International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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IJSTR Volume 2- Issue 8, August 2013 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Anmona Shabnam Pranti, M. Shahed Iqubal, A. Z. A. Saifullah, Md Kayesar Ahmmed

Abstract: Now a day energy crisis is the burning question. Electrification rate increment is necessary to obtain sustainable energy security for South Asian region. This paper deals with current social and energy situation of different South Asian countries, comparative study of solar energy intensities and cost of electricity production, necessity and feasibility of solar power in South Asia with developed countries. In South Asia electricity demand is increasing because of high population growth rate compared with very limited source of primary energy as well as policy and technology which is used for producing electricity. All the data have been collected from different authentic websites and books. The primary source of energy for producing electricity is very limited in South Asia which leads to think about the renewable energy. Since solar energy is available in all most all the regions in South Asia, it could be the main source of producing electrical energy in future to accomplish energy security.

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Aarti chahal, Seema chahal, Bhawna Chowdhary, Jyoti chahal

Abstract: Job satisfaction can defined as extent of positive feelings or attitudes that individuals have towards their jobs. When a person says that he has high job satisfaction, it means that he really likes his job, feels good about it and values his job dignity. Job satisfaction is important technique used to motivate the employees to work harder. It is often said that "A HAPPY EMPLOYEE IS A PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYEE". This paper in investigates the level of job satisfaction of Canara Bank employees in Delhi NCR identifying the satisfaction level of employees, various factors influencing satisfaction of employees and to study the relationship between personal factors of employees. Based on a survey, the paper attempts to gain insights into the satisfaction level from the perspective of the Bank employees. Factors including salary of employees, performance appraisal system, promotional strategies, employee's relationship with management and other co- employees, training and development program, work burden and working hours are found important for improving job satisfaction of bank employees in Canara bank. Increase in level of these factors improves overall satisfaction of employees which is identified by using statistical techniques.

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Theo Tsokota, Colletor Tendeukai Chipfumbu, Memory Mativenga, Tendayi Isaac Mawango

Abstract: Zimbabwe currently has enormous infrastructure deficit. It can be argued that when Information Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure is firmly in place the industry can grow at an expedient rate. The success of the economy hinges upon addressing issues that affect the industry, such as infrastructure and utilities. Industrialization requires that the country pursues measures that ensure a strong and reliable supply base, particularly on electricity, coal, fuel and ICT. The study was aimed at finding out the reasons why infrastructure, which is already in deficit, is vandalized. The researchers used a snowball sampling or networking technique. The respondents were selected through making contacts with one man who had been convicted and served sentences for vandalism, who helped by recommending other ex-convicts. The research data was collected using fifteen, one-on-one in-depth or semi structured interviews. This allowed rich and detailed data to be collected. The study revealed that economic factors, political factors and vengeances of anger were the main reasons why infrastructure is vandalized and stolen in Zimbabwe. The study recommends stiffer penalties and a multifaceted approach which requires all stakeholders to co-operate before massive destruction is done. The communities should be encouraged to appreciate and maintain the infrastructure available. They should be part of efforts to protect the infrastructure in their communities.

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Tahmina Yasmin, Khaled Masud Ahmed

Abstract: The negative consequence of climate change and its correlation to the disaster have augmented people's vulnerabilities and exposures especially in the developing countries like Bangladesh. Though people exposed to the vulnerabilities and risks, seem to be less prepared to deal with adverse situation, they base traditional knowledge in coping with the changing climate. This research is unique in this regard as it reveals the criteria that influence people's ability to cope in the long run by identifying the different coping practices in terms of spatial, socio-economic and mental instability. A few literatures were found basically emphasized on the current coping mechanisms rather than concentrating the criteria that influence the coping capacities. Data were collected through numerous questionnaire surveys with selected households living in a char land and a remote island of Bangladesh and also used different tools of Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment techniques. The outcome revealed that the inhabitants have to spend maximum portion of their income for food and repairing houses that are often destroyed by recurring disasters just to survive. Savings are almost zero and medical and education expenses are only amplifying their burden. The most suitable options for coping includes; eat fewer meals, borrowing money or take loan and sell labour in cheap at advance. All these copings are leading people to malnutrition, economic imbalance, and domestic hostility along with mental instability which would hinder people's ability to take proper decision in time of risk or affect current coping ability with recurring events or the vice versa.

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Himangshu Sekhar Brahma, Dr. A Veeresh Babu

Abstract: The use of biodiesel is rapidly expanding around the world, making it imperative to fully understand the impacts of biodiesel on the diesel engine combustion process and pollutant formation. Biodiesel derived from non-edible feed stocks such as mahua (MadhucaIndica) are reported to be one of the feasible choices for developing countries including India. But one discomforting aspect is its emissions coming out of it. Emission control is one of the biggest challenges in today's automotive industry. Emission control can be achieved either by controlling combustion or by treating the exhaust gas. The latter is comparatively easier since there is less or no need to modify the engine. One such after treatment method is the use of catalytic converter. This paper is more concerned with an experimental investigation to study the diesel engine emission characteristics using Mahua biodiesel (mahua oil methyl ester) with the help of a Three Way Catalytic converter (TWC) with DEF (Diesel Exhaust Fluid) by running the engine in steady state conditions. The various exhaust parameters such as CO, HC and NOX emissions were recorded and were found out to be comparatively very less when TWC converter was connected at the end of the exhaust tail pipe. Almost 90% NOX emissions got reduced and the emission values recorded were much less when compared to Bharat stage- IV Norms for selected engine at all operated loads with retrofit arranged.

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Francis M. Djangmah, Reuben K. Esena

Abstract: Malaria cases in the community are treated mainly by accessing anti-malarial drugs from licensed chemical sellers (LCSs). With the introduction of the AMFm ACTs and training of Licensed Chemical Sellers ( LCSs) on malaria case management, there is the need to assess their knowledge on malaria diagnosis and prescription of appropriate anti-malarial drugs. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Kumasi Metropolis. A total of 125 trained and 68 untrained licensed chemical sellers were randomly sampled from each of the five Sub-Metros using structured questionnaire and stratified sampling. The SPSS programme version 16.0 was used for data entry. Chi Square test was run to determine the effect of the training; and the p-values used to compare trained and untrained respondents on selected variables. The results show that licensed chemical sellers in the study area diagnosed malaria presumptively, without confirming it with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Those trained had better knowledge of diagnosing uncomplicated malaria; thus 106 (84.8%), trained as compared to untrained, 33 (48.5%), with χ2=28.753 and p<0.0001 were able to identify malaria. Similarly, all trained respondents correctly identified the clinical manifestations of complicated malaria; that is 63 (92.6%) of the untrained doing it correctly. On the average more than half of respondents prescribed ACTs for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria; some monotherapies, Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP), are still being used to treat clinically suspected malaria. However none of them prescribed chloroquine for their clients/patients. The training has improved the knowledge of the beneficiary licensed chemical sellers, in the diagnosis and management of malaria. There is a steady increase in the use of ACTs, despite the fact that some monotherapies are still available on the Ghanaian pharmaceutical market. Awareness of the AMFm ACTs was high [176 (91.2%)] among the study population; television was the commonest source of information.

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Sanjay Taneja

Abstract: Hydraulics Machines of some kind are used in nearly every aspect of our daily lives; from the pumps and machine we use at home, to the industrial machinery used to manufacture, material handling nearly every product we use on a daily basis. When a machine fails or breaks down, the consequences can range from annoyance to financial disaster, or personal injury and possible lose of life. For this reason, the early detection, identification and correction of machinery problems is paramount to anyone involved in the maintenance of industrial machinery to insure continued, safe and productive operation..Of course, it's natural for machines to vibrate. Even machines in the best of operating condition will have some vibration because of small, minor defects. Therefore, each machine will have a level of vibration that may be regarded as normal or inherent. However, when machinery vibration increases or becomes excessive, some mechanical trouble is usually the reason. Vibration does not increase or become excessive for no reason at all. Something causes it - unbalance, misalignment, worn gears or bearings, looseness, etc. This paper focuses on the machinery (Centrifugal pump) vibration due to unbalance and the technological effect on its performance. This study is done to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal pump on different unbalance masses. Some times these studies are quite helpful in order to equip better design of pump so that there should be minimum effect on its performance due to unbalance.

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Anjali Patil, Rajeshwari Goudar

Abstract: Nowadays, internet and network applications are growing rapidly across the world. Many of the applications, for example e-commerce or e-government, have prime need for security. Information security plays an important role in data communication. Any loss to sensitive data can prove to be great loss to the organization. Encryption algorithm plays main role when confidential data is transmitted over the network. These algorithms consumes a significant amount of computing resources such as memory, battery power, CPU time. This paper provides comparison between different encryption algorithms.

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Duduyemi, Oladejo, Adebanjo S.A, Oluoti Kehinde

ABSTRACT: Oil extract from a number of fruits, nuts and seeds are used in cooking, soap making and as ingredient in confectioneries of baked or fried foods. Seeds of many edible fruit are often thrown out as waste despite. They are important source of edible oils and potential source of high quality protein and vitamins. Dried and pulverized watermelon seed (Citrullus lanatus L), family Cucurbitaceae was extracted with solvent extraction method using hexane solvent at 60-70 oC. The physiochemical properties estimated for the extracted oil include Acid Value, Saponification value, Iodine value, Percentage oil content, Moisture content, Specific Gravity, Refractive Index, Viscosity and PH with values of 2.37 mgNaOH/g, 183.13 mgNaOH/g, 121.51 Wijs, 45.77%, 2.04%, 0.85, 1.47, 2.48 St and 6.40 respectively. The yield of 41.320.5% per 100gm of pulverised seed was appreciable and could be used domestically for commercial purposes and as complimentary vegetable oil rather than as waste where the crop is grown in abundance.

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Abstract: On the basis of unified normatively defined languages again, the science of sciences in the 21st century has build a grand unified philosophy for the human (the theoretical framework). Science of sciences further research shows that the dialectics is only effective for those things, which is visible with the people naked eye, but for the things that are not visible with the people naked eye, i.e. the inner essential law of the nature - science and the truth are completely ineffective. Therefore dialectics is neither science nor the truth, more not widespread rule of the universe. On the contrary, dialectics is the method of sophistry and its key harm is just the negative of eternal absolute science and the truth by using the nature surface phenomenon of the visible things, belong to the pseudoscience theory of anti-science with the truth. So it is necessary to be thoroughly criticized.

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Syamsul arifin, Ni'mahtuzzahro, Sugianto, R apsari, Suhariningsih

Abstract: The phenomenon of fish farmers in reducing the high growth of bacteria in fish ponds of freshwater by using salt (krosok), but not all the bacteria killed (especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa). This objective research is proving to increase some knob counts (small ball) as ultrasonic transducer, there is a linier increase in the forward intensity of ultrasonic and an exponensial increase the death of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colony. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) can be grown in a nutrient agar, a nutrient broth, a human blood agar plate, a koi blood plate. In this research especially diluted media in water of physiology as compared and control for viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the media, these bacteria exposed ultrasonic for 30 minutes. The exposure system of ultrasonic uses some knob (ie: 3, 6, 9, 12 knops) and the media would have own optimum frequency in the increased intensity (energy) and the increased death of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which depends on the homogeneity when it created the media of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study shows each medium has own optimum frequency, each some knob of ultrasonic transmitter, has the intensity transmitte increase of ultrasonic and in the death of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colony. Application of ultrasonic exposure is new knowledge related to energy ultrasonic and the ability to pass on skills lethal of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colony related differensis knops counts are derived from the same source intensity value.

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Kanika Gupta, Ankit Pandey

Abstract: Transient stability analysis is today's one of the major issues for proper operation of the power systems as the stress on power systems is increasing day by day. In order to improve the power system, it requires an evaluation of system's ability to withstand the disturbances simultaneously maintaining the service quality. For transient stability analysis of power system, various techniques have already been proposed such as extended equal area criteria, the time domain solution and a few direct stability methods such as transient energy function. In most of these methods, a transformation is done from multi-machine system to an equivalent machine as well as an infinite bus system. An analysis of transient stability for the power system using an individual machine is done with the help of an accurate algorithm is done in this paper. This paper describes the fault conditions in the infinite bus bar with the multi-machine system.

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Mallika Roy, Faria Hossain Borsha

Abstract: The paper depicts the grievous effect on different parts of economy like Export, Price level, Activity of port, Tourism sector, Human right etc. Trend, nature and the running of the wheel of the economy basically depend on the concerted adjacent of the related sectors of economy. As a result if the situation becomes entangled in a certain stage the wheel of the entire economy are bound to be halted abruptly. For this reason it is essential for our politician to search an alternate of hartal. The paper identifies a disappointing fact that hartal imposes a large cost on the economy. Also it attempts to explore the negative impacts on GDP and revenue collection. Based on the findings, a number of suggestive policy measures that the planners and implementers may consider for the future development of political situation in Bangladesh are embedded in the end of the paper.

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MeilaniPurwanti, Aceng Kurniawan

ABSTRACT: This research aims to provide empirical evidence about the effect of earnings management and disclosure on information asymmetry. This research was conducted using a population of public sector property companies, real estate and building construction in Indonesia Stock Exchange. Samples were selected based on the following criteria: (1) registered as property companies, real estate and building construction, (2) has a complete financial statement information, (3) the financial statements are expressed in dollars, and (4) have publish financial statements. Data analysis was conducted using data polled cross-section that includes 37 property companies, real estate and building construction and financial statement. Earnings management is measured by working capital accruals, measured by an index voluntary disclosure, and information asymmetry measured by abnormal returns. Hypothesis testing is done using path analysis. The result provide empirical evidence that: (1) earnings management does not affect the information asymmetry, (2) disclosure and significant negative effect of the informationasymmetry, (3) the total effect of earnings management and disclosure of the information asymmetry is at 78%.

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Ojajuni Oluwatoyin O.J, Atanlogun Sunday S.K, Akinbohun Folake

ABSTRACT: Initially, HEALTH SERVICES in Nigeria were usually provided by traditional doctors followed by physicians brought by Portuguese traders to care for the health of members of their staff. Achievement of the goal of health is a basic problem being encountered in most parts of the country. Hence, the research on population growth and health facilities in Ondo State was carried out with the intension of finding out how the population growth affects the available health facilities in the state. The achievement was made possible by using various statistical tools such as series Analysis, F - ratio test. It was deduced that the available health facilities are not sufficient enough compare to the standard given by the world health organization (WHO) from where measurement is based. However, more action should be expedited, since the subject plays a primary role in the development and standard of the country.

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Tanu Jain

Abstract: The technology advancement in growing world has a very broad impact in our life ,and its main concern on student life is given as wireless , whether it is of any area ,any place or anywhere, whether it is an earth or an universe .in this paper my attempt is made to show technologies growth in general communication system .As in past decades technology is growing ,its advancement is also increasing which can be seen in 5G ,my concern is here for advancement seen in 2009-2014.

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Bambang Eka Purnama, Ahmad Ashari

Abstract: System legislation - crustaceans in Indonesia require to make medical records for each patient visit to a medical center. Physician handwriting that is difficult to interpret by others at a hospital would cause much impact. On the other hand at the moment that is not possible, after a patient enrolled in a hospital, this patient could not continue the examination in the hospital before. The aim of this system is designed to produce a good concept of distributed systems on the network of hospitals and other medical centers. So it can be useful to facilitate patients in treatment wherever he wants and likes. Data were recorded on a medical center will be read at the medical center anywhere. The proposed system using a distributed network and SOAP methods. This method is used to synchronize the different database formats on the hospital network. The expected result is to be comfortable in the treatment of patients and did not occur mall where a very dangerous practice.

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Vaibhav Tripathy

Abstract: This paper provides a comparative study of the working and implementation of multi relational decision tree learning algorithm with that of MRDTL-2, which works on the theory initially proposed by Knobbe et al. This paper also outlines some of the shortcomings of MRDTL viz. calculation speed, accuracy and most importantly handling of missing values. We had used some of the real world data sets from various data mining competition and performed a graphical comparison for the aforementioned two approaches. Results from the experiments signify that MRDTL-2 is convincingly more efficient approach than its predecessor.

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J. B. Hameeda, G. T. Chandrappa, M. A. Pasha

Abstract: An efficient procedure for Knoevenagel condensation of araldehydes with malononitrile has been developed using a mixture of environmentally friendly nano MgO and commercial MgCl2 as catalyst. The reactions were carried out at 25 C using grindstone technique. The protocol developed is advantageous as it follows the green-chemistry norms avoiding the use of any organic solvent and affording excellent yield of the products.

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Rakesh.N, Pradeep Kumar.A, Ajay.S

Abstract: The paper proposes a cheap and effective method for design and manufacturing of a three degree of freedom revolute jointed robotic arm. The design process begins by specifying top-level design criteria and passing down these criteria from the top level of the manipulator's structure to all subsequent components. With this proposed approach the sequential design intents are captured, organized and implemented based on the entire system objectives, as opposed to the conventional design process which aims at individual components optimization. By considering the mechanical arm's performance objectives, the design starts with modelling the integration of all the individual links constituting the manipulator. During the design process, modifications are made based on integrated information of kinematics, dynamics and structural analysis of the desired robot configuration as a whole. An optimum assembly design is then achieved with workable sub designs of the manipulator components. As a result, the proposed approach for manipulator design yields substantially less number of iterations, automatic propagation of design changes and great saving of design efforts. Further with best machining process and cheapest material, catering the strength and machining requirements suitable materials are selected to fulfil the objective

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Indah Widanarti, Mursalim, Didi Rukmana, Supratomo

Abstrak: This study was conducted in Marind Anim ethnic where the farming activities are commonly performed by the women. Majority of the Marind Anim people have body height of 165 or higher. This study was conducted from August 15, 2012 to May 12, 2013. This study was aimed to find a formula in determining the ergonomic hoe handle length with the objectives to (a) make the farmers comfortable in cultivating land with ergonomic hoe, (b) change the mindset of Marind Anim people that the hoes with longer handle are better than those with shorther handles, (c) stimulate the Marind ethnic people in cultivating their yard for farming.

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Onwuka, Onyebuchi

Abstract: The analyses for energy heat balance for buildings are reported in this paper. The parameters influencing the interaction of heat balance was taken into account. Other aspect considered in this work is the building location and surroundings which plays a key role in regulating its temperature and illumination. The result of the estimation of the heat load and heat gains to the buildings were all reported in this paper.

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Rohmiyatul Islamiyati, Sjamsuddin Rasjid, Asmuddin Natsir, Ismartoyo

Abstract: Corn stover is an agricultural byproduct that can be potentially used as an alternative for ruminant livestock feed. One of the limiting factors in using agricultural byproduct as feed material is the presence of further lignification resulting in cellulose/hemicelluose bound by the lignin. Fiber degrading fungi produce extracellular enzyme that capable of breaking the lignocellulose bond. The objective of this study was to investigate the crude protein and fiber fraction of corn stover inoculated by fungi Trichoderma sp. and P. chrysosporium. This study used a complete randomized design with 7 treatments and 3 replications. T0: corn stover (control), T1: corn stover + 5% Trichoderma sp. incubated for 1 week, T2: corn stover + 5% Trichoderma sp. incubated for 2 weeks, T3: corn stover + 5% Trichoderma sp. incubated for 3 weeks, T4: corn stover + 5% P. chrysosporium incubated for 1 week, T5: corn stover + 5% P. chrysosporium incubated for 2 weeks, T6: corn stover + 5% P. chrysosporium incubated for 3 weeks. Variance indicated that corn stover inoculated with Trichoderma sp. and P. chrysosporium had a significantly effect on NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, and protein content (P < 0.05), while had no significantly effect on lignin (P > 0.05). This study indicated that crude protein and fiber fraction of the corn stover treated with Trochoderma sp. or P. chrysosporium were better than untreated.

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David. I. Igwesi, Marius N Umego

ABSTRACT: Four aeromagnetic map sheets of 0 x 0 on a scale of 1: 100,000 covering some parts of Lower Benue Trough were analysed using spectral techniques to estimate the average depth of magnetic sources. The result indicates a two-layered source model. The deeper magnetic sources are located atdepths which vary between 1.16 km and 6.13 km, with an average depth of 3.03 km, representing magnetic basement surface. The depths to the shallower magnetic sources vary from 0.06 km and 0.37 km, with an average depth of 0.22 km showing the presence of magnetic intrusive bodies within the sediments. Profiles taken from the area indicate that the topography of the basement is undulatingwith an anticlinal structure over Abakaliki area. The average depth to basement of 3.03 km to the magnetic source suggests enough sedimentary thickness for hydrocarbon accumulation. The undulatingof the basement surface possibly provides traps for hydrocarbon.Thus, the possibility of hydrocarbon accumulation cannot be ruled out.

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Md. Mizanur Rahman Sarker, Rashed Abdullah, Mazeda Islam, Abu Sadat Md. Sayem, Hossain Md. Sayem

Abstract: An electrical image has been delineated at a site located in Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh to deduce a shallow subsurface heterogeneity in terms of geophysical and geotechnical properties. The depth of investigation covers up to 12m includes the Madhupur Clay Formation of Pleistocene age and upper part of Dupi Tila Formation of Pliocene age. The Madhupur Clay Formation extends up to 7.5m with a wide range in resistivity values (5-45 Ωm) whereas the sand rich Dupi Tila Formation shows relatively higher resistivity (>190 Ωm). The resistivity values are significantly controlled by moisture content and grain size distribution.

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Gaurav Tripathi

Abstract: Energy harvesting is one the major issue. As every particle in the world vibrate so they possess vibrational energy. This paper deal with conversion of vibrational energy which generate in car tires into the power which would be enough to charge car battery or even can run the car. This can be done by using Nano fibers of piezoelectric materials (pzt 5a or pvdf) in car tires. By fixing them across sidewall and tread walls. This would also help in absorbing the vibration produced in cars and will minimizes the use of damper and shock. And also by converting thermal energy generated in car tires into pyro electricity with the help of pyro electric material. Piezoelectric material uses a mechanism to convert mechanical energy usually vibrational energy and thermal energy into the electrical energy. As due to the load of car sidewall and tread wall undergoes deformation. This deformation occur at regular interval of time and is totally dependent on the rotation of tires. We can also use a specific pyro electric material which would help to convert the thermal energy generated in tires due to the friction from air inside the tire tube and due to road surface into pyroelectrcity.

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Dr. Siva Agora Sakthivel Murugan, K.Karthikayan, Natraj.N.A, Rathish.C.R

Abstract: Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT),is a form of discrete wavelet transform which generates complex coefficients by using a dual tree of wavelet filters to obtain their real and imaginary parts.In this paper, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) based despeckling algorithm is proposed for SAR images by considering the significant dependences of the wavelet coefficients across different scales. The DTCWT has the advantage of improved directional selectivity, approximate shift invariance, and perfect reconstruction over the discrete wavelet transform.The wavelet coefficients in eachsubband are modeled with a bivariate Cauchy probability density function (PDF) which takes into account the statistical dependence among the wavelet coefficients. The simulation results show that this method is faster and gives better performance when compared to the conventional discrete wavelet transform.

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Sarita Agrawal, D. Ramesh

Abstract: The structure of Indian education is top heavy and bottom weak. This is known as the inverse pyramid structure in the literature. This is an indication of a lacuna in the policy and reality in context of universal primary and elementary education. The aim is elusive now. Another side of this is free and compulsory education, a propagated policy of the government for quite a long time. Is it really free? Compulsory in what sense? How much of monetary and other resources required for achieving this minimum requirement of education to meet the challenges of knowledge economy? These are some of the questions that need probing in the present day context of globalisation and knowledge economy. There are issues related to the efficiency and equity in the context of socio-economic goals that call for a scrupulous examination. Are we equipped with the data to answer these questions? Despite tremendous availability of data, there exist some gaps.

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Reuben Kwasi Esena, Mary-Margaret Sappor

Abstract: The survival and wellbeing of a mother is important in addressing the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) which aims at improving maternal health by reducing maternal mortality. The health care that a mother receives during conception, delivery and postnatal is crucial in preventing complications which lead to disability or death of the mother or child. Even with the best possible antenatal care, any delivery can become complicated. Therefore skilled assistance is essential (GSS 2009). In the more developed countries, skilled attendance is about 99.5% whereas that of Africa is 46.5% (WHO, 2008) and Ghana was 59% in 2008 (GSS 2012) below the WHO target of 85% in 2010 (WHO, 2005). The Ga East Municipality of Ghana has a skilled delivery trend of 29.8% in 2008, 31.6% in 2009 and 37.5% in 2010 respectively (Ga East District Annual Report, 2010). Factors associated with this trend is unknown and needs to be investigated. The main objective of this study is to determine the various factors associated with utilization of skilled delivery services in the Ga East Municipality. Specifically it seeks to determine the proportion of births attended to by skilled birth attendants, identify the socio- demographic characteristics associated with access to skilled delivery services, and also to identify the barriers to the utilization of skilled delivery services. A cross sectional descriptive study design was used. Quantitative research methods were employed using structured pretested questionnaire. A study population of women (15- 49 years) who have delivered within one year prior to the study in the Ga East Municipal area was used. Stratified sampling and simple random sampling were employed using a sample size of (394) participants. The data entry and analysis was done using the Statistical Package For Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Association between variables was determined using the Chi Squared Test. The findings showed that a majority of respondents 371 (94.1 %) attended ANC. About 79 % had skilled assistance at delivery with the remaining 21% delivering at home. Maternal education, occupation and household income as well as religion showed statistical association with the utilization of skilled delivery. The study sort to find out what the barriers to utilization of skilled delivery and these include: transportation difficulty 43%, high cost of care 27.7%, high cost of transport (25.3 %). A few cited influence of family decisions, poor attitude of health workers and poor quality care as some of the challenges. The rest were traditional / cultural or religious reasons. These challenges need to be addressed to improve skilled delivery services in the district.

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Reuben K. Esena, Mary-Margaret Sappor

Abstract: There is the need to assess the constraints to skilled delivery as a guide to improve maternal health and thereby achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). It is known that even with the best possible antenatal care, any delivery can become complicated. Therefore skilled assistance is essential (GSS 2009) and needs to be given the relevant attention, especially in developing countries. In the more developed countries, skilled attendance is about 99.5% whereas that of Africa is 46.5% (WHO, 2008) and Ghana was 59% in 2008 (GSS 2012) below the WHO target of 85% in 2010 (WHO, 2005). The Ga East Municipality of Ghana has a skilled delivery trend of 29.8% in 2008, 31.6% in 2009 and 37.5% in 2010 respectively (Ga East District Annual Report, 2010). The question is: what are the barriers to the utilization of skilled delivery services in the area? Barriers associated with this trend is unknown and needs to be investigated. The main objective of this study is to determine the constraints associated with utilization of skilled delivery services in the Ga East Municipality. A cross sectional descriptive study design was used. Quantitative research methods were employed using structured pretested questionnaire. A study population of women (15- 49 years) who have delivered within one year prior to the study in the Ga East Municipal area was used. Stratified sampling and simple random sampling were employed using a sample size of (394) participants. The data entry and analysis was done using the Statistical Package For Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Association between variables was determined using the Chi Squared Test. The findings showed that a majority of respondents 371 (94.1 %) attended ANC. About 79 % had skilled assistance at delivery with the remaining 21% delivering at home. Maternal education, occupation and household income as well as religion showed statistical association with the utilization of skilled delivery. The barriers to utilization of skilled delivery identified in the study include: transportation difficulties 43%, high cost of care 27.7%, others include: the influence of family decisions, poor attitude of health workers and poor quality care as some of the challenges. The rest were traditional / cultural or religious reasons. These challenges need to be addressed to improve skilled delivery services in the district.

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Edmund Mohammed Nyanwura, Reuben K. Esena

Abstract: The survey was a cross sectional descriptive study, that employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches, following the standardized World Health Organization and Health Action International (WHO/ HAI) methodology (WHO and HAI, 2008a). Price and availability data for 29 medicines were collected from 11 service delivery facilities and 4 private licensed chemical sellers' stores. Medicine prices were compared with international reference prices (IRPs) to obtain a median price ratio. The daily wage of the lowest paid unskilled government worker was used to gauge the affordability of medicines. The mean availability of 29 essential medicines was 64.1% (SD 24.1) for all the medicines outlets. The mean availability of 20 essential medicines for the Clinic and Health Centre levels was 85.0 % (SD 17) higher than the private Licensed Chemical Sellers 71.3 % (SD 35.6). The mean availability of 10 essential medicines for Community Health Services levels was 62.5 % (SD 41.1) and lower than the private Licensed Chemical Sellers 77.5 % (SD 32.2). Artesunate+Amodiaquine used as first line for malaria treatment was found in 80% of medicine outlets. The prices of medicines to patients were high at the public sector facilities with a comparative Median Price Ratio (MPR) of 1.84 times international reference prices, while that of the private sector was 2.05 times. The average treatment for adult disease conditions was not affordable at 1.67 days' wage, but 0.78 days' wage for a child's disease condition. The availability of essential medicines for the treatment of the top ten diseases of 2009 in the Builsa district is quite acceptable. The average cost of treatment for the common diseases was unaffordable, with the median price ratio of medicines above the acceptable range of 1.5 for public facilities.

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Deepak Raj Parajuli, Tapash Das

Abstract: Indigenous knowledge is the local knowledge which is exclusive to a given culture or society. This indigenous knowledge is really important in conserving the biological resources existing in different altitudinal and climatic variations. Indigenous people are conserving the biodiversity in order to survive themselves, which eventually conserve the whole environment. However due to globalization, environmental threats, no transfer of knowledge to younger generations, this unique cultures and knowledge are gradually disappearing. Moreover, exclusionary practices, poverty as the capability deprivation and unequal policies are also responsible for making the indigenous knowledge more vulnerable, eventually affecting the diverse flora and fauna, causing them to extinction. Hence it is utmost important to conserve indigenous knowledge their skills and technologies in order to conserve biodiversities, which can be done by the effective implementation of the policies that are prepared for the conservation of indigenous people their knowledge and biodiversity. Unless and until we do not conserve indigenous knowledge, we cannot achieve sustainable development as indigenous and place-based knowledge always works to achieve sustainability.

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Chiaghanam, O.I., Chiadikobi, K.C., Ikegwuonu, O.N., Omoboriowo, A.O., Onyemesili, O.C., Acra E.J.

ABSTRACT: The palynofacies and kerogen analysis of the Upper Cretaceous units (Campanian-Maastrichtian) of the Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria was carried out in the studied area. Two major palynofacies types were identified based on the abundance of particulate organic matter. The palynofacies "A" is characterized by abundant phytoclasts, frequent opaqes common amorphous organic matter and carbon to rare palynomorphs, while palynofacies "B" is characterized by abundant opaque debris, frequent phytoclast common terrestrial palynomorphs and rare amorphous organic matter. The pollen colour ranged from pale yellow in palynofacies "B" to yellowish / yellowish brown in palynofacies "A", these corresponds to TAI of 1+ to 2-/2 and vitrinite reflection (Ro %) of 0.2 to 0.3/0.5 for both palynofacies. The studied sediments are made up of particulate organic matter that is immature but has the potential to generate gas.

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Md Ahmedul Azam, Faria Hossain Borsha

Abstract: Community practices are very significant aspects to get ecosystem services in sustainable way which is beyond doubt. This paper deals with the ecosystem services of Shivapuri National Park and practices of residents of Mulkharka Village living inside the national park. This study explored the practices that contribute a wide range of impacts on ecosystem services. Secondary information is obtained through official documents, previous research and primary information gathered via participatory rural appraisal tools such as; informal discussion, observation, field note, map, and photographs. Data had been triangulated and followed by thematic analysis. Community practices of provisioning services were found unsustainable whereas practices of regulating services were found comparatively better. Practices of cultural services were found sustainable but there was pressure on supporting services. However, few initiatives have been taken for sustainable management of ecosystem services like livelihood options, improved fuel use system and skill development programs. Ecosystem is a valuable service that will get added value in near future. This will certainly create ample opportunity of funds and programs. To strengthen community practices, more research on ecosystem services in required with proper coordination with all stakeholders which will enhance sustainable natural resource management of Shivapuri National Park.

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Ambika Ramchandra, Ravindra Kumar

Abstract: In this paper the likely challenges occur in finding the suspects face match with the database are discussed. Developing a computational model of face recognition is quit difficult, because faces are complex, multidimensional and meaningful visual stimuli. Different algorithms are developed to solve these challenges. The magic of matching suspects with the database faces does not works some times even though many face recognition algorithms are developed with high success rates. Face recognition software fails some time despite the fact that the suspects image were present in public and private record database. To get a match of suspect our database should have different appearances/ poses of a person.

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Md. Surat-E-Mostafa, Md. Muksudul Alam, Md. Al Faisal Reza

Abstract: This paper investigates the performance of a crosstalk analysis of an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter based optical Multiplexer for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) system. Comparisons of wave length separation(m) over the signal power(dBm),crosstalk power(dBm), signal to crosstalk ratio(dB), signal to crosstalk noise ratio(dB) and power penalty(w) in Acousto-Optic Tunable-Filter based optical Multiplexer for DWDM system. This paper also investigates Bit Error Rate (BER) with respect to the signal power (dBm).

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Savitha. P, J Geetha Reddy

Abstract: Cloud computing is one of the upcoming latest new computing paradigm where applications and data services are provided over the Internet. Today's most of the business organizations and educational institutions use cloud environment. The Task management is the key role in cloud computing systems task scheduling problems are main which relate to the efficiency of the whole cloud computing facilities. Scheduling in cloud means selection of best suitable resources for task execution. A task scheduler in Cloud computing has to satisfy cloud users with the agreed QoS and improve profits of cloud providers. There are a mass of researches on the issue of scheduling in cloud computing most of them, however are about workflow and job scheduling. The scheduling entails the selection of the services and the appropriate start time for each workflow. In this paper we mainly focus on different types of workflow scheduling algorithms. The main focus is to study various problems, issues and types of scheduling based on the genetic algorithm for cloud workflows.

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Emmanuel A. Sarsah, Felix A. Uba

Abstract: Daily mean global solar radiation data are required for solar energy system design evaluation and performance studies is generally not available for a number of sites especially in remote locations. This study evaluates different empirical models based on Angstrom-Prescott model to estimate daily mean global solar radiation using month-specific correlations based on sunshine hours. Hourly solar radiation data measured at Wa Polytechnic weather station from 2010-2012 were used to perform the calculations using selected models. The following models were included: Angstrom-Prescott, Akinoglu and Ecevit, Samuel, Newland, Ampratwum and Dorvlo, KadirBakirchi and Almoroxet.al. Statistical indices show that all models for each month show reasonably good agreement with measured data. The model by Ampratwum and Dorvlo in the form H/H_o=a+blog(n/N)shows very good agreement for most monthly-specific correlations in the year. The models presented can be used to estimate daily and monthly mean global solar radiation in Wa Polytechnic site and in elsewhere with similar climatic conditions where radiation data are unavailable. The present work will help to advance the state of knowledge of global solar radiation to the point where it has applications in the estimation of daily mean global solar radiation.

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Ayunanda Melliana, Yeni Setyorini, Haris Eko, Sistya Rosi, Purhadi

Abstract: Data on the number of cervical cancer cases are discrete data (count) which are usually analyzed with Poisson regression. The characteristics of the Poisson regression mean and variance must be the same, whereas in fact the count data is often becoming variance greater than the mean, which is often referred to over dispersion. To deal with the problem over dispersion, modelling can be done with Generalized Poisson Regression (GPR) and a Negative Binomial Regression because it does not require the mean value equal to the value of variance. Model GPR produces AIC value of 317.70. While the negative binomial regression models produced by AIC value 312.43. Then the best model is obtained from the negative binomial regression model because it produces the smallest AIC value.

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Dr. P. Hazarika, Nilutpal Chutia

Abstract: Reproductive health status of married women of any society is the yardstick of quality of life maintained of all people of that society. In terms of abortion and still birth incidence, the reproductive health of married women of two major tribal groups, viz. Deori and Mishing has been examined adopting a comparative analytic and explorative research method. Average conception per women and abortion-conception ratio estimations confirm the worsening of reproductive health condition and loss of re-productivity of tribal women. Findings imply the necessity to boost up the general health awareness and improvement in reproductive health care services.

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Ronald Chikati, Nkosinathi Mpofu, Sterwart Muchuchuti, Freedmore Sidume.

Abstract: Information Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the driving forces of globalization and provides developing countries with opportunities for development. Great efforts have been given by each government of a developing nation to provide physical access to ICTs in a bid to bridge the gap between the digitally excluded and the digitally included, however this paper argues that digital divide will continue to widen as long as governments of developing countries do not look beyond physical access to ICTs. This study argues that any discussion of the phenomenon of the digital divide must look beyond equitable physical access and take into consideration issues to do with content and capacity, capacity-building, infrastructural development and appropriation of ICT. The research has been done by disseminating questionnaires to Computing and Information systems students at Botswana Accountancy College(BAC) on access to ICTs in their previous schools. The results suggested a huge variation regarding how various schools utilize their ICT infrastructure. The private schools seem to be better in availing opportunities for ICT reach by all students, while certain levels are more preferred than others in public schools. Thus there exist some yawning gaps between the digitally included and the digitally excluded.

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Al-Hasan, Z. Abubakar, Momoh Shaka, Ugbonakhena O. Olowojoba

Abstract: Several empirical researches have been carried out to explore factors affecting students' choice of career path and academic performance. This paper examined relationship between modes of entrance into planning studies and academic grade performance, as well as factors that influenced choice of career in town planning education in Auchi polytechnic. Data were provided by 190 male and 70 female on a cross-sectional survey (N=260). SPSS was used to analyse data. Statistically significant relationships albeit, with inverse implication, at .05 level, were demonstrated in bivariate analysis between mode of entrance and GPA. The Chi - square test statistics revealed that students' academic performance depend on their modes of entrance into the programme (X2=198.71, p < 0.05) with Cramer's V = 0.62; concluding that the Pre-ND programme did not impact on the quality of planning education. The paper recommended admission policy that permits change of course to town planning studies should be further encourage, with adequate orientation and career counseling programmes in the department.

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Rayipudi Bharat Kumar, B. Tirupathi Reddy

ABSTRACT: All packet switches contain packet buffers to hold packets during times of congestion. High-speed routers rely on well-designed packet buffers that support multiple queues, provide large capacity and short response times and suggested combined SRAM/DRAM hierarchical buffer architectures to meet these challenges. This is particularly true for a shared memory switch where the memory needs to operate at times the line rate, where is the number of ports in the system. Even input queued switches must be able to buffer packets at the rate at which they arrive. We address these issues by first designing an efficient compact buffer that reduces the SRAM size requirement by (k - 1)/k. Then, we introduce a feasible way of coordinating multiple subsystems with a load balancing algorithm that maximizes the overall system performance. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that our load balancing algorithm and the distributed packet buffer architecture can easily scale to meet the buffering needs of high bandwidth links and satisfy the requirements of scale and support for multiple queues.

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Mudavanhu C., Mandizvidza C.

ABSTRACT: This paper assesses the donor funded agricultural input supply scheme to ensure food security in Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. The aim is to assess the sustainability of donor funded agricultural input supply scheme. Since 2008 local NGOs unrolled agricultural input supply schemes, giving vulnerable households free packs of maize seed and fertilizers. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in the study, questionnaires were administered to a sample of sixty respondents, key informants were interviewed and documentary information was collected. The study found high prevalence of diseases, ill health and high rate of school drop outs as poverty indicators in Caledonia. Land is either state or communally owned which hampers development of long term agricultural projects, following the expansion of the city of Harare and Ruwa. The scheme has improved availability of fertilizers, maize seeds and improved crop productivity to disadvantaged households. However, it covered few residents and only supported maize production which has poor market price. Smallholder farmers still lack access to vital livelihoods assets such as large piece of land and draught power. Thus, the donor community should aim at reducing vulnerability and empower rural communities through facilitating access to livelihood assets, not just providing a short-term relief to poverty challenges.

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Dr. Siva Agora Sakthivel Murugan, K.Karthikayan, Natraj. N. A, Rathish. C. R

Abstract: A simple microstrip line fed wide band printed microstrip antenna having a return loss bandwidth of 38% is presented which is mainly used in 6 to 10 GHz ultra wide band. By attaching a rectangular patch to the end of the microstrip feed line, the antenna is achieved to exhibit good radiation characteristics and moderate gain in the entire operating band. Details of the design along with experimental and simulation results in FEKO are presented and discussed. .The simulation results of proposed antenna are analyzed by using Method of Moment (MoM) from FEKO software.

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Katkar Surendrakumar, Nagrale Prashant, Patil Mayuresh

Abstract: Pavement deterioration rate is very difficult to predict because of the complexities in determining the pavement condition rating or difficulty in collecting detailed data, particularly in absence of sophisticated equipment or trained staff etc. A wide variety of Pavement Maintenance Systems (PMS) are used, but unfortunately either these systems do not use a formalized procedure to determine the pavement condition rating or they assign the pavement state transition probabilities on the basis of experience. The object of this paper is to apply the Markovian probability process of operational research to develop a decision support system (DSS) to predict the future condition of the pavement. Significance of the collected sample data of 20 pavement sections is first tested for Markovian properties. Χ-inference test is used to check the goodness of fit. Poisson's method is used for calculating successive transition matrices for predicting future condition state of pavements. The results support the Markovian probabilistic process tool for finding the future condition states of pavements at any particular year. Improvement in condition of pavement after repair can be easily compared. It will help find the optimal maintenance and repair policy w.r.t. budgetary limits and current state of pavement condition.

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Terence Darlington Mushore

Abstract: The aim of this article is to explore ways of increasing agricultural productivity in Zimbabwe in the face of the increasingly uncertain climatic conditions. Agriculture has remained crucial to economic growth in Zimbabwe while it is mainly rain-fed. The total seasonal rainfall amounts are not indicating any significant trend (increasing or decreasing) with time. Changes are only noticed in the form of for example prolonged intra-season dry spells, increasing rainfall variability, increased frequency of storms and hail storms and poor distribution of rainfall in a season. The Meteorological Services Department of Zimbabwe also carries out cloud seeding to enhance rainfall in all rainfall seasons. This helps more in terms of amount than temporal distribution since only clouds with potential to give rain are seeded. It is argued in this article that in order to effectively support agriculture by reducing the effects of temporal distribution of rainfall on yield, irrigation could also be used to augment water supply. Projections are that run-off will be reduced in the southern provinces more than the north by 2080 while most of the countries' water bodies are located in Masvingo which is a low rainfall area in the south. There are also dam construction projects such as the Tokwe Mukosi that have remained incomplete for a long time. This article also argues that critical assessment of whether the operational dams are adequately maintained is need. Completion of overdue dam projects, construction of others and maintenance of operational reservoirs could create space for the collection of water during wet episodes for use during prolonged dry periods of that rainy season and avoid water stress on agriculture. The article concludes agriculture is adversely impacted by climate change in the form of prolonged intra-season dry spells and offers recommendation that use of irrigation in all areas of the country should avert adverse impacts of water stress on agriculture in Zimbabwe.

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Dr. Nesreen G. AL-abdallat, Dr. Mohammed S. El-Khateeb, Dr. Helen Shaji John Cecily, Dr. Dr. Allam Khaleel

Abstract: Background: Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a newly defined cytokine that has an important role in the Th1 type immune response and it shares similar functional properties with IL-12. Elevation of IL-18 levels in autoimmune diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) has been reported in previous studies. Aims & Objectives: To study the IL-18 levels in the plasma of Jordanian patients suffering from , Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Behcet's disease and to correlate the disease activity and IL-18 level for the three diseases. Materials and method: The study includes one hundred and twenty three patients, forty-one patients for each disease group, and forty-one as a control group, sex and age matched apparently healthy subjects. Plasma IL-18 levels were determined using Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: IL-18 levels were significantly elevated in the three study group compared to the controls (p< 0.0001). The level of IL-18 was significantly correlated with the disease activity in SLE patients (r= 0.602, p= 0.000). However, there was no significant correlation with disease activity in RA patients (r = -0.205, p=0.198, r= -0.196, p=0.22.respectively). In case of Behcet's disease there was no significant difference between active and inactive disease. Conclusion: Elevated IL-18 levels were noticed in patients with SLE, RA and Behcets's disease. IL-18 levels are significantly correlated with disease activity in SLE patients only. This finding may be of used for monitoring the disease activity in SLE patients.

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Sunzuma Gladys, Joyce Zivanai, Zezekwa Nicholas, Bhukuvhani Chrispen, Chinyoka Mirirai

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to examine the nature of the relationships between undergraduate education students' previous experiences of maths and their achievement in statistics course. Thirty undergraduate students were conveniently sampled who were doing a course on research methods and statistics course. The study adopted the correlational research design. Data were collected through test set by specialist in statistics. Research has found that prior mathematics achievement is a critical factor in promoting student achievement in statistics courses, and therefore explain a generous portion of the variance in student learning and achievement. It was also noted that achievement varies with subject area of specialisation. The relationship was much higher for those who specialize in mathematics and least on those who were specialising in chemistry. From these findings above, the following recommendation was made; remedial teaching of basic mathematics is required for those who do not specialize in mathematics.

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Ola-Buraimo A. O.

ABSTRACT: Two lithofacies units were delineated in the studied well section. The lower part shows intercalation of shaly gypsum and shale; with preponderance of shaly gypsum which has never been attributed to Bima Formation; the thick shale sequence at the upper part represents the Gongila Formation characterized by thin intercalated shaly gypsum lying unconformably on Bima Formation. The Bima lithofacies might have been formed as a result of various factors such as basinal structure, salinity, ecology, tropical climate and various processes of transportation and sedimentation. Two palynozones of Afropollis jardinus assemblage zone 1, characterized by co-occurrence of Forma PO 304 Lawal, Afropollis jardinus, Steevesipollenites binodosus, and Hexaporotricolpites emelianovi; dated Albian to Late Cenomanian, belong to Bima Formation; and Cretacaeiporites spp assemblage zone ll, characterized by maximum development of Cretacaeiporate pollen - Cretacaeiporites scrabratus, C. mulleri and C. polygonalis are established. Other forms diagnostically present are Triorites africaensis, Elaterosporites klaszi, Galeacornea causea, and Gnetaceaepollenites clathratus. The zone is dated Late Cenomanian to Turonian age, belonging to Gongila Formation. The paleoenvironment of deposition varies from marginal marine environment trough typical marine to marginal marine setting, characterized by peridinacean forms at the base trough presence of microforam lining to long processes organic wall organism in the upper part of the section.

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Akinkurolere Olufunke Olanike

Abstract: The use of recycled aggregate as a replacement for natural aggregates has been known for a number of years. The future benefits of using recycled aggregate cannot be overemphasized. This study was an attempt to evaluate some hardened properties if Air Entrained Recycled Aggregate Concrete. In order to minimize the number of samples required per experiment, Taguchi orthogonal optimization technique was adopted for this investigation. In this technique, only a few combination values of control factors required were chosen. The theory behind this technique, which needs to consider both the process of designing the experiment and the way of statistically analyzing the experimental data of response, is based on the usage of the orthogonal arrays, the analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the significance test with F statistics. Also, signal (S) to noise (N) ratio (S/N) were also applied in the analysis. The objective of S/N analysis is to determine the most optimum set of the operating conditions from variations of the influencing factors within the results. The influence of the order of materials used in concrete production (made with recycled aggregates) with respect to compressive and flexural strengths were analyzed and discussed. The results indicate that the higher the air contents the lower the compressive and tensile strengths, respectively.

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Uday Kumar, Bhawana Kweera

Abstract: In the present work nutritional value and aflatoxin contamination in Maize grain from different site of Rajasthan were investigated .The samples of Maize grain were collected from different sites of Rajasthan and stored in jute bags. These samples were evaluated for its nutritional value and aflatoxin contamination using standard methods. The results of investigation show that there is variation in nutritional value and aflatoxin level of maize samples from different sites of Rajasthan. Maize from Ramganj shows the high nutritional value in compare to other four samples. The samples from Bundi and Ramganj show absence of aflatoxins. Maximum level of aflatoxin is found in Alwar maize. Hence from the above analysis it is concluded that percentage of aflatoxin depends on moisture content, higher the moisture content more is aflatoxin contamination. This study reveals that the chance of aflatoxin contamination is minimum when the level of moisture content is 8.96 - 9.32%.

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Fagbola Temitayo M., Adigun Adebisi A., Oke Alice O.

Abstract: As flexible and online learning mediated by ICT becomes more pervasive, there is a growing need for educators to consider modes of assessment using similar tools. Computer Based Test (CBT) is an effective solution for mass education evaluation. Though, a variety of e-assessment approaches and systems have been developed in recent times, yet lack of flexible timing functionality to automatically log-off candidates upon expiration of allotted time, result integrity comprise, stand-alone deployment, lack of flexibility, robustness and scalability as well as human error are major limitations of the existing platforms. In this paper, a web-based online examination system is developed to address these aforementioned drawbacks. The system is designed to facilitate the examination processes and manage challenges surrounding the conduct of examination, auto-submission, auto-marking and examination result report generation. The conceptual design including the Data Flow Diagram (DFD), the Use Cases and the Entity-Relationship Model (ERM) for the system developed is also presented. The programming tools used for the front-end development of the system are Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and Microsoft Visual Studio 2012 integrated development environment while Microsoft SQL Server 2008 is used as the database backend. The CBT system was evaluated at the Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State prometric centre. Performance assessment was carried out by two-hundred and fifty (250) volunteer users of the CBT system and the average performance scoring indicate that the system scores high in terms of reliability, robustness and flexibility with easy to use graphical user interface. The volunteers comprise of software developers, students, lecturers and network engineers. The test proved the validity of using this web-based CBT system to evaluate a large mass of students in various institutions of learning across the globe.

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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - January 2022 - Volume 11 Issue 1