole placement control scheme was designed to place the system poles at a desired location based on design specification to overcome the vibration and achieve precise tip deflection of the flexible link. In both control scheme a MATLAB Simulink environment is used to investigate the effects of the controls and a comparison of the simulation results was conducted.

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Shilpa Kumari, Padma S Rao

Abstract: If asked, what is the relation between climate change, intense weather and health - probably the answer would be a straight line relation among the three. The earth is getting warmer day by day and global warming has become a major concern in the past few decades. Various research work is going on but so much of carbon dioxide has already been poured into the atmosphere, so that the technology improvement to reduce the Greenhouse gas emissions is the only solution. This study includes (a) the present scenario of nuclear power plant in India(b) electricity generated from different sources of energy and(c) its adverse effects on the global climate change. This study also includes the critical analysis of coal based thermal power plant because the fossil fuels are dominating in the power sector which is not recommended for the sustainable development of the country. The data concludes that Nuclear energy based power plant is the best option since emission can be minimized up to 7 times and also with respect to the amount of electricity generated and resources used. 90% share of each greenhouse gas is from coal based power plant and only 10% from nuclear based power plant.

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Raimi Oluwole Abiodun

ABSTRACT: The study experimentally investigated the crushing strength, thermal conductivity and filtration properties of dried clay mixtures of different sand concentration, using clay sample from Isan-Ekiti, after experimental comparison with clay sample from Igbara-Odo, both in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The percentage by weight of sand considered are from 0% (increasing progressively by 10%) to 100%. 50g, 200g and 250g of clay sample composition were mixed with the various percentage by weight of sand using clean water to form the crushing, thermo-physical and water filtration specimens respectively. Tensometer, Lee's disc apparatus and Calibrated beaker of 600ml capacity were used to determine the crushing strength, thermal conductivity and filtration rate of the specimens respectively. The result shows that crushing strength of the specimens was found to decrease with increase in percentage weight of sand from 7.28MN/m2 to 1.53MN/m2 respectively. However, thermal conductivity of the specimens was observed to increase with increase in percentage weight of sand from 0.0133Wm-1k-1 to 0.1191Wm-1k-1 respectively. Also, filtration rate of the clay sand specimens was found to increase with increase in percentage weight of sand concentration from 0.00422cm3s-1 to 0.01449cm3s-1 respectively. In a similar trend, the permeability of the specimens increases with increase in percentage of sand concentration from 0.0017darcy to 0.003darcy respectively. It is observed that the clay-sand mixture specimen with 0% weight of sand has the highest crushing strength, least thermal conductivity, least filtration rate and least permeability, which will be the ideal specimen for making water storage vessels (provided it is oven fired instead of sun-dried).

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Priti Mishra, Jha Ajachi R.B., Mohnish Satrawala, Harsh Amin

Abstract: The need to fulfill the demands of an increasing population has resulted in rapid industrialization. Subsequently the demand for iron and steel has risen ensuing in setting up of more such industries. The paucity of land has made the disposal of solid waste from these industries an issue of concern. The present work suggests a unique approach of recycling and utilizing the solid waste from the steel industries, called Steel Slag (or WRP) as a pavement sub-base and a highway embankment material. A new material comprising of a matrix of WRP and HDPE strips in which the latter has been used as reinforcement has been developed. The investigations have been carried out by mixing different percentages of HDPE strips cut in the aspect ratios of 2,3and 4 in the WRP.A comparative study of inclusions of such reinforcement has then been made experimentally through Direct Shear, Split Tensile ,Unconfined Compression Strength and CBR tests.

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Kalu A. Ugwa , Agwu I. A., Agbanyim Akuagwu N.

Abstract: In this study, we modeled the effect of vaccination and treatment on the transmission dynamics of Tuberculosis (TB). The analysis of the Endemic equilibrium state of the model, using the Basic Reproduction number, Ro shows that TB can effectively be controlled or even be eradicated if effort is made to ensure that the total removal rate from both the Latent and the Infectious classes is always less than the product of total contraction and total breakdown of the Susceptible class.

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Agbarevo, M.N.Benjamin

Abstract: Climate change and its effects have become a major developmental challenge of Africa in the millennium. The problem of environmental degradation and decreased agricultural production are some of its major effects. The study was , therefore ,conducted to evaluate the extent of adoption of climate change adaptation technologies by farmers in Obudu Agricultural zone of Cross River State. In conducting the study, 136 farmers participating in the Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) in Obudu were randomly selected. The data for the study was collected by means of a structured questionnaire to which the farmers responded. The data collected was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The t-test was used for testing the significance of difference between the population and sample means. The study found that few of the climate change adaptation technologies recorded very high adoption levels. It also found no significant difference between the sample and population means. The null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the sample and population means was accepted at 0.05 level of significance, while the alternative hypothesis was rejected. Some recommendations were made to increase the number of farmers participating in the ADP programs as well as improve adoption of climate change adaptation and natural conservation technologies.

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Rahul Mahadev Shelake, Kanako Aibara, Hidenori Hayashi, Shunnosuke Abe, Eugene Hayato Morita

Abstract: Metal-responsive transcription factors play a crucial role in the metal ion homeostasis with both cellular metabolism and environmental metal availability. In present work, we studied structural and evolutionary features of a transcription repressor, SmtB from freshwater Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and its homologs from other cyanobacteria in detail. We mined putative SmtB-like zinc sensors from all available sequenced genomes of cyanobacterial species in CyanoBase database. We found marine Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 consists of similar homologous gene regulation system to that of PCC 7942. In both cyanobacteria, the gene expression of SmtA (metallothionein) is regulated by repressor protein SmtB and they are transcribed divergently. We compared the binding affinities of SmtBs to the operator/promoter regions of smtA and inhibitory effect of Zn2+ with electrophoretic mobility shift assay. From these analyses, we found number of complexes between recognition DNA sequences and repressor proteins depends on the structural aspects of DNA sequences of operator/promoter region. We also found that the α5 sites are completely identical in these two proteins, but differences in α3N sites and/or operator/promoter region might be responsible for dissociation of protein-DNA complexes at different zinc ion concentrations (16 uM of Zn2+ in PCC 7942 and 256 uM of Zn2+ in case of PCC 7002).

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Abdul Hai Al Hadi

Abstract: Information security becomes much important in data storage and transmission. The term information security refers to the processes and methodologies which are designed and implemented to protect data from unauthorized access, use, misuse, disclosure, modification or disruption. Encryption algorithm play important roles in information security. This paper provides case study of five encryption algorithms: DES, 3DES, Blowfish, CAST, RSA and also provides encryption and decryption data by using the RSA asymmetric encryption algorithm. Simulation has been conducted using C language. Experimental results are given to analyses the implementation of RSA algorithm.

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Suleiman Mohammed, Isiaka Mohammed, Ishaku Adamu

ABSTRACT: The study examined the socioeconomic factors influencing profitability of cattle marketing in Gombe, Nigeria. A sample of forty cattle traders was randomly selected in 2010 in the area on which structured interview-schedule method was employed to collect data that were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression model. Results indicated that respondents' age, length of experience in cattle marketing and capital level were 41.58 years, 14.15 years and N 351,895.00 respectively, while majority of them (42.00%) acquired non-formal type of education. Furthermore the result showed that purchase cost of cattle and duration of keeping the cattle, significantly, affected profits at 0.001 and 0.05 respectively; while 77.7percent of the variations in profit were caused by the included independent variables. The study therefore recommends that for increased profit level, traders shall concentrate more on the large size cattle and shall be keeping them longer period for fattening before reselling.

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Fuyane Buhlebenkosi, Nokuthula Sibanda, Pearson Chaurura, Oscar Chiwira

Abstract: The informal sector constitutes an employment refuge for individuals who may not have formal employment and those that seek to earn an extra income. The sector is therefore, becoming the realm of employment for the majority of urban dwellers in developing countries who apply their energies in semi-skilled jobs. However, seldom do developing countries monitor the activities of this sector and or the working conditions of those employed in this sector. Safety is increasingly becoming more important in the worlds dynamic environment. This study analyzed the working conditions of the urban informal sector of Gaborone. The purpose was to assess the working conditions of different survey research methods, interviews and focused group discussions with the owners and employees in the trade. The results depict that the level of education amongst workers is high but however safety awareness is not being practiced and were it is being practiced standards are compromised.

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P. B. Belavi, G. N. Chavan, L. R. Naik, V. L. Mathe, R. K. Kotnala

Abstract: The Magnetoelectric (ME) composites with composition (y) Ni0.85Cd0.1Cu0.05Fe2O4 + (1-y) BaTiO3, (0.0 < y < 1.0) were synthesized by conventional solid state reaction method. The presence of constituent phases was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the surface morphology of the composites. The average grain sizes were found to increase with ferrite content in the scanning electron micrographs of the composites. The percentage of constituent phases in the composites was rechecked and confirmed by EDX measurements. The decrease in dc resistivity with increase in temperature indicates semiconducting nature of the composites. The magnetic properties of the composites such as saturation magnetization and magnetic moment studied using vibration sample magnetometer are found to increase with ferrite content and are in agreement with theoretical values but magnetic transition temperature was found to decrease with ferrite content. However, the saturation polarization and remnant polarizations are found to decrease with increase of frequency as well as ferrite content in the composites. The maximum ME conversion factor of 16.8 mV/cm.Oe was observed for the composites with 15 mole % of ferrite and 85 mole % ferroelectric in the composites. High resistivity and low grain size of the composite exhibits high ME response at the same time these composites exhibits good multiferroic and magnetoelectric properties with ferrite content. These ME composites are suitable for preparing flexible ME devices in electronics industries.

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Arna Das, Sarita Pandey, Tapash Dasgupta

Abstract: Parental diversity is considered desirable to exploit heterosis in any breeding program. The present investigation was undertaken to search out whether any relationship existed between heterosis of cross combinations with phenetic divergence, combining ability and genetic divergence of parents in sesame. Seven sesame genotypes and their 21 cross combinations developed through half diallel mating were assessed for morphological markers, microsatellite markers and seed storage protein polymorphism to estimate different parameters. The clustering patterns of parents differed for morphological, protein and simple sequence repeats (SSRs), though some concordance was observed between phenetic and genetic divergence of parents. Heterosis, both mid-parent heterosis% (MPH%) and better parent heterosis% (BPH%), was positively and significantly correlated with specific combining ability and hybrids per se, but no specific trend transpired between morphological, protein and SSR marker data. However, SSR based genetic diversity (GD) value of above 0.5 between parents, predicted heterotic crosses more reliably.

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Kouadio James Halbin, Moukha Serge, Brou Kouakou, Gnakri Dago

Abstract: The natural co-occurrence of Fusarium toxins fumonisin B1 (FB1) and Zearalenone (ZEA) in cereal grains is well known. However, a few studies have been reported that address to the toxicity of Fusarium toxins mixtures. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate in the interactive effect of binary Fusarium toxins FB1 and ZEA on intestinal cells line Caco-2 using several cellular endpoints such as caspace-3 activity modulation, malonedialdehyde (MDA) production, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage as necrosis measure and cells viability as evaluated by lysosome and mitochondria integrities. As results, ZEA + FB1 led to an antagonistic effect on lysosome and mitochondria damage but, the necrosis-induced was more potent when compared to ZEA or FB1 alone showing an additive effect. Moreover, MDA production induced by ZEA+FB1 was higher than additive effect but not synergistic effect. At last, the combined effect of toxins on key apoptosis enzyme caspace-3 kinetic activity was an additive effect after 6 h and 24 h but, after 3h, ZEA tended to exert its anti-apoptotic action by reducing the enzyme activation by FB1. Taken together, the results were contrasted and results suggested that combined effects of binary Fusarium toxins ZEA and FB1 in cell line Caco-2 were unpredictable and varied according to several parameters such as the cellular endpoints and the duration of cells incubation with toxins.

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Manaye Getu Tsige

Abstract: This paper presents some applicable methods of approximating basic trigonometric functions and their inverse value. Methods are the best choice when a need arise to know first few digits after a decimal point and corresponding angle without spending time for immediate purpose. The ways of approximation are helpful for science and engineering field of study; they can be applied to get immediate solutions for practical problems which might be estimating, comparing and judging while operations of numbers. The assumption stated to carry out this work is; There exists certain function which can satisfies the condition defined as; if the sequence of some domain values within a domain of function forms an arithmetic progression, then the sequence of corresponding range values within a range of function will also forms an arithmetic progression. This assumption leads to the assumed generalized approximate equation and finally to the major findings. The major areas of study to carry out this particular work are arithmetic progression, sine function, cosine function and idea related to trigonometric functions such as trigonometric identities, co terminal angles, reference angle and co function definition. The objective is to contribute additional alternative knowledge to the Mathematical science. The findings of this paper are useful to derive general approximation formulae and other related findings that will be presented in the future.

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Patrick Ohemeng Gyaase, Anthony Anokye-Sarfo, Yaw Bediako

Abstract: The adoption and utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in financial management is gradually becoming a major requirement for improvement in the allocation efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery and productivity and in accessing funds from donor partners in the educational sector. This study therefore assesses the level adoption of ICT for financial management by the Ghana Education Service (GES) using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as the research framework. Data was collected from a sample population of 60 officers from finance units under GES and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings include low level of adoption of ICT in Financial Management and identified major hindrances to ICT adoption which includes low level of ICT literacy, inadequate and obsolete equipment as well as cost of investment in ICT. Among the recommendations made are the need for the provisioning reliable ICT infrastructure and enforceable ICT Utilization policies by public sector organization.

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Fuad Hilmi

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between student achievement analysis Tafsir al-Qur'an with interest in learning Arabic. The methodology used is based on a quantitative analysis using inferential statistics models using regression and analysis of the Pearson product moment correlation. The results showed that achievement Tafsir al-Qur'an has a positive and significant relationship with interest in learning Arabic.

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Alimba, N. Chinyere

Abstract: Education is the bedrock of human transformation. As a veritable source of socialization, education has the potential to reinforce a sense of peace in its receiver. Higher education which is significantly an important level of education plays a dominant role in this direction. Overtime the capacities of tertiary institutions in Africa to empower youths for peace have been thwarted by poor educational reforms, coupled with the prevailing problems of indiscipline, corruption, poor governance, shortage of resources, and political instability. Therefore, to empower youths for peaceful living, will entail adopting peace education in all the facets of operations of tertiary institutions in Africa. Peace education has the capacity to transform tertiary institutions and equally make them to respond appropriately to the inculcation of a culture of peace in people. It will aid in the construction of the right frameworks in tertiary institutions through its values, which are based on non-violence, justice, equity, trust, transparency, empathy, compassion, cooperation and respect for people. By acquiring these values, unacceptable behaviours and conducts will be modified to conform to expected societal standards and norms which will empower youths to develop peaceful attitudes in Africa. Therefore, how peace education can be adopted to achieve these ends is presented in this study.

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Marwa Muraza, Aloyce W. Mayo, Joel Norbert

Abstract: The dominance, density and biomass of wetland plants were investigated in Mara River wetland upstream of Kirumi Bridge. The study site was surveyed to identify the suitable sampling points in the wetland. In-situ identification of plants was done in order to determine the vegetation zonations. Transects were developed at the inlet and outlet zones of the wetland where sampling points were established and identified by global positioning system. A transect survey was conducted through the wetland prior to determination of plant types, dominance and density. A vegetation zonation by dominant plant community was estimated using ground transects surveys. The determination of above ground and below ground biomass was done by separating plants into leaves/umbel, stack/culm, shoot, rhizomes and roots, depending on the plant type. The results show that the dominant plant species were Cyperus papyrus, Typha domingensis, Phragmites australis, Thelpteris interrupta, Echnocloa pyramidalis, Cyperus articulatus, Chara spp., Eichhornia crassipes "water hyacinth" and Azola spp., which accounted for more than 50% of all the species recorded are an indication of a typical wetland habitat. Cyperus papyrus, Typha domingensis and Phragmites australis were the most dominant species in the wetland. Cyperus Papyrus had higher biomass content of 4.3 kgDWm-2 than the rest of the species followed by Phragmites (3.74 kgDWm-2), but Typha domingensis had the least biomass content of the three with only 2.71 kgDWm-2. The above ground biomass for Cyperus Papyrus accounted for 65% of the total biomass for the same plant. However, Typha domingensis had only 57% of the total biomass above ground. The average plant density was 3.2 plants/m2 and the mean plants nitrogen content was found to be 67.88 gNm-2.

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Le Khac Lam Dien, Nguyen Phuoc Minh, Dong Thi Anh Dao

Abstract: Availability of gac fruit is seasonal, three months out of the year, harvesting start on September and lasts until December. In Vietnam, gac vines are grown mainly in the red river delta areas.. Gac fruits are picked when they are at optimal size, weight, and color. Poor post-harvest handling and transportation reduce the shelf-life of the fruit. After harvesting, without proper storage, fruits perish quickly and lose market ability after one week. In the markets of urban areas. Gac fruit, Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng contains extraordinarily high levels of carotenoids, especially β-carotene and lycopene, and a comparatively high content of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The aim of this study is therefore to develop an understanding of suitable conditions for the processing of Gac fruit, with three pretreatment methods: blanching, blanching in citric acid solution and steaming; as well as to investigate the different ratioes of carrier material to find out which one is the adequate ratio to protect carotene in Gac powder. The result shows that steaming in 6 minutes is the best pretreatment method for the protection and maintenance of total carotenoid content in gac powder; and the most appropriate ratio of carrier: Gac is 1: 1 (dry matter) in which the ratio of maltodextrin: gelatin is 0.5: 0.5 (w/w).

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Ezejindu DN, Ulolene G.C, Ihentuge C.J

ABSTRACT: This work is aimed at determining the effects of carbon tetrachloride on liver enzymes of adult wistar rats following oral administration. Twenty adult wistar rats weighing between 190-220kg were used. They were allocated into four groups (A,B,C &D) of five animals each. Group A animals served as the control and received 0.5ml of distilled water. The experimental groups B,C & D received 0.1ml, 0.2ml and 0.3ml of carbon tetrachloride respectively for 21 days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were weighed, anaesthetized under chloroform vapour and dissected. The liver tissues were removed and weighed. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture using sterile syringes and needles. Blood for serum preparation was collected into sterile plain tubes without anti-coagulant. Serum samples were separated into sterile plain tubes and stored in the refrigerator for analysis. The activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined using randox kit method. The final body weight of the experimental groups were significantly lower (P<0.001) than the control (A). the levels of mean aspartate aminotransferase, alatine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in group D were significantly higher (P<0.001) than groups B,C and control A. The levels of mean aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphotase in group C were significantly higher (P<0.001) than group B and control A. The result from this study showed that adverse biochemical changes are associated with animals in groups B,C and D. The present study indicated dose-dependent on the liver enzymes of rats administered with CCL4. Our findings therefore suggest that chronic CCL4 consumption may put the liver at risk of adverse biochemical alterations and histopathological lesions.

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Maduhu Mshangi

Abstract: This study explored the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) in educational assessment: Case of National Examinations Council of Tanzania (NECTA). Four hypotheses were formulated for this study with questionnaire(s), interview(s) and observation(s) as the main instruments for data collection. The data obtained were analyzed using Regression analysis. The finding from this study revealed that the impact of ICT in educational assessment is explained by the impact of accessibility of ICT infrastructure, affordability of ICT infrastructure, reliability of ICT infrastructure and efficiency of ICT infrastructure.

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