International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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IJSTR Volume 3- Issue 4, April 2014 Edition - ISSN 2277-8616

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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R. S. Vigneshwari, Rambabu, T. Jeyaseelan Senthinath, P. Revathi, S. Deivam A. Uma.

Abstract: Vaginosis is the most common infection in women of child bearing age. Infections are very common with more than 90 million cases of bacterial vaginosis (BV) worldwide per annum. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of probiotics as a supplement along with metronidazole in treatment of vaginosis, A total of 50 rural women diagnosed as BV randomly categorized into two groups, Group A patients were treated with metronidazole and probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus reuteri) whereas Group B were treated only with metronidazole for five days. Nugent score was recorded before and after the treatment. After initiation of the treatment, there was no change observed on the second and fourth day. On the seventh day symptoms such as itching, odour, discharge were suppressed in the two groups. There was a significant difference in the Nugent score before and after the treatment between group A and group B. (p<0. 05). The Nugent score for group A patient was reduced more than group B, because of the count of Lactobacilli was detected more among group B than group A . This study concluded that the treatment using probiotic along with metronidazole for Bacterial Vaginosis showed the successful effect.

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Ebad Ryhan

Abstract: The evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has generated associated terms such as e-readiness, e-government, digital literacy, and digital divide. These terms are inter-related in one way or the other. Numerous services have also been created for the sake of convenience and easy access to information submission and retrieval. Digital literacy has now become an integral part of our lives and it is deeply embedded in our daily lifestyle. By the end of 2013 it was expected that broadband subscriptions would rise beyond 2 billion globally. The governments and corporates have demonstrated greater interest in taking advantage of this unique and state of the art technology to tap the potential both politically and economically. The governments are busy formulating strategies and policies and heavily investing in building ICT infrastructures in order to electronically reach out to the citizens to the last mile for better and effective governance. This will also fulfill its objective to address socio- economic issues such as education, governance, citizenship participation, employment, health, food security amongst others. The corporates on the other hand are concentrating on formulating sales and marketing strategies to achieve competitive advantage by offering their products and services to the last mile. ICT has opened up windows of opportunities for almost every sector. Efforts are on to bridge the digital and technological divide within and between countries. In this paper, a brief focus is on the digital literacy levels in developed, developing, and least developed nations.

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S.Radhakrrishnan, C.Thamodharan, N.Senthilnathan

ABSTRACT: The CI engine is used more than any other type of engine for transportation, thermal power generation and many miscellaneous Industrial applications. It has been established as the most efficient of all engines, the exhaust pollutants from combustion in CI engine are not different from those of other combustion processes, the difference being only the use of fuel and concentration of individual pollutants. The use of non-conventional energy source has greatly influenced the CI engine. Bio-mass in the form of cashew nut shell represents a renewable and abundant source of energy in India. The Cashew nut shell oils are found to be a renewable natural resource of unsaturated phenols with long linear chain and marked absence of anacaridic acid. The oil is completely miscible in diesel and is found to have low corrosive effect and this promise to be a potential fuel. The oil has low ash, and water content. The properties of CNS oil have been found to be amazingly near to that of petroleum fuels.

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Emmanuel A. Sarsah, Felix A. Uba

Abstract: In grading students’ scores, tutors in Ghana often use spread sheet programmes for this purpose. This approach is subject to errors (in the case where a student score is mistakenly entered as being greater than the total mark) and involves more manual work by tutors after entering students’ raw data - marks and grades have to be copied to a word-processing program and a final output form adopted by Polytechnics in Ghana is then prepared. We have developed a software program named ‘Assessment Program for Polytechnics’ to relieve tutors of this burden. This assessment program uses inputs specified by tutors and generates the final output form automatically without much work. The software program warns tutors of wrong inputs, if any. It was developed using MATLAB and has a graphical user interface to make it user friendly

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R.Gunasri, R.Kanagaraj

ABSTRACT: Web service used in Service Oriented Architecture creates a wide network of services that work together in order to execute complex task. Web services are defined throughweb pages having data and details only in natural languages it cannot use by computer to automatically process the information. To support automation of web service discovery there are many semantic based languages used for describing the process of the whole web service for the particular domain. The semantic web service description use ontologies to describe the performance of a web service. Natural Language techniques can help in better defining the background of a web services. This project Develop a Semantic web service discovery framework for finding semantic web services by making use of natural language processing techniques and clustering method. By make use of clusterTerms we can improve the optimization and eliminating irrelevant services and gives accurate service discovery.

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Sarika Grover, Ambrina Sardar Khan

ABSTRACT: Seed irradiation during pre-sowing processes is one of the most effective methods to improve the plant production. This investigation was carried out to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on germination and physiological characteristics of wheat seedlings. Therefore two separate experiments were, therefore, conducted 1. Using the filter paper method to assess the germination and rate and the initial seedling vigour indices I and II in the laboratory conditions. 2. Following a randomized complete block design with three replications in the field of the Nuclear Research Laboratory, IARI, New Delhi. Seeds of Wheat plant were irradiated with gamma rays at Control (0), 0.1, 0.15, 0.155, 0.16, 0.165, 0.17, 0.175, 0.18, 0.19, 0.20, 0.25 kGy on the Cobalt-60 Gamma irradiation chamber (GC-5000, dose rate 2.18 kGy/h) at the Laboratory. Irradiation doses depend on many conditions that involve exposure to the rays (type, quantity and radiation time) and behaviour of the irradiated environment (absorption capacity, physical, chemical and biological modifications, and secondary reactions) (Evangelista, 2000). The parameters studied were percent germination, plant biomass including root and shoot mass and plant height. To determine these effects, seeds were exposed to radiation with time period of 165, 247, 255, 264, 272, 280, 288, 296, 313, 330 and 412 seconds for the irradiated treatment as given above respectively. A dose-dependent increase in percentage emergence in radiated plants up to 0.17 kGy. At higher dose of 190 Gy, there was a drastic reduction in physiological characteristics of seedling of wheat. Shakoor et al., (1978) and Khalil et al., (1986) attributed decreased shoot lengths at higher doses of gamma rays to reduced mitotic activity in meristematic tissues and reduced moisture contents in seeds respectively. The study concludes that gamma radiation at a low dose stimulates, while a high dose (0.18 kGy and above) inhibits plant growth and development of wheat.

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Sheikh Naunehal Ahamed, Jadav Vijaya Kumar, Parimi Sravani

Abstract: The objective of the research is to optimize the empennage of a light weight aircraft such as Zenith aircraft. The case is specified by a unique set of geometry, materials, and strength-to-weight factors. The anticipated loads associated with the empennage structure are based on previous light aircraft design loads. These loads are applied on the model to analyze the structural behavior considering the materials having high strength-to-weight ratio. The 3D modeling of the empennage is designed using PRO-E tools and FEA analysis especially the structural analysis was done using ANSYS software to validate the empennage model. The analysis shall reveal the behavior of the structure under applied load conditions for both the optimized structure and existing model. The results obtained using the software are attempted to validate by hand calculations using various weight estimation methods.

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Y. Essatara, M.Asseban, M.H. Benazzouz, H. El Sayegh, A. Iken, L. Benslimane, K.Znati, Y. Nouini

Abstract: Nephrogenic metaplasia is a benign tumor characterized by urothelial tubulo - papillary structures. It is also called nephrogenic adenoma. It is a benin lesion and highly prone to recurrency. We report a case of a bladder nephrogenic metaplasia of a 65 years old patient with hematuria and POLLAKIURIA. Clinical examination was normal. Ultrasonography showed a circumferential thickening bladder, while cystoscopy showed a tumor at the dome and the right side. A transurethral resection of the bladder was performed. Histological study concluded at the existence of nephrogenic metaplasia of the bladder mucosa. The evolution was favorable and postoperative controls, including cystoscopy and intravenous urography (IVU ) at 1, 3 and 6 months were normal.

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Bala Murugan

ABSTRACT: The Global Positioning System, which was commonly known by the North American implementation called GPS; the GPS fails to provide an accurate Position, Navigation, and Time (PNT) signal over the Indian region. The positional accuracy of GPS is not up to the mark over the Indian region because the India is located near the equator. Moreover, the equatorial ionospheric grid point (IGP) of India differs from the ionospheric grid point of North America so in order to improve the positional accuracy of GPS over Indian region, the Indian Space Research Organization along with the Airport Authority of India has launched the space based augmentation satellite called GPS aided and Geo Augmented Navigation satellite (GAGAN) with PRN number 127 and 128. The GAGAN will make corrections in the ionospheric, ephemeris, and satellite clock errors in the navigation messages received from the GPS satellites; the certification of GAGAN is under progress. The objective of this research is to analyze the positional accuracy of GPS and GPS augmented by GAGAN over the Indian geographical region by using differential correction technique.

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A.M Magomya, D. Kubmarawa, J.A Ndahi, G.G Yebpella

Abstract: The amount of protein in most foods is usually determined by multiplying its Kjeldahl nitrogen content by a factor of 6.25. The reliability of this method in quantitating plant proteins was investigated. Ten lesser known plant leaf samples of nutritional significance among certain populations in Nigeria were used for this study. Protein contents of the plant samples were determined via the kjeldahl method using the conventional nitrogen to protein (N:P) conversion factor 6.25 (i.e. total nitrogen × 6.25) and by summation of amino acid residues (considered more accurate and taken here as the actual protein content). From data of total amino acid and total nitrogen, specific N:P conversion factors were calculated for each sample. The N:P factors ranged from 3.24 to 5.39, with an overall average of 4.64. Protein contents were also calculated using this new factor. Comparison of the calculated protein contents showed that the traditional conversion factor of 6.25 overestimated the actual protein content of the samples. The degree of overestimation ranged from 16%-93%. Protein contents calculated with our adjusted factor (4.64) gave results that are in good agreement with the actual protein content. Our results indicate that calculation of protein content by N × 6.25 is highly unsuitable for plant samples.

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Yako AB, Ajayi OO, Lar P, Chessed G, Auta KI,

Abstract: Two species of Microsporidia were identified (Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) among the non-HIV, and immunocompromised individuals at the Jos, Plateau and Benue State, Nigeria. In Jos, 500 species were subjected to laboratory test and the infection rate of microsporidium species were 1(0.5%) for gastroenteritis with <350 cell/µl; 15(15.0%) were HIV individuals with <200 cell/ µl, and 19(19.0%) AIDS patients had low CD4 counts (<100 cell/ µl). The severity of the illness was seen to have impact on the CD4 counts of the individuals in Makurdi where, in both sexes 5(3.5%) students had <100 cells/ µl CD4 counts with corresponding fall in 36(5.7%) Civil servants of <100 cells/ µl cells count. Housewives were 44(8.8%) with <50 cells/ µl, and others (undefined occupational status) 11(1.5%) had CD4 counts <90 cell/ µl. Microsporidiosis is now known to cause a serious threat in HIV/AIDS patients in Nigeria with less pathogenesis among non-HIV individuals hence, P<±1.96 critical region, we accept that, there was a significant difference in the distribution of Microsporidiosis among sexes in Makurdi with the x2=0.59<7.8 at 5% level of significance (indicating a significant difference in sex related prevalence at the Jos, Plateau). However, there was high level of social behavior observed at Makurdi with a general low CD4 counts (<50 cell/ µl-<100 cell/ µl).

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Oseweuba Valentine Okoro

Abstract: This paper presented a general overview of Electric power generation in Nigeria, with a special focus on the restructuring attempts made by the Federal Government to facilitate the provision of a more stable power supply for her people as well as an investigation into the basis of the Nigerian energy mix. During the course of this investigation, there was an extensive consideration of the history of power generation in Nigeria, the current state and the future trends while establishing that the non-sustainable nature of the current power systems remains the major catalyst for the electricity restructuring drive. The paper also identified the various plant types that will adequately meet the demands for peak, intermediate and base load requirements. The economics of electricity generation via the utilisation of the Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) was explored in an attempt to fully explain the Nigerian energy mix while establishing the role of economics and resource availability in the determination of the Nigerian energy mix. Possible social and environmental concerns of electricity generation were also explored and mitigation measures identified from literature. The paper also provided recommendations that will assist in the achievement of a more sustainable and revitalised electric power sector within the country Nigeria.

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Muhammad Asfar, Abu Bakar Tawali, Nurlailah Abdullah, Meta Mahendradatta

Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the optimal extraction method in extracting the albumin of snakehead fish and to know the nutrient content of fish protein concentrate so it can be consumed as functional food. The extraction of snakehead fish albumin was conducted by using water, HCl 0,1M, and ethanol 50% solvent with and without heating at temperature of 50-60oC for 10 minutes. The drying was conducted by mechanic dryer at temperature of 60-70oC. The parameters of this research were albumin, fat, total protein, yield, and dry basis water concentration. The result showed that the fish protein concentrate of snakehead fish with highest albumin (20,80%) and lowest fat (1.78%) was produced by the treatment of HCl 0,1M solvent by heating at temperature of 50-60oC for 10 minutes. Whereas the fish protein concentrate of snakehead fish with highest yield (6.41%) and total protein content (76,13%) was produced by the treatment of water solvent without heating. The optimal extraction method in extracting the fish protein concentrate of snakehead fish was the extraction by using HCl 0,1M solvent with heating at temperature of 50-60oC for 10 minutes.

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Priyanka M. Nandagawli, A.R.Tayal, Anil Jaiswal

Abstract: In this paper present a symmetric key protocol for spontaneous wireless ad hoc network creation which uses a hybrid symmetric scheme. In our proposal is a complete independent self configured network creation there is no need any fixed infrastructure as well as no need any central administrator to handle the services and share the secure data and no need any external support for handling the functionalities of the network. A spontaneous ad hoc network is complete self configured secure protocol which is able to create the independent network and share the secure services without any setup and offer the new services among users are present in the secure environment. This protocol contains all function required to operate without any external support. Design of a protocol make available the creation and management of a spontaneous wireless ad hoc network.

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Yogini Mankar, Pranali Suryawanshi

Abstract: In the RFID systems, privacy protection and integrity assurance become rather crucial, because these RFID tags may have a wide range of transmission, making them subject to unauthorized scanning by malicious readers and responsible for various other attacks. Da et als,RFID protocol overcome a forward privacy problem but assumed that communication channel between reader and database is secure, which doesn’t agree with the real development of IOT.Therefore, to overcome the privacy weaknesses of RFID protocol in mobile environment, an RFID security protocol based on the cryptographic hash function is design. The proposed work will increase security to certain extend as well as resistance to replay, denial-of-service and man-in-the-middle attacks, while retaining a competitive computation cost.

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Amruta Mendulkar, Ravindra Kale, Avinash Agrawal

ABSTRACT: Falling is among the most dangerous events that often happen among senior people, patients and may need immediate medical care. Automatic fall detection systems could help old people and patients to live independently. A real-time fall detection system may help us to detect fall events among elderly people in time and reduce the overall casualty rate. The proposed system uses the accelerometer and tilt sensors to design a real-time fall detection system that not only can distinguish up to 4 different kinds of fall events (forward, backward, rightward and leftward), but is also portable,wearable, low-cost and with high accuracy rate. Because the waist is the centre of gravity in the human body, the system is used more effectively when placed at the waist. The system includes an automatic real-time fall detection device, and GSM instant messaging function which can transfer fall alert, send emergency help messages.

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A. Benabdeslam, M.A. Berrady, M. Khermaz, A.Lahlou, M. Mahfoud, M.S. Berrada, M. Elyaacoubi

Abstract: The authors report 2 cases of divergent fracture-dislocation of the ankle. They remind diagnostic problems and show the ease of diagnosis. The literature review confirms that this is a rare lesion. Pathological stages are now well codified. After reduction, the evolution is favourable rule. A year back, the results are satisfactory and 2 patients had no pain, with resumption of their daily activity.

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A. Benabdeslam, M.A. Berrady, M.O.Lamrani, M. Mahfoud, M.S. Berrada, M. Elyaacoubi

Abstract: Medial subtalar dislocation is a rare dislocation and is not commonly seen as a sport injury. The authors report the case of a young athlete (footballer) who presented a medial subtalar dislocation. The treatment was orthopaedic with a very good functional result.

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Sebastin Christhu Raj A, Helensupriya M, Shanmuga Priya S

Abstract: Low Energy Adaptive Reliable Routing (LEARR) finds routes which require least amount of energy for reliable packet transfer in ad hoc networks. It defines the energy cost of packet forwarding by a node as the fraction of remaining battery energy which is consumed by a node to forward a packet. It includes the energy consumed for retransmission of the packet as well, when the packet or its acknowledgment is lost. It is found that LEARR can effectively reduce the energy consumption of nodes and balance the traffic load among them. Furthermore, LEARR is able to find reliable routes, in which constituent links require less number of packet retransmissions due to packet loss. It in turns decreases the latency of packet delivery and saves energy as well. To prolong the network lifetime, power management and energy-efficient routing techniques become necessary. Energy-aware routing is an effective way to extend the operational lifetime of wireless ad hoc networks.

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Mamah Luke, Nwafor, C. Gideon, Omada, J, I, Akpa Fabian, Okogbue Cele

Abstract: In the wake of search for alternative energy resources amidst increasing oil prices, coal exploration with new technology and software interpretation cannot be underestimated. Subsurface delineation and evaluation of Okobo-Enjema coal resources within the Upper Coal Measures of Mamu Formation at Okobo Coal Field Nigeria was undertaken in this study. Topographic data obtained with global positioning system (GPRS) and processed with Minex 6.05 software showed top soil thickness gradient dependence. Areas with steep slopes of less than 12 degrees were found to have top soil thickness of 0.5m whereas areas of 12 – 30 degrees slope had top soil thickness of 0.25m. Overburden or Waste above Coal seam has same conformity as the top soil but shows gradients that mimic past Mamu Sea and fluvial system drainage. Topography also enhanced geologic mapping as topographic gradient differentiated lithotypes which corroborated core logs. Coal spatial attributes and geometry derived from geologic models formed the input to Gemcom Minex software for reserve estimation. The resource evaluation estimated a total of 51m of waste thickness and in situ Coal as 20.5 Tonnes with a strip ratio of 18.1.

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Subhakanta Nayak, B.C.Routara

Abstract: This paper discusses the application of the Taguchi method to optimize the machining parameters for machining of tungsten carbide in electro-discharge machining (EDM) for individual responses such as material removal rate, electrode wear rate and surface roughness. Moreover, a multi-response performance characteristic was used for optimization of process parameters with application of grey relational analysis. The machining parameters are selected as current, pulse-on-time and pulse-off-time where as the response variables selected as material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR) and surface roughness (Ra). The results from confirmation runs indicated that the determined optimal combination of machining parameters improved the performance of the machining process.

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Jayashree Patil

ABSTRACT: In this article some new two dimensional nonlinear integral inequalities are obtained. These inequalities can be used as ready and powerful tools in the analysis of various classes of partial differential, integral and integrodifferential equations. As an application of nonlinear integral inequalities with delay,global existence of nonlinear partial differential is presented.

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J. Tamilarasi, V. Vanitha, T. Renuka

Abstract: Visual cryptography is a secret sharing scheme that divides secret images into shares such that, when the shares are superimposed, a hidden secret image is revealed. In extended visual cryptography, an extra security is provided by giving cover images to the shares. However, in either case, loss of resolution, contrast, and image size expansion are challenging problems that the researchers are facing. In this paper, we propose a method for processing halftone images that improves the quality of the recovered images and also avoids pixel expansion. The resulting scheme maintains the perfect security of the original extended visual cryptography approach and also provides a better result.

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Onyeozili, I. A., Gwary T. M.

Abstract: In this paper, a systematic and critical study of the fundamentals of soft set theory, which include operations on soft sets and their properties, soft set relation and function, matrix representation of soft set among others, is carried out.

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K. Divya, P. Naga Padma

Abstract: Cold–active polygalacturonase and amylase producers were screened using enrichment culture technique. The diverse sources screened were cold stored spoilt fruits and vegetables from different local super markets, market waste dumped soils, fruit waste dumped soils, mountain soils and Himalayan soils. About sixty yeasts showing pectinolytic activity were isolated by ruthenium red plate assay. Eight yeasts with higher zones of pectin hydrolysis were selected and tested for cold-active polygalacturonase and amylase production. The cultures were tested for cold active pectinase and amylase enzyme activity by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. The cultures were grown at both room temperature (20-25 °C) and cold temperatures (5°C) but the cold active enzyme activity was tested at 5°C. Highest cold-active pectinase producing yeast culture with good cold-active amylase activity was selected for further study. Thus the present cold-active polygalacturonase producer with amylase activity could have better application in fruit juice clarification and so could be a potential isolate.

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M. Ramya, S. Girija, M. Bharathy Devi, S. Gnanavel M.E (Phd)

Abstract: In recent advances the high speed video transmission over the wireless network has gained popularity among the users. To gain the improved quality of the video on the receiver side without time delay on multiple users accessing the server at the same time is being the challenging task. To transmit the video on wireless network the VIDEO ON DEMAND (VoD) system and services are used. A video on demand system can be designed with centralized, networked and distributed are the three major network configurations, The VoD system on the internet is categorized into three approaches client/server and peer to peer. A true video on demand system provides the users with the freedom to select videocontent at any time and to perform VCR-like user interactions. Though the true video on demand supports full interactivity with potential to start immediately when requested with full VCR functionality of fast forward, pause, rewind and play the video. The VoD requires a dedicated video stream for each customer request; incoming customer requests result in a significant load on the server and network resources. This is due to the high bandwidth and long duration of video content. Thus we propose a NETWORK CODING EQUIVALENT CONTENT DISTRIBUTION (NCECD) scheme in which the video will be divided into the segment and the segment is also further divided into blocks.Then the blocks are distributed to various peers for local storage.In existing method,the new client can only search for parent peers which consist of that specific segment.But here,the NCECD uses the network coding to cache equivalent content,so that the new client can pick any parent without any additional search. Second, we review the bandwidth-saving streaming schemes such as broadcasting, batching, patching, and merging, which use multicast streaming technologies and user buffer memory.

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Ukaegbu, C. O., Nnachi, A. U., Mawak, J. D., Igwe, C. C.

Abstract: Malaria and typhoid fever are major aetiological considerations in both acute and prolonged fever of unknown origin (PUO) in the tropics. Because of the high prevalence of malaria and typhoid fever in Nigeria, co-infections are common. This study investigated the incidence of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and Plasmodium species in febrile patients in Jos, Nigeria. A total of 300 each of blood and stool samples were collected from patients presenting febrile conditions suggestive of malaria and typhoid fever and analyzed using parasitological, agglutination (Widal) and stool culture techniques. All isolates were identified as Salmonella enteric serovar typhi using standard microbiological techniques. The results revealed that 162(54%) patients were positive for malaria parasites out of which 68(42%) had typhoid fever by Widal test and 9(5.6%) by stool culture test. A correlation analysis showed a strong relationship between malaria parasite and Salmonella typhi both by Widal test (r=0.98) and by stool culture (r=0.91) tests. The result showed that malaria is more likely to cause fever than typhoid infection. It is therefore pertinent to suggest that every treatment of fever should be preceded by appropriate laboratory diagnosis that can establish the actual aetiology. The use of widal test alone in the diagnosis of typhoid fever is unreliable, misleading and should be discouraged. Culture technique still remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of typhoid fever and should be embraced. In the absence of culture facilities, widal test can be used provided judicious interpretation of the test result is made against a background of pertinent information. Also where culture facilities are lacking and patients show positive for malaria and widal test, malaria should be treated first. Only when malaria has been ruled out should such patients be treated for typhoid fever.

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S.M.D.Y Jayarathna, W.A.S Weerakkody

Abstract : To attain a competitive advantage and remain in the competitive market, organizations should focus on the employee job performance significantly. Achieving the Job performance of the employees has been a critical issue in both private and public sector organizations. Hence it is needed to investigate how the practices of the public banks in Sri Lanka, affect the job performance of their employees. Thus the objective of this research was to investigate the impact of administrative practices on job performance of the public banks in Sri Lanka. The independent variable was administrative practices, with two sub variables named Reward Management and Decision Making and the dependent variable was job performance. The reliability of the instruments were tested against the survey data. This study was engaged in hypothesis testing and it was corelational. This research was conducted in the natural environment where work proceeds normally, with less interference of the researchers (noncontrived). Data was collected from each individual: employees of the public banks, and the study was cross sectional. The analysis was based on the information collected using a self administered questionnaire from 92 Managerial, Executive and Non Executive employees doing a variety of jobs in the Public Banks in Colombo District. Data used for analysis were totally based on primary data which was collected using a questionnaire developed by the researcher. The analysis was done by simple regression models using the software SPSS 15.0. According to the results, there is an impact on administrative practices on job performance, but it is not significant. Based on that it can be concluded employee’s job performance have been impacted by administrative practices, and the job performance can be improved by developing the administrative practices.

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John Baptist Kirabira, Angella Nalweyiso, Thomas Makumbi

Abstract: Foundry is one of the most energy intensive metallurgical industries. In Uganda, foundries are associated with large energy consumption necessitating the need to seek for ways to minimize their energy consumption. This study sought to establish the energy efficiency of the SMEs in Uganda with the view of devising means to reduce on their energy consumption. This was accomplished by studying the energy consumption trends in the industry using primary and secondary data obtained from a number of SME foundry operators in Uganda and basing on this data, energy efficiency and conservation measures have been devised. The major energy sources used in these foundries include used oil at a consumption rate of 72%, biomass (charcoal and firewood) at 21%, diesel at 6%, and electricity at 1%. The specific energy consumptions (SEC) of the firms studied range from 7.35 MJ/kg to 14.61 MJ/kg which is considerably on the higher side. The melting process consumes the biggest part of the total energy consumed, at 70% in the foundries. This necessitates the employment of more energy efficient melting technologies. Implementation of energy management programs in order to reduce energy requirements per unit of output is thus recommended. Different energy saving measures that can be employed in this sector were identified. Some of these can be implemented by adopting simple courses of action while others require high capital investment. It is thus recommended that these firms start by implementing the low cost solutions and progressively move to the capital intensive solutions.

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Sabhia Naz, Abu Waris Jamil, F.S. Sherani

Abstract: The highest level of organization is the organism, the living human being. The organism level represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to promote life. According to Unani system of medicine structural levels composing human body are elements, temperaments, humors, organs, vital forces, faculties and functions. They work cooperatively to promote well being of entire body. Virtually every of seven plays a role to understand human being but temperament provides a concept that helps us to make diagnosis and treatment. It has been explained by all Unani physicians and it is most important fundamental concept of Unani system of medicine. It defines disease as any alteration in normal temperament of the individual while maintenance of equilibrium of temperament is state of health. Thus temperament is very important concept of Unani medicine on which whole medicine relies; maintenance of which is health and deviation from normal is disease. According to this system of medicine humans can be categorized into four groups according to their temperament in their healthy state. These temperament groups are sanguine (hot and moist), choleric (hot and dry), phlegmatic (cold and moist) and melancholic (cold and dry). Almost all renowned Unani physicians have discussed the effective parameters to assess the temperament of individual though the number of these parameters may vary but touch is very important parameter discussed by almost all physicians and taken as first parameter by Ibne Sina. It includes skin roughness and smoothness along with other characteristics, but till now it is only assessed by palpation of skin which is a qualitative method hence depends on skills of investigator. So there is need to develop accurate method to assess the temperament. Now a days friction coefficient of skin is most widely accepted which can assess roughness and smoothness of skin quantitatively. So it can be a good parameter to assess the temperament.

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Dastagir, Sindhu Sameera, P. Naga Padma

Abstract: Azo dyes that are extensively used in textile industries are recalcitrant xenobiotic compounds causing a serious damage to the environment. Degradation of azo dyes being a necessity diverse dye dumped soils were screened for dye degrading yeasts. One efficient yeast isolate capable of decolorizing both mono-azo dyes and di-azo dyes was selected, immobilized by entrapment method and studied for decolorization efficiency. The isolate was morphologically, culturally and biochemically identified as Saccharomyces sp. Sodium alginate entrapped yeast cells were studied for decolorization of commercially available textile dyes having azo groups. The extent of colour removal in the culture medium was assessed through the decrease in dye absorbance of the supernatants. The immobilized yeast’s decolorization abilities were different and varied with inoculum size, incubation time and nutrients like carbon and nitrogen sources. The fermentation conditions like pH, temperature and aeration had no profound effect. The decolorization ranged from 70-100%. Complete decolorization was seen within 12 and 18 hrs depending on inoculum size. The immobilized beads with yeasts could be reused efficiently for three cycles. The dye degrading immobilized Saccharomyces isolate could be commercially significant as it is efficiently degrading both mono-azo and di-azo dyes, different dye waste waters in a semi-continuous manner and so could also be used for detoxification of industrial effluents.

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Ebhota, Williams S

Abstract: A healthy and effective R&D in engineering will guarantee large, strong, diversified, sustainable and competitive economy that will effectively harness the talents and energies of its people and responsibly exploits its natural endowments for a high standard of living and quality of life. This work discusses applied, fundamental, descriptive, analytical, qualitative, quantitative, conceptual and empirical research as various categories of research and takes a look at the relevance and the role R&D in engineering plays in national economic growth. It considers tertiary institutions, specialised research institutions and industries as the primary areas where R&D activities take place and pointed out inadequate funding, government’s insensitivity and lack of political will and inadequate R&D human capacity as the factors that have bedevilled R&D in Nigeria with consequence of low source of new product and processes, improved products and source of new market. The paper went further to discuss capacity building in reverse engineering, emerging technologies in manufacturing, R&D personnel, research facility and pro R&D government policies and concluded that the nation’s future global competitiveness depends on R&D in engineering.

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Ibrahim U. Haruna, Lateef L. Akintunji, Bello S. Momoh, Muhammad I. Tikau

Abstract: This paper is an attempt to theoretically analyse the performance of direct evaporative cooler in hot and dry climate with Kano being the study area. The performance of the cooler was determined at different air velocities at a saturation effectiveness of 50% to 90%. The determined parameters are the leaving air temperature, relative humidity, cooling capacity and the water consumption rates. The result shows that leaving air temperature of 21.90C and relative humidity of 82% were obtained with pad material of 90% saturation effectiveness. The cooling capacity and the water consumption rates are found to vary linearly with the saturation effectiveness. It is therefore axiomatic that direct evaporative coolers have high potential of providing thermal comfort for people in occupied spaces when moderate air velocities are used with pad materials of relatively higher saturation effectiveness.

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Zulkifli Maulana, Tutik Kuswinanti, Nadira R. Sennang, Syatrianty A. Syaiful

Abstract : This study aims to determine the genetic diversity of locally rice germplasm based on RAPD analysis. Totally eighten of locally rices were used in this research : Pare Ambo, Pare Bau, Pare Birrang, Pare Bumbungan, Pare Kobo, Pare Lalodo, Pare Lea, Pare Rogon, Pare Tallang, Pare Kamida, Pare Lambau, Pare Solo, Pulu Mandoti, Pare Lotong, Pallan, Mansur, Pare Pinjan and Pare Salle. Extraction of DNA was made according the method of Doley and Doley (1987) with modification. Molecular analysis was performed using six different RAPD primers, there were OPF-14, OPH-14, OPM-05, OPM-12, OPU-15 and OPX-09. PCR products were separated on 1.8% agarose gel and vizualised in EtBr solution. DNA bands were then analyzed with NTSYS program. The results showed a highly variation in the DNA band profiles, the bands number of each primer varied between 4-10 bands with an average of 7 bands from a total of 42 bands. Primers that generated most polymorphic DNA fragments are OPF-14 and OPU-15, as many as 10 fragments/bands. Dendrogram analysis separated 18 local rice accessions in three groups. Pare Pallan, Mansur, Lambau, Solo, Tallang and Lotong has similarity cooeficient of 96 %, while Pare Bumbungan has farther most similarity with other rice genotypes that only 35 %.

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Nimmy Berchmans, V. Geetha

Abstract: This paper proposes a ZVZCS asymmetrical full-bridge converter with high-voltage gain by different loads. The proposed converter features high-voltage gain, fixed switching frequency and clamped voltages across power switches and output diodes. The control of the converter is implemented with the asymmetrical pulse width modulation technique. The converter achieves zero-voltages witching (ZVS) of all power switches and Zero-current switching (ZCS) of output diodes. The energy shortage and the atmosphere pollution have led to more researches in renewable sources of energy. In this paper, PV module is modelled using Matlab/Simulink. The modeled PV cell act as the dc input source for the converter. The computer simulation of the converter is done using MATLAB/SIMULINK and is interfaced with the mathematical model of PV cell and various waveforms are presented in the paper.

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Santosh Dahifale, Ritukumari Pandey, Rahul Ballani, Sagar Ingle

Abstract: ADC is an application which enables the user to view and interact with Remote PC by using an Android phone via Internet. With this application the user can not only interact with the remote system of various operating systems(Linux, Unix, Windows ,Macintosh, etc. ) but can also perform several operations like mouse click operations, sending a text message, opening documents ,manipulating files, FTP. It uses a simple Bilinear Interpolation Algorithm for scaling remote system’s GUI with the android phone. It uses a SHA- I algorithm for OTP.

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Minal Nikose, Pratibha Mishra, Avinash Agrawal

Abstract: Proper use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can lower the rate of catastrophic failures, and increase the efficiency and productivity of industrial operations. Diversification of remote control mode is the inevitable trend of development of smart appliances. This paper proposes a review on remote control system of smart appliances based on Zigbee wireless sensor network. Status of the home appliances can be queried and controlled through the remote controller. The proposed work presents the design and implementation of a novel wireless sensor network based home security system with a modular self-reconfigurable remote controller.

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Mostafa Shehadi, Ghayas Lakkis, Kassem Hamze, Hussein Abou Hamdan, Ahmad Kobaissi,

Abstract: Improving different Lebanese genotypes is based on analyzing local genotypes and estimating genetic dissimilarity between them. As a result this study aim to detect the salinity tolerant genotypes based on two culture systems, the in situ sand based system and the stagnant nutrient solution system and assessing the phylogenetic relationships among the five different genotypes under study, based on 16 SSR loci. The study illustrated the tolerance of the genotype Tairaya at the germination stage while its sensitivity was emphasized at later stages of development. Moreover, Kamed El Louz, Aaitit and Bebnine were considered as tolerant at later stages as they possessed the lowest percentage of reduction of the parameters under study in the two culture systems. Eventually, the genotypes didn’t reflect the same tolerance pattern although the genetic differentiation between them was not significant.

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ABSTRACT: Adding security functions in existing Web application servers is now vital for the IS of companies and organizations. Writing crosscutting functions in complex software should take advantage of the modularity offered by new software development approaches. With Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP), separating concerns when designing an application fosters reuse, parameterization and maintenance. In this paper, we design a security aspect called AOPSec for detecting SQL injection and Cross Scripting Site (XSS) that are common attacks in web Servers This paper presents a brief description for the mostly used AOP approaches and analyzes them from a security point of view. AspectJ is then considered the most appropriate language to enforce security issues but at the same time it is not complete. This paper shows that some security crosscutting concerns need more means than those that are currently exist in AspectJ.

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Mohammed Rizk Awad, Taymoor Nazmy, Ismael Amr Ismael

Abstract: The BulkCarrier shipbuilding industry is marked by its global presence with ships being built in industrialized countries such as Japan, Europe, South Korea and China. The geographical distribution of new ship construction has show strong change starting from the original dominance of Europe to an increased role for Asian countries such as South Korea, Japan and China. The decision makers for strategic purchasing of marine companies greatly require an efficient, valid and fair tool to assist them in determining appropriate region to build from, which belongs to multi criteria Decision-Making problem. Most methodologies that deals with multi criteria Decision-Making even it deals with uncertainty problem need database to deal with the certainty portion, and it needs experts for more than one stage to give their opinions. In this paper, we present a consensus model for Group Decision-Making GDM problem with interval fuzzy preference relations to assist the decision maker to take the appropriate decision in short time under upset of data. We introduce an application example in choosing the best regional distribution of ship building market. The input data for this model were collected from expert persons, and the output is ranking of BulkCarrier shipbuilding region. The final rank of BulkCarrier shipbuilding region in year 2013 is China at the first then Europe , Japan and South Korea comes at the end.

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B. Srinivas, P.Naga Padma

Abstract: Exopolysaccharides like dextran produced by different microorganisms have a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and other industries. Dextran and its derivatives like iron dextran, clinical dextran, food grade dextran are rapidly emerging as new and industrially significant products. Dextran a polymer of glucose is produced using sucrose rich media and also requires efficient nitrogen sources for production. In the present study diverse organic nitrogen sources like yeast extract, soya bean meal, meat extract, beef extract, casein hydrolysate, bacterial peptone, corn steep liquor, inorganic nitrogen sources like sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, potassium nitrate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, ammonium phosphate and natural nitrogen sources like Bengal gram, red gram, black gram, green gram, horse gram, soybeans, cow pea were screened using statistical design like Plackett-Burman. An eight experimental design of Plackett-Burman was used and seven sources were screened. Broth analysis indicated presence of more fructose and less glucose. Dextran was recovered from broth by alcohol precipitation. The results indicated that there was higher dextran production in organic nitrogen sources like casein hydrolysate, natural nitrogen sources like black gram. Though inorganic nitrogen sources did not show good yield, but comparatively ammonium sulphate gave a positive response. These studies indicate that organic and natural nitrogen sources can be used for optimization of production media for commercial production of dextran.

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Hyam Nazmy, Mona Moustafa, Amer Mohamed, Abdel-Rahman Ahmed, Mostafa Yuness

Abstract: Mass size distributions of atmospheric aerosol particles were measured at four different regions in outdoor of El-Minia governorate (Upper Egypt). The study was conducted during March 2012 to March 2013. Measurements were performed using low pressure Berner cascade Impactor as an aerosol sampler. The Impactor operates at 1.7 m3/h flow rate with aerodynamic "cut-off" size range from 0.06 up to 16 µm. Measurement results show that the log normal size distributions in outdoor were bimodal in nature corresponding to accumulation and coarse modes The variation obtained at the different sampling sites could be attributed to the different aerosol particles emitted sources in each area environment as well as the climatic outdoor changes.

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Yared Lemma, Daniel Kitaw, GulelatGatew

Abstract: This study examines the role of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on technology transfer inEthiopian metal and engineering industries. Different researches and reports indicate thattechnological inflow through FDI is an important conduit in promoting local industries toupgrade and to be competitive in the market place. A quantitative survey of 47 metal andengineering industries indicates that the technological capability of local industries toadopt, modify and improve a given technology is very weak, un-collaborative operatingenvironment between foreign and local industries and the national technology policies arevery weak to be benefited from the FDI. In this regard, policies are putted and frameworkis developed putting the contributors to effectively transfer technologies to Ethiopian metaland engineering industries from FDI.

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Khizer Hayat Khuhawar, Zeng Jianqiu, Samo Farkhunda, Yuan Ye

Abstract: This paper discusses the role of information and communications technologies (ICTs) to reduce the poverty in rural areas of Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Pakistan is now on the way of development and ICT is considered as a magic tool which can boost the economic growth further enhanced the Socio-Economic development. In this paper, poverty profile along with its root cause and socio-economic condition will be analyzed. Finally, ICTs based model is proposed for rural areas which can promote economic growth through empowerment and opportunity so as to reduce the poverty level across rural areas of the country. By the implementation of proposed ICT based model, the rural sector could enjoy great advantages thus to improve their living standard.

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Thin Thin Soe, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: The research work focuses on issues of vehicle modeling incorporating wheel-terrain interaction and low-level control design taking into account uncertainties and input time delay. Addressing these issues is of significant importance in achieving persistent autonomy for outdoor UGVs, especially when navigating on unprepared terrains. The vehicle is driven in the skid-steering mode, which is popular for many off-road land vehicle platforms. In this research work, a comprehensive approach is proposed for modeling the dynamics of UGV. The approach considers the difference in speed between two outputs of the differential and the turning mechanism of the vehicle. It describes dynamics of all components in the vehicle driveline in an integrated manner with the vehicle motion. Given a pattern of the throttle position, left and right braking efforts as the inputs, the dynamic behavior of the wheels and other components of the UGV can be predicted. For controlling the vehicle at the low level, PID controllers are firstly used for all actuators. As many components of the vehicle exhibit nonlinearities and time delay, the large overshoots encountered in the outputs can lead to undesirable vehicle behaviors. To alleviate the problem, a novel control approach is proposed for suppression of overshoots resulting from PID control. As a result, the proposed approach can improve significantly system robustness and reduce substantially step response overshoot. Notably, the design is generic in that it can be applied for many dynamic processes. Knowledge of the interaction between the UGV and the terrain plays an important role in increasing its autonomy and securing the safety for off-road locomotion. The novel interaction model takes into account the relationship between normal stresses, shear stresses, and shear displacement of the terrain that is in contact with the wheels in deriving the three-dimensional reaction forces. Finally, all modeling and control algorithms are integrated into a unique simulator for emulating the vehicle mobility characteristics. In particular, the wheel’s slip and rolling resistance can also be derived to provide useful information for closed-loop control when the UGV is navigating in an unknown environment.

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Avwiri, G.O., Olatubosun, S.A.

Abstract: Radionuclide concentration of soil samples from selected dumpsites within Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria was determined. In-situ measurements were carried out using Radalert Nuclear Radiation Monitor and a Geographical Positioning System (GPS). Two soil samples each from ten selected dumpsites were collected. Gamma Ray Spectrometry analysis was carried out on the samples to determine specific activity using NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The measured in-situ equivalent dose rate ranged from 0.891 mSv/yr to 1.592 mSv/yr with an average of 1.261±0.693 mSv/yr for all the locations with seven locations having values below the internationally permissible threshold. The activity concentration of the soil samples obtained through gamma spectrometry analysis ranged from 32.21 Bq/Kg to 100.10 Bq/kg for 232Th, 29.16 Bq/Kg to 61.18 Bq/Kg for 238U and 222.15 Bq/Kg to 1166.99 Bq/Kg for 40K with an average of 62.61±18.97 Bq/Kg, 41.96±5.53 Bq/Kg and 643.10±5.94 Bq/Kg for 232Th, 238U and 40K respectively. Air absorbed dose rate calculated ranged from 57.05 nGy/hr to 123.10 nGy/hr with an average value of 86.71±12.86 nGy/hr for the locations which is higher than the world-average value of 55 nGy/hr for soil. The equivalent radiation exposure obtained using the radionuclide concentration for the locations is between 0.50 mSv/yr and 1.08 mSv/yr with an average of 0.76±0.11 mSv/yr which is below the permissible threshold of 1.0 mSv/yr for soil. Generally, the radiation burden and associated risk posed by the municipal wastes on the studied environment and scavengers is minimal.

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Sheikh Naunehal Ahamed, Jadav Vijay Kumar, Mohammed Mushraffuddin, Parimi Sravani

Abstract: The research aims at modeling a rocket case to accomplish mission requirements. The various reasons that may cause case failures are improper design and analysis, lack of non-destructive tests during critical phases of fabrication, negligence in service conditions, improper material selection. Hence it’s very essential to model rocket with perfect designing and analysis. This journal entails the designing of rocket case using Catia V5, meshing with Hypermesh and Analysis with Ansys, where different materials like Aluminium and Epoxy-carbon are selected. The results focus on the deformation produced under same loading condition in two different materials and studying the results.

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A. R. Barot, V. R. Patil

Abstract: V-engines are subjected to noise and vibrations caused due to unbalanced inertial forces and moments, which makes its operation quite complicated. In order to minimize these vibrations, the unbalanced forces and moments are analyzed on a reciprocating engine for different V-angles. Firing order has a great influence on balancing of V-engine. This paper aims at making a major contribution for selecting the V-angle for six cylinders V-engine based on dynamic behavior of reciprocating engine. V-angle and firing order is decided by primary and secondary forces and moments. But theoretical analysis of primary and secondary forces and moments is very difficult, complex and time consuming. To overcome this difficulty, a Matlab program is developed. This program calculates the various unbalanced primary and secondary forces and couples for different V-angles in V6-engine along with different possible firing order so one can select proper combination of firing order and V-angle for optimum unbalance forces and moments.

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Shahjahan Ahmed, Mohammad Mahmudul Alam Mia, Sushanta Acharjee, Md. Abdul Awal Ansary

Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to show the potential use of a solar panel using multiple fixed directed mirrors or aluminum foils as a reflector instead of ordinary solar tracker in rural perspective of Bangladesh. The solar panel only receives direct beam of sunlight and diffused sunlight. Experiment shows that if we use reflector (mirror or aluminium foil) to concentrate sunlight onto PV panels, each individual panel receives a lot of additional power. As a result, the number of solar panels needed to produce a certain amount of power can be reduced, and the money spent on ordinary solar trackers which are more expensive than reflectors is saved. This, therefore, is a cost-effective way - which allows solar energy to be more accessible to the rural people of Bangladesh-to generate more amount of solar power with less number of panels and a lower cost. With the help of multimeter we recorded the received power of a photovoltaic solar panel using reflector (mirror or aluminium foil) and without using reflector and compared this for calculating the performance of a panel. The simulation program is created in Matlab. Different assumptions are taken to make the system realistic and to reduce the complexity.

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Paulmathew, Venkatesh. A

Abstract: This paper investigates different dc-link voltage control strategies in a three-phase four-wire z-source hybrid active power filter (Z-source HAPF) for reactive power compensation. By using direct current (current reference) pulse width modulation (PWM) control method, to achieve dc-link voltage self-charging function during Z-source HAPF start-up process, the dc-link voltage control signal feedback as reactive current component is more effective than the traditional method as an active current component. However, when the Z-source HAPF is performing dynamic reactive power compensation, this dc-link voltage control scheme will influence the reactive power compensation, and thus, makes the Z-source HAPF lack of success to carry out dynamic reactive power compensation. In this paper, a novel dc-link voltage control scheme for Z-source HAPF is proposed so that the dc-link voltage control with start-up self charging process can be obtained as well as providing dynamic reactive power compensation. Representative simulation and experimental results of the three-phase four-wire centre-spilt Z-source HAPF are presented to verify all deductions, and also show the effectiveness of the proposed dc-link voltage control scheme in dynamic reactive power compensation.

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Abel Joy, Akhila H, Annie Chacko

Abstract: The PHR enables patients to manage their medical records in a centralized way which greatly facilitate the storage, access and sharing of personal health data. These details are locked by a central server in the hospital. But the security over the data is loosed while the data is sent to a requester. In this paper, we describe a new scheme for the secure data handling. The CP-ABE scheme is used for this purpose. In this scheme each user’s private key is associated with set of attribute representing these capabilities and an encrypted cipher text such that only users whose attribute satisfy a certain policy can decrypt.

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Nilar Lwin, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: Kalman and PID controller are used to design UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicles) formation flight control system for speed and pitch angle. UAV adjusted the PID parameters to realize control stability of UAV flight. The simulation results will show that Kalman and PID controller have better dynamic performance than the traditional controller in respect of simpler design, higher precision, easier implement, etc. At the same time, the control effect will be significantly improved. In addition, Kalman & PID control is superior in short transition, good stability, anti-disturbance, good control and etc, it also fulfills the requirement of real-time and accurate control.

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B.Prabhakaran, A.Murugan

Abstract: Nowadays, Internet and digital media are getting more popular. So, the need and requirement for secure transmission of data also increasing rapidly.A given input video file is converted into frame sequences and one of frame will be selected to conceal the secret data for secured data communication. The proposed technique uses chaos crypto system for encrypting a secret text data into cipher text to avoid data hacking issues. After data encryption, the data hider will conceal the secret encrypted data into the selected frame using adaptive embedding algorithm. Although encryption achieves certain security effects, they make the secret messages unreadable and unnatural or meaningless. These unnatural messages usually attract some unintended observers’ attention. The data hiding technique uses the adaptive LSB replacement algorithm for concealing the secret message bits into the image in frequency domain. An Integer wavelet transform is used to determine the high frequency components for effective data concealing for preserving image quality. In the data extraction module, the secret data will be extracted by using relevant key for choosing the pixel coefficients and it will be decrypted to get original data using encryption key. Finally the data encryption and hiding will be analyzed based on image and data recovery.

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Sastry V. Emani

Abstract: This theory predicts the existence of smallest particle Pe. Proposes calculations of smallest particle radius possible in the universe and to calculate the limit of maximum energy any particle can attain using Planck Maxwell and Einstein’s equations along with some fundamental assumptions. This theory shows that the equations involved for calculation of Energy of the smallest particle derived from only of Physical Constants. This information may help lead to the fundamental question of where the universe began and might lead to new discoveries.

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A. Benabdeslam, M.A. Berrady, M. Khermaz, A. Lahlou M. Mahfoud, M.S. Berrada, M. Elyaacoubi

Abstract: Prior pure hip dislocation in its obturator variety is exceptional. It still reflects a high-energy trauma and may compromise the functional prognosis of the hip secondary necrosis of the femoral head. It is reported the case of a patient who, following an accident on the highway, presented a pure anterior obturator hip dislocation. The dislocation was reduced under general anaesthesia in an emergency. Post-reduction, the hip was stable, joint discharge was recommended for 6 weeks and then rehabilitation. After falling two years we did not notice any signs of necrosis of the femoral head and there is no functional impairment.

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M. Zeeshan

The rapidly increasing population, the technological and industrial booms have brought enormous problems and degradation of the environment. Water pollution and water scarcity is an emerging problem in Pakistan. Pakistan has no effective collection and treatment of domestic and Industrial Wastewater. Due to the shortage of water in Pakistan, we should go for new water resources. Wastewater reuse after treatment is a reliable water resource for irrigation. In case study of Faisalabad, wastewater of the city is treated by using waste stabilization ponds and evaluated the effluent quality as a function of cost. The results shows that by increasing the number of ponds the ultimate cost of the project will increase and area requirement will be more, six (6) parallel series of anaerobic, facultative than that will be high in coliform, but if one maturation pond is added then coliform reduces but not in the range to WHO guideline for unrestricted crops, by adding four ponds the values will be in range but adding more maturation ponds will increase cost of the project.

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Samuel Lihan, RohayaMohd Nor, Rose Nanju, Sidiah John Siop, Rekaya Vincent Balang, Constance Rinen Justin Wah, Nordiana Ahmad Nordin, Rudy Ujang

A research team from Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) consisting of researchers from three different faculties has visited certain parts ofBaram which were Marudi, Long Lama, Long Bedian and Long San to assess the awareness of influenza outbreak and preventive measures among the rural communities. The team also investigates the information processing and styles, including the engagement and utilization of media by the rural communities which is vital for effective risk communication in any activity related to public health campaign. A five-day trip from UNIMAS to all the study locations, starting from 14th of May until 18th of May 2012, has enabled the research team to gatherfeedback via survey and interviews to assess the level of awareness, knowledge and health practices among the rural communities with regard to dealing with potential influenza pandemic outbreaks. Focus group interviews conducted at Long Bedian and Long San have further permitted the research team to gather the community feedback in relation to barriers in attaining effective risk communication using media and other channels in public health campaign activities targeted for rural communities of Sarawak. Health education talk was also given to the local community during this trip. The team had also enjoyed the privileges of sharing and promoting UNIMAS, in conjunction with its 20th anniversary, to the local students and parents throughout the research journey. Some important findings inferred from this research expedition include the relatively low level of basic knowledge about H1N1 pandemic among the respondents. However, good percentage of participants has some knowledge to certain important preventive measures including hand washing, cover nose and mouth when sneezing, avoid crowded area, and throwing tissue into rubbish bin after use. On the methods the respondents obtain access to information about swine flu outbreak, a big number of respondents rely on TV, radio and newspaper to obtain information pertaining to the H1N1 outbreak. Besides that, most respondents gained H1N1 information through their family members and friends, as well as government health talk or campaigns and posters that provided related H1N1 information. Printed materials that are not translated into their mother-tongue is the most common barrier related to communication channel that respondents have experienced in understanding the information about H1N1. The main challenge faced by the communities is the high illiterate level in the written common English language. Furthermore, the complex terminologies used in the disease understanding is a big issue for them.

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Dinah Aninakwah-Boahene, Andrews Apraku, Mary Adu-Kumi

Abstract: An investigational study on Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness was conducted in Bui, a town in the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana. This disease has recorded high values in this area of study and has been of national concern. The core aim of the studies was to assess the perception of the community members on causes, effect and control of Onchocerciasis in Bui Township. A survey was conducted to obtain primary data from 100 respondents in three communities in the Bui Township and data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using Microsoft excel. The outcome of the study indicated 99% of respondents were aware of the presence of blackfly, whiles 79% were knowledgeable about blackfly bite as the major cause of Onchocerciasis. Yearly treatment of the disease with a single-dose of Ivermectin within the three communities by the government through the ministry of health was established by the investigation. The study revealed a positive perception by Onchocerciasis-infected persons in the area regarding the causes, effects and control of disease. However, other findings indicated the awareness of the communities on the socio-economic and psychological effects of the disease and therefore has relatively high expectations from the government to curb the disease. The study therefore recommends further studies on the effectiveness of the yearly single dose in the treatment of Onchocerciasis.

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P.A. Ejegwa, Edibo O. P.

Abstract: The axiomatic definition of distance measure between intuitionistic fuzzy multisets (IFMSs) is emphasized. We transformed the four existing distance measures between intuitionistic fuzzy sets to intuitionistic fuzzy multisets since the later is the extension of the former. We use a given example of IFMSs A,B,C in X such that A⊆B⊆C; to verified whether the axioms of the definition of distance measure are satisfiedin the four distance measures adapted from IFSs. We also gave some other distance measures, deduced a proposition and proved respectively.

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P. A. Ejegwa, J.A. Awolola

Abstract: We proposed the application of IFMS in binomial distributions. This is possible as we assumed theoretically that the probability of the membership degrees is constant for each of the trials and that the intuitionistic fuzzy multiset index is negligible i.e. π≈0. We made used of the Bernouilli trials formula to find the binomial probability of intuitionistic fuzzy multisets.

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Dr. Maria Aziz

Abstract: Purpose: Prolong labour contributes to increased perinatal and maternal morbidity. Inhibitory impulses in the form of spasm often impair the dilatation of cervix and prolong the duration of labour. This study was undertaken to compare the effect of Tramadol Hydrochloride And Drotavarine Hydrochloride on duration of labour and rate of cervical dilatation and compare it with control group. Method-300 patients were taken up for study. Of these 300 patients both primipara & multipara were included. In the multipara, only second para (OH=1001) were included to ensure comparability. 100 patients served as control. Majority of patients belong to age group 21-25 in all three groups. This is a Hospital based randomized study to evaluate the acceleration effect of Tramadol and Drotaverine on dilatation of cervix in both primigravida & multigravida with additional analgesic effect of Tramadol and compare it with control group,to note the time interval between injection of Tramadol and Drotaverine & delivery and compare it with control group,to determine deleterious effects if any of drugs affecting either fetus or mother in primi & multi patients with no high risk factors. Results - Both Tramadol and Drotaverine reduce the duration of first stage, less operative interference was required into two study groups in comparison to control group, in both primpara and multi para patients. Results of both drug are comparative.Among primiparous patients, two each of Tramadol and Drotaverine group had forcep delivery and two patients of Tramadol group had undergone lower segment cesarean section.Among multiparous patients, four patients of Drotaverine group delivered by lower segment cesarean section. Both the drugs had no significant action on the uterine contraction .Both the drug reduce the duration of active phase of labour and there who significant increase of rate of cervical dilatation in Tramadol and Drotaverine group compared to control group.Both the drugs had no significant effect on duration of second and third stage of labour. There was no significant difference in the APGAR score of babies delivered with the aid of Tramadol and Drotaverine as compared to control group.Both the drugs had minimal side effects and complications. Conclusion: It can be opined that Tramadol hydrochloride is a good cervical dilator and its effects is comparable to Drotaverine hydrochloride but due to its added analgesic effects, Tramadol can be preferred over Drotaverine hydrochloride and other cervical dilators for augmentation of labour.But further studies are required to have the data sufficient enough to establish the drug as better cervical dilator than Drotaverine.

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S. I. Khassaf, A. T. Jasim, F.K. Mahdi

Abstract: In this research effect of rice husk ash (RHA) on Fresh and Hardened Properties of concrete which used to reduction the seepage in the canal lining was studied. To establish the suitable proportion of RHA for the partial replacement of cement, Concrete specimens was molded with 10%, 20%, and 30% of (RHA) replacing the cement, and measured it to workability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, dryings shrinkage, The results were compared with the concrete mix that does not contain RHA. The obtained results indicated that it was a significant reduction of workability in fresh concrete with the increase amount of RHA content in concrete, and it was an increase in the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength by increased of RHA% until 20% , The maximum increment is around 10.5%and 11% for the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength respectively then it were decrease with the increase of RHA to 30%, the decrease was around 17 % and 10.5% for compressive strength and tensile splitting strength respectively. The test of drying shrinkage indicated that it was decreased with increased of RHA%, the maximum decreased given by 30% RHA it was about 28% of normal concrete shrinkage after 90 days age.

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Anupam Barh, Meenakshi Joshi, M. Esakkimuthu, Pankaj, N.K.Singh

Abstract: Climate is an important factor for agricultural production. The climatic change has potentially threatened the present sustainability in agriculture sector. Very high losses of agricultural production –including in production of food crops, are expected to occur, especially in Africa and South Asia. The impacts of climate change are already visible. A network of 15 centres of Indian Council for Agriculture Research (ICAR) has reported that apple production is declining in Himachal Pradesh due to inadequate chilling. The climatic change has potentially threatened the present sustainability and motivated for research in this direction during the last decade. As Uttrakhand hills are rich of diversity for fruit and various crops so this diversity can be utilised for designing the crop for climate change. Our paper includes the model by which the crop can be designed for future changes which include three main approaches: Pre-breeding, Predicted climate change simulation and pressurized invitro- selection. Pre-breeding is the art and science of identifying desired traits in otherwise unprepossessing and unpromising plants, often wild, and starting to incorporate them into modern varieties in the context of emerging stresses due to climate change. Pre-breeding is a vital step in the link between conservation and use of plant genetic resources. Thus it is first step for genetic enhancement of crop. The second step of designing the crop is possible climate change and third is invitro selection. This selection allows well suited genotypes to select for altered environment.

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Dr. Ibrahim Awwad Salem Mashagba

Abstract: This study aims to identify the total quality management and its impact on the efficiency of academic performance in Jordanian universities , through the knowledge level of the application of the principles of total quality management in the University of Jordan, from the viewpoint of its employees ( faculty members ) and to identify the most TQM principles applied in the university as seen employees faculty members and activating the role of interested and administrators Jordan University , and other universities to apply the principles of total quality management and work on enhancing them as well as to identify the requirements of the overall quality of the educational system and to identify the appropriateness of the education system at the University of Jordan to total quality management . So is the problem of the study in a survey TQM principles applied in the University of Jordan, as perceived by its employees through a four principles of quality requirements in education, follow-up of the educational process, the development of human resources (faculty members), and academic administration decisions. The study found many of the recommendations the most important need to focus senior management in educational institutions on the process of applying the principles of total quality management to improve the system of university education and guide the process of decision-making in Jordanian universities , especially the University of Jordan in the preparation of the cadres of the Academy are eligible to lead the process of change and the impact on efficiency and productivity to reach the learning outcomes high quality and the need for attention out of total quality management as a specific quality assurance process in organizations that do not aim to profit any service organizations such as educational.

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Rostami zadeh E., Majd A., Arbabian S

Abstract: The study of electromagnetic fields on plants growth and other living beings are one of the most important subjects which attract manyresearchers, attention therein. various plants react against electromagnetic fields with different levels of intensities. In this research, the effects of electromagnetic fields on germination of seeds property of Urtica dioicaL. were studied .Seeds of this plant were put under electromagnetic field by 0.8 and 1.6mT for duration of 5,10,20 minutes. In addition this test was performed at first on dry seeds and after 48 hours on wet seeds. Under theseconditions, the velocity of germination and percentage of treated seeds were increased againstcontrol. Except on item in which germination percentage was decreased against control about wet seeds which put under electromagnetic field by 0.8 for5 20 minutes duration. Among treated samples, electromagnetic field by 0.8mT in 5 minutes duration and 1.6mT in 10 minutes duration in dry seeds andalso for 5 minutes duration in wet seeds showed the fastest germination among treated.

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Dike U. Ike, Anthony U. Adoghe, Ademola Abdulkareem

Abstract: Improved Quality of Service and cost reduction are important issues affecting the telecommunication industry. Companies such as Airtel, Glo etc believe that the solar powered cellular base stations are capable of transforming the Nigerian communication industry due to their low cost, reliability, and environmental friendliness. Currently, there are several research efforts directed on the use of solar power in the Nigerian telecommunication industry. In this paper, the importance of solar energy as a renewable energy source for cellular base stations is analyzed. Also, simulation software PVSYST6.0.7 is used to obtain an estimate of the cost of generation of solar power for cellular base stations. The simulations were carried out for the Grid-Connected and the Stand-Alone solar power systems by using Benin City, Nigeria as a case study. The PVSYST6.0.7 simulation results shows that the power generation costs for the grid connected solar powered system is less when compared to standalone solar powered system in Benin City, Nigeria.

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Audu, M.O., Isikwue, B.C.

ABSTRACT: This work investigated the atmospheric conditions over Makurdi in order to access the availability of solar radiation, due to the fact that solar radiation reaching the Earth’s surface depends on the climatic condition of the location. The monthly mean daily global solar radiation and air temperature data for Makurdi covering a period of 10 years (2000-2010) were obtained from Air Force Base, Makurdi. The model for shortwave solar energy balancing at the edge of the Earth atmosphere was adopted in this work. The results show that the global solar radiation and the albedo depict direct opposite relationship while the Earth’s surface temperature varies directly with the global solar radiation since surface temperature is the reflection of both the duration and intensity of solar radiation. The highest albedo of 0.7 was obtained in August; the peak of cloud activity while the lowest albedo of 0.5 was recorded in November; when it was relatively cloudless and dustless. The albedo simulated corresponds with that obtained in other locations when compared.

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Ijeoma, N. B.

ABSTRACT: This study examined the impact of trade liberalization on annual export trade in Nigeria using Time Series Analysis. The objective of this study is to determine the trend of annual export in Nigeria, to ascertain the best model that best describes the behavior of annual export trade in Nigeria and to determine the level of association between import restriction and export promotion in Nigeria. The source of data employed in this study is secondary data obtained from the Central bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin 2010. The statistical tools used include the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test, curve estimation analysis, and the S-Curve trend analysis. The result of the analysis showed that the behavior of annual Export in Nigeria over the observed period has unit root with a t-test statistic values of -1.6951 and a p-value of 0.7133 which falls on the acceptance region of the hypothesis assuming a 95% confidence level. Also, it was denoted that the model which fits best on estimating annual Export in Nigeria given Year is the S-Curve model with a coefficient of determination value of 93.8%. This result implies that the observed period (Year) was able to explain about 93.8% behavior of annual export in Nigeria. The trend of annual export was found to be steeply increasing from the year 2003 which could be attributed to stability of democracy in Nigeria. It was revealed that there is a strong association between import restriction and export promotion in Nigeria.

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Nwoke, V.U; Nnuka E.E; Odo, J.U, Obiorah S.M.D

Abstract: The effect of process variables on the mechanical properties of surface hardened mild steel quenched in water and brine was investigated. The process variables are treatment temperature and soaking time and the mechanical properties studied are impact strength, Rockwell hardness, ductility and micro-hardness. Pack carburization method of surface hardening was used. Standard tests and analytical methods were used for the research and results obtained showed that impact strength decreased by 82.14% and 96.43% when quenched in water and brine respectively, as compared to the control specimen, the impact strength of which was 84J. Rockwell hardness increased by 15.09% and 23.27% when quenched in water and brine respectively. Micro-hardness also increased by 120.55% and 45%.5%when quenched in water and brine respectively while ductility decreased significantly from 12.73% to 3%. The process variables investigated affected the mechanical properties as increase in treatment temperature and soaking time increased the surface hardness and decreased the impact strength and ductility of mild steel while micro-hardness and Rockwell hardness increased. Mild steel quenched in water was found to be harder than that quenched in brine.

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Melkamu Bezabih Yitbarek, Fekadu Regasa

ABSTRACT: This review was carried out to provide a piece of information about reproductive immunization on domestic and wild animals. The immune system of animals plays an important role in reproduction. For inducing or controlling fertility according to human’s desire, interventions of immunization are an important aspect of management in domestic and wild animals. Immunization against reproductive hormones such as gonadotrophic hormones, gonadal steroids, oxytocin, prostaglandin F2α, inhibin, luteinising hormone releasing hormone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone has provided a significant effect on reproduction of animals. Immunisation against gamete antigens such as against sperm antigens and zona pellucida antigens has shown also a profound effect on reproduction of domestic animals (cattle, sheep, goats, poultry, pigs, horses) and on wild lives. Therefore carrying out different types of reproductive immunization based on their scientific perspectives and procedures with a great precaution helps to induce or suppress of fertility in animal reproduction.

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ISSN 2277-8616
IJSTR - January 2022 - Volume 11 Issue 1