International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

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Volume 2- Issue 4, April 2013 Edition

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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Okutoyi Joel, Edwards Kochung, Eric K. Kabuka, Were Michael Charles, Adoyo Peter Oracha

ABSTRACT: - Information from Educational Assessment and Resource Centers (2010) in Kakamega County indicates that the number of learners with Hearing Impairment in regular primary schools increased since the inception of Free Primary Education (FPE). For example in 2003 there were 51 learners with HI, 2004 (65), 2005 (73), 2006 (90), 2007 (102), 2008 (133), 2009 (161), and in 2010 there were 206 learners with hearing impairment. There were 121 learners with HI in class three and four. The schools face a number of challenges; among them; communication barrier, negative attitude, inadequate teaching-learning materials and equipment, and inadequate personnel. The purpose of this study was to establish Support services and resources for inclusion of learners with HI in regular primary schools. Objectives of the study were to: establish support services and resources available in regular primary schools to help learners with hearing impairment cope. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The population consisted of 121 learners with HI, 1584 hearing learners, 36 teachers and 18 head teachers. Simple random sampling was used to select 480 hearing learners while saturated sampling was used to select 109 learners with HI, 32 teachers and 16 head teachers. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used for data collection. A pilot study was conducted on ten percent of population to determine reliability of instruments using test-retest method, where 12 learners with HI, 144 hearing learners, 4 class teachers and 2 head teachers were selected. The reliability coefficient for hearing learners questionnaire was 0.72, learners with HI questionnaire was 0.81, teachers questionnaire was 0.74. Content validity of the instruments was ascertained by experts from both Special Needs Education and Educational Psychology departments of Maseno University. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages and mean were used to analyze quantitative data. Qualitative data was organized, put into various categories and reported in an ongoing process as themes and sub-themes emerged. The findings revealed that support services and resources used were; SNE teachers (mean of 4.1), and in-service teacher training in SNE (65.6%). It was recommended that schools to employ personnel to teach learners with Hearing Impairment, and put up resource centers. The study is significant because its findings may help teachers, learners with HI, hearing learners, school administration and other education stakeholders to understand support services and resources needed by learners with HI.

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S. E. Suliman, M. A. Abdalla

Abstract: - This study was carried out to detect aflatoxin M1 in dairy cattle milk in Khartoum State - Sudan. A total of 143 fresh milk samples were randomly sampled during 2011 in Khartoum. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect aflatoxin M1 in the milk samples. AFM1 was found in 100% of the examined milk samples; 141 (98.6%) of the samples had AFM1 greater than the maximum tolerance limit (50ng/L). AFM1 levels in the samples in Khartoum state appear to be a serious public health problem.AFM1 contamination in the samples of dairy cattle milk in Khartoum state appears to be prevalent and may pose a public health problem at the moment. Awareness must be conveyed to producers, handlers and specialists.

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Ayamdoo J. A, Demuyakor B, Dogbe W, Owusu R.

Abstract: - Parboiling is a set of operations needed for the production of a gelatinized product. Scientifically it is a thermal treatment process done on rice and other cereals. Water and heat are two essential elements to transform the natural cereal into "parboiled" cereal. In rice, it is done to produce gelatinized or parboiled rice. Parboiling, if examined carefully has other scientific benefits beyond easy milling and reducing broken grains. Unfortunately, the technology has received little attention in terms of research as far as food processing or preservation is concern. As part of an ongoing research to assess the extent to which parboiling affect the migration of vitamin B1, a preliminary survey was conducted between October, 2012 and December, 2012 in the three northern regions of Ghana to elucidate the scientific principles behind the practice and to what extend processors understand these principles. This work also aimed at high lighting the practice so as to encourage people to adapt indigenous technologies which may have more beneficial health effects. Eighty (80) processors in the three northern regions drawn by purposive sampling methods were interviewed using structured and semi structured questionnaires. The results showed that 100% of the people engaged in parboiling business are women with over 70% of them having no formal education and therefore are unaware of any effects of parboiling on nutritional elements. It became clear that parboiling increased the flavour and taste of the rice thus making it attractive to eat. However, the respondents only mentioned less broken grains, easy dehusking, ease of cooking, increase quantity, better prices, and parboiling being a norm as some of the reasons why they carry out rice parboiling. From the outcome of this survey it's recommended more studies be done on the subject to ascertain the nutritional impact of the practice. Also, the processors need to be trained on parboiling and nutrition to build their knowledge on the scientific advantages of the process to enable them improves their practices.

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Sani A. Fakai, M. O. Ibrahim, A. Danbaba

ABSTRACT: - Outbreaks of cholera occur suddenly, if not controlled, can spread like wild bush fire. In this work, a determistic mathematical model of cholera was developed from some modifications of previous cholera models. A system of three differential equations was used. Analysis was performed on the Jacobian matrix assuming zero Vibrio Cholerae environments. The basic reproduction number Ro was obtained as εαp/(k(γ+τ)(g-l+ω)) and the critical number or threshold Sc was also obtained as (k(γ+τ)(g-l+ω))/εα . These two values are used to predict occurrence of cholera outbreak in a community. Zero equilibrium state is stable when Ro < 1 and unstable when Ro > 1, these conditions are explained in respect to the model's parameters.

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S. Shunmugapriya, M. Saravanan

Abstract:- The intercommunications between the video devices using different standards are so much inconvenient, thus video codec supporting multiple standards are more useful and more attractive. In this brief, a low cost very large scale integration (VLSI) architecture is designed for multistandard inverse Discrete Cosine transform. It is used in multistandard decoder of MPEG-2, MPEG-4 ASP, and VC-1 .Two circuit share strategies, factor share (FS) an adder share (AS) are applied to the inverse transform architecture for saving its circuit resource. Pipelined stages are used in this Multistandard inverse transform to increase the operational speed.

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Aye Thandar Swe, Khin Khat Khat Kyaw

Abstract: - Electronic cash (e-cash) has been more and more popular in the electronic commerce transaction protocol. Ronggong Song and Larry Korba present their views on e-cash to improve Abe and Fujisaki's protocol. Their protocol achieves non-repudiation and anonymity services between customer and merchant. However, there still has weak fairness in their protocol. Therefore, we propose a modified e-cash protocol to avoid weak fairness. The properties of our protocol include: (1) fair exchange for everyone that include in the protocol (2) anonymity for the customer and (3) non-repudiation for the customer, merchant and bank.

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Mathieu Nahounou BLEYERE, Soualio KAMAGATE, Leandre Kouakou KOUAKOU, Sylvie DOUMATEY, Paul Angoue YAPO

ABSTRACT: - OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate and characterize the iron metabolism in women during pregnancy living with HIV and following antiretroviral therapy. METHODOLOGY: In this context, 140 HIV positive pregnant women followed at the Integrated Centre for Bioclinical Research of Abidjan were enrolled. Their average age was 34.7 ± 0.5 years ranging from 18 to 45 years. Blood samples in tubes with anticoagulant and dry tubes were performed in each of selected women. Assays were carried out to determine assessment biological parameters of iron status. Programs Statistica Statsoft Windows version 7.1 and R 2.0.1 version Windows were used for statistical analyzes of data. The level of significance was defined for a p value < 0.05. RESULTS: The results of our investigations showed heterogeneity of all biological parameters except haematological indicators. In addition, evaluation of the biological parameters reported that 100% of women in the first trimester of pregnancy showed an abnormal iron status. This abnormal status consisted of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anaemia and inflammatory anaemia. This type of anaemia was highly observed with 90 % in early of pregnancy, 80 % in second and third trimesters of pregnancy respectively. This anaemia has been associated with evolutive stages of immunosuppression. However, no inflammatory anaemia associated with iron deficiency has been reported in subjects during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: In total, our observations indicated that iron metabolism was strongly altered during pregnancy among women infected with HIV.

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Sekanayo Ng'ambi, Robert Baars, Koos Kingma

Abstract:- This study was to understand how the Farmer Input Support Programme was assisting HIV and AIDS affected households in maize production and to identify the key factors hindering them from accessing the maize inputs in Kaputa district. The study focused on the farmer input support programme, the impact of AIDS on livelihood assets, the current maize production and household coping mechanisms. A case study among 20 households was conducted. The Farmer Input Support Programme had no effect on the HIV and AIDS affected households. Increased expenditure due to HIV and AIDS related illness and death, stigma and reduced labour due to loss of economically active adults were some of the factors hindering accessibility to the maize inputs. The households also lost productive assets to meet medical expenses and food requirements after the impact of the pandemic. The impact of AIDS also increased the workload of women who were already burdened with maize production by adding on the role of care giving. It was recommended to strengthen local seed systems that support low cost maize seed out-grower schemes, target affected households with alternative low cost soil fertility technologies to substitute fertilisers, form more nutritious and less labour intensive input packs and breed earlier maturing varieties to reduce their time spent in the fields.

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Sonali Pandey

Abstract: - In vitro efficacy of five neem formulation was tested against a phytoparasitic nematode Heterodera cajani. The neem products viz. neem leaf, neembark,nimboli, Achook and Nimin were tested against egg hatching of Heterodera cajani. The formulation was made in water and its various dilution was prepared i. e. S/30,S/45,S/60 and S/90. where S stands for stock solution. The maximum reduction (97. 6%) was observed at S/30 concentration of Nimin followed by Achook, Neem leaf, Nimboli and Neem bark treatments respectively at the same concentration. Maximum hatching of eggs or minimum inhibition in hatching was observed in S/90 neem bark(23). All the neem products show promising result in reducing hatching of Heterodera cajani larvae. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculataL.) or Chawla is an important kharif crop of Rajasthan state due to its ability to grow and yield at relatively low level of fertility. Cow pea has relatively high lysine content (470-497mg/g N) which makes it an excellent improver of protein quality over cereal grains(Bressani,1985). Along with food and feed value it also helps in improving soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the soil with the help of root nodules inhabited by nitrogen fixing Rhizobium spp. (Rachie, 1985). During last twenty years the plant family meliaceae and especially its members Azadirachta indica and Melia was identified as one of the most promising member and source of compounds with pest control properties. Mishra and Prasad (1973)found water soluble fractions of neemcake (water extract) to be toxic to Meloidogyne incognita. Akthar and Alam(1993) used Nimin and Achook for seed coating for the control of various plant parasitic nematodes. Mojumdar and Mishra (1994) found that seed treatment of chickpea with neem seed kernel ,neem seed coat, achook, neemark and nimbicidine were effective in reducing 2nd stage juvenile penetration of Meloidogyne incognita. Basu and Mojumdar (1998) reported that the mortality percentage of2nd stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita was directly correlated with the concentration of neem based products and the period of exposure. Singh and Singh (1994) reported highly reduction in hatching of eggs, emergence of larvae from cyst,immobilization and mortality of Heterodera cajani juveniles in cowpea plants treated with aqueous neem cake extracts. Pandey and Trivedi (2000)reported significant reduction in Heterodera cajani population in cowpea plants treated with "Nimin" and "Achook" along with neem leaf powder ,Neem bark and nimboli. Sharma et al (2000) evaluated neemark and nimbicidine for management of root-knot nematode in okra. Sivkumar and Gunasekaran (2011) reported the nematicidal activity of three botanical formulation based on neem oil and Pongamia oil against Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato, chilli and brinjal. Among three botanical formulation the formulation no 60 EC© was significantly superior and reduced the nematode population to 48. 6%. Now a days because the use of pesticides is subsidized in many countries due to pollution problems associated with the use of dangerous chemicals the environmental advantage of using safe material such as neem for pest control and different parts of neem viz. neem leaf, neem bark, neem seed and neem kernel as well as neem based pesticides is gaining importance in the present decade. In the present study the 'in vitro' efficacy of five types of neem products viz. neem leaf, neembark,nimboli, Achook and Nimin were tested against egg hatching of Heterodera cajani.

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M. A. P. Chamikara, Y. P. R. D. Yapa, S. R. Kodituwakku, J. Gunathilake

Abstract: -This paper presents an algorithm for efficient detection of the nearest police station for a specific position(coordinates). The algorithm is based on Geographic Information System (GIS), Geographic Positioning Systems (GPS) and the J48 classification algorithm. In other words, the proposed algorithm is an effective integration of these three. The salient feature of this algorithm is that it facilitates the detection of the current ground position on a digital map accurately and easily. The algorithm is tested by detecting the nearest police station of a given coordinate of the Sri Lankan map. The test results reported an average accuracy of 87.92%.

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Ammar A. Yousif Mohammed, Inzarulfaisham Abd Rahim

ABSTRACT: - This paper reviews the most important research works that was carried out on disc brake squeal and the factors affecting it. The paper starts with reviewing the experimental works conducted to analyze disc brake squeal. The next section focuses on review the simulation of disc brake system with finite element software in order to predict the squeal condition. The sequel was investigated by using modal participation method and complex eigenvalue analysis. The paper finished with a brief review of the available literature and also gives a result summery. The results of reading this paper will give the researcher a comprehensive collaboration between the theoretical and experimental works, beside that it will guide the researcher to find his research objective and problem statement easy. Understanding brake squeal and friction-induced noise requires complicated analysis due to complexity of brake system. The complete analysis can be done first by studying the brake friction relation at low speed and compare it with the experimental works. Second study the brake noise at high frequency and its relation with the contact stiffness. Third study the effect of changing the contact pressure and contact angle.

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Kalpana pawar (Mody), Vidhya Chauhan, G. D. Rathod, R. V. Saraykar

Abstract: - In this paper, it is observed that five dimensional Kaluza-Klein space-time in the presence of cosmic string in the frame work of Seaz and Ballester scalar tensor theory of gravitation, the string cosmological models corresponding to geometric string, Takabayasi string and Reddy string are same. Also some physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.

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Badii, K. B.; Bae, A., Sowley E. N. K.

Abstract: - A major constraint to the increased and sustainable production of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walpers) in the savanna ecology of Ghana is damage caused by field insect pests. Field studies were conducted during the 2012 cropping season at the Experimental Farms of the University for Development Studies, Nyankpala, Ghana, to evaluate the efficacy of six Lambda-cyhalothrin formulations namely; Clear, Controller-super, CW-Lambda, Kombat, Lambda-super and Zap on flower thrips, pod-borers, and pod-sucking bugs, and their effects on the grain yield and grain quality of cowpea. The randomized complete block design with three replications was used to obtain data on the abundance and incidence of the pests. The results showed that infestations of of all the target pests were significantly lower in the insecticide-treated plots than the control. Although significant differences were not observed in all the parameters evaluated among the insecticide treatments, cowpea plants treated with Lambda-super or CW-Lambda recorded the lowest infestation of flower thrips, pod-borers and pod-sucking bugs. Cowpea grain yield and grain quality from the Lambda-super treatment were statistically similar to that of CW-Lambda treatment but different from that of the other insecticides. Farmers can use Lambda-super or CW-Lambda for effective control of the major pests of cowpea for maximum grain yield and quality in the savanna ecology of Ghana.

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Badii, K. B. Asante, S. K., Sowley E. N. K.

Abstract: - Twenty-two cowpea genotypes, comprising eighteen elite lines from the CSIR-Savanna Agricultural Research Institute, and three improved cultivars from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture were evaluated for their susceptibility to infestation and damage by the storage beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus F. The assessment of their relative susceptibilities was based on oviposition, mean developmental period, adult emergence, seed weight loss and growth index. The results showed that the number of eggs laid on the seeds was significantly different among the genotypes. More eggs were laid on seeds of SARC 3-122-2, Marfo-Tuya and SARC 1-119-2, while SARC 1-132-1, SARC 1-91-1 and SARC1-13-2 recorded the least egg load. The mean development period was also significantly higher on SARC 3-122-2, SARC 4-75 and Marfo-Tuya (21.1-21.5 days), and lower on SARC 1-57-2, SARC 1-136-2 and Apabgaala (18.4-18.9 days). A significantly higher number of adults emerged from SARC 1-34-2, SARC 1-136-2 and Apabgaala, while SARC 1-132-1, SARC 3-103-1 and SARC 1-119-2 recorded the least. Moreover, Apabgaala, SARC 1-36-1 and Marfo-Tuya recorded the highest percentage weight loss (24.0-29.4%) while SARC 1-132-1, SARC 3-90-2 and SARC 3-103-1 recorded the least (4.3-9.6%). Overall, SARC 1-132-1, SARC 3-90-2, SARC 1-91-1, SARC 1-13-2 and SARC 3-103-1 consistently demonstrated high tolerance to to infestation by C. maculatus and therefore, should be promoted or incorporated into further breeding programmes to help minimize the high grain losses incurred by farmers during storage.

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Humphrey Danso, Simon Gyasi Nimako

Abstract: - This paper empirically examines the the use of computer and Internet facilities among the undergraduate construction technology students in UEW, Ghana. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 499 respondents using structured questionnaire personally administered. A usable 358 questionnaire were returned, representing 71.7% response rate and analysed using Structural Equation Modelling approach. The findings indicate that the proposed model has high goodness-of-fit for student's use of computer. It also found that access to Internet, classroom based learning with Internet and non-classroom based learning with Internet could be influenced by students' computer use. Theoretically, the study fills the dearth of conceptual models in understanding the critical determinants that influence students' computer use in the high education level in developing country context. It provides important implications for educational management in higher education. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge in the area of computer application in education.

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Dr. Ashoke Hazra

Abstract:- Present paper describe the preparation, solubility and conductivity study of Li-Picrate in different pecntage of propylene carbonate(PC) and tetrahydro furan(THF) mixture. From supported by absorbance data this primary study it may be concluded that room temperature solubility of Li-Picrate in mixed ( PC+THF ) solvents at different percentage is higher than the higher temperatures. Conductivity data helps us to concluded that if we go from room temperature to higher temperature conductance increases for Li-Picrate in ( PC+THF ) solvents at different percentage. It is due to the switch over of ion-pair to ionic dissociation of Li-Picrate salt.

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Jafar Ahamed, A, Loganathan, K, Ananthakrishnan, S.

Abstract: - The current study is focused on groundwater quality assessment of some parts of Thanthoni and Karur block in Karur District, Tamilnadu. Groundwater quality of the study area was evaluated for its suitability for drinking purposes by collecting ten samples during pre-monsoon season (August 2012) by adopting standard analytical techniques of APHA (2005). The water samples collected in the stations were analyzed for Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), major cations like calcium, magnesium, and anions like bicarbonate, chloride, nitrate, fluoride and sulphate. The study revealed that some water sources in the region are not suitable for drinking with respect to total hardness, calcium and magnesium content. Proper maintenance and treatment of water can improve the quality of drinking water and thereby a safer life.

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Afrina Sharmin, Md. Kamruzzaman

Abstract: - We flip a coin and it is head with a probability p = 1/2 purpose and tail with a probability q = 1 - p = 1/2. Consider if the coin land head we gain a dollar and if it is tail we lose a dollar. The game continues until a gambler who started with a finite, playing this fair game, go broke-known as the gamblers ruin problem. Also in the context of the random walk problem if one assumes that t denote the time at which the walker starting at the origin return to the origin. The purpose of this paper is to verify the theoretical prediction that the probability of the walker returns to the origin for the first time decay following the power law, F(t) ~ t^(-3⁄2). In addition we show that it has fat tail which is reminiscent of the power law degree distribution of the scale free complex network as predicted by the Barabasi-Albert Model.

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Asa Romeo Asa, Navneel Shalendra Prasad, Maw Maw Htay

Abstract: - Due to intensity of characteristics comprised in today's globalized markets whereby companies face fierce competition on a global scale which compel them to drive strategy to achieve firm performance objectives such as long-term profitability and customer loyalty. Balanced scorecard has become increasingly important strategic management tool that translates visions into profitable actions, particularly focusing on intangible assets such innovation, value chain, employee skills and knowledge levels, customer and supplier relationships, which are critical in providing the much-needed cutting-edge to an organizational setting. Therefore, this theoretical paper attempts to ascertain whether the implementation of a balanced scorecard as a paradigm measurement tool contributes to the improvement and synergy of business strategy and firm performance.

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Ammar A. Yousif Mohammed, Inzarulfaisham Abd Rahim

ABSTRACT: - In this paper a matix27 of ANSYS/General is used to simulate the contact between beam-disc systems. The beam was changed to different location and by using complex eigenvalue the stability was detected. An attempted is made to investigate the effect of system parameters, such as friction coefficient of the contact interaction between the beam and the disc, disc young's modulus and contact stiffness. The main idea of the complex eigenvalue method involves asymmetry arguments of the stiffness matrix which formulate the friction coupling. This idea is more efficient and provides more insight to the friction induced dynamic instability in the disc brake system. The simulation performed in this work present a guideline to reduce the squeal noise of disc brake system and showed that the most important source of nonlinearity is the contact frictional sliding between the disc and the beam. ANSYS allows for a convenient contact interface by specifying the contact surface and the properties of the interfaces. The complex eigenvalue is solved by using modal analysis with QRDAMP method. The analysis determined the stability of the system. When the system is unstable the real part of the eigenvalue becomes positive and squeal occurs. If the damping ratio is negative, the system becomes unstable, and vice versus. The result showed that even the beam and disc at natural frequency, no squeal could generated if the beam at anti-node position.

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P. G. Kulkarni, A. D. Sahasrabudhe

Abstract:- The rolling element bearingsare most critical components in a machine. Condition monitoring and fault diagnostics of these bearings are of great concern in industries as most rotating machine failures are often linked to bearing failures. This paper presents a methodology for fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and wavelet packet transform (WPT). In order to obtain the useful information from raw data,db02 and db08 wavelets were adopted to decompose the vibration signal acquired from the bearing. Further De-noising technique based on wavelet analysis was applied. This de-noised signal was decomposed up to 7th level by wavelet packet transform (WPT) and 128 wavelet packet node energy coefficients were obtained and analyzed using db04 wavelet.The results show that wavelet packet node energy coefficients are sensitive to the faults in the bearing. The feasibility of the wavelet packet node energy coefficients for fault identification as an index representing the health condition of a bearing is established through this study.

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Abhinay V. Dube, L.S.Dhamande, P.G.Kulkarni

Abstract:- Rolling element bearings are one of the major machinery components used in industries like power plants, chemical plants and automotive industries that require precise and efficient performance. Condition monitoring of these bearings is important to avoid failures. Several vibration monitoring techniques are available. Vibration analysis gets much advantage in factories as a predictive maintenance technique. In this study, vibration response of the rolling bearings to the defects on outer race, inner race and the rolling elements is obtained and analyzed. It shows that every defect excites the system at its characteristic frequency. The location of the faults is indicated by the FFT spectrum. Additionally, kurtosis, one of the statistical parameters is evaluated for the above cases of the bearing. The results reveal that vibration based monitoring method is successful in detecting the faults in the bearing.

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Mostofa Kamal Nasir, A.S.M. Delowar Hossain, Md. Sazzad Hossain, Md. Mosaddik Hasan, Md. Belayet Ali

Abstract: - Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is an emerging and promising technology, this technology is a fertile region for attackers, who will try to challenge the network with their malicious attacks. The security of VANET has mostly directed the attention of today research efforts, while comprehensive solutions to protect the network from adversary and attacks still need to be improved, trying to reach a satisfactory level, for the driver and manufacturer to achieve safety of life and infotainment. We discuss the need for robust VANET networks which is strongly dependent on their security and privacy features. VANET facing many challenges that been addressed in this research, we also discuss a set of solutions presented for these challenges and problems; and we made critics for these solutions.

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Maw Maw Htay, Guo Shunsheng, Asa Romeo Asa

Abstract: The automobile is one of the most complex consumer products in world market today. Manufacturing a vehicle is one of the highest tech operations in the manufacturing sector. Much of the technology and concept employed in vehicle manufacturing constantly change to meet growing demand for rapidly changing technology, higher quality, and improved safety, reduced emission, fierce competition and improved energy efficiency in new vehicles. Due to these growing global demands, quality information is an important measure in quality decision-making, quality control, quality plan and it directly affects the quality of product, therefore quality information is an important resource. Welding process is common in manufacturing industry especially for car component assembling. In this study the authors discussed the basic theory of the welding process and the quality information flow in auto manufacturing processes. The internal and external inspection flow of the welding workshop and the specific information flow of the welding process were also discussed.

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H. Asare-Anane, A.T. Bawah , B. Osa-Andrews , R Adanu, E.K. Ofori, S.A Bani R.O Ateko E.A. Tagoe, A.K. Nyarko

Abstract: - Lipid profile has been a useful tool for the efficient screening and management of patients with diabetes mellitus. Lipid profile changes associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are well documented in other parts of the world but not in Ghana. The role of plasma lipids in the pathogenesis of GDM in Ghanaian women was investigated. Ante-natal patients were selected as a case control study including 100 patients with GDM (cases) and 100 pregnant women without GDM (control). Mean values (GDMs vs controls in mmol/L) of TG (2.29± 0.07 vs 1.75±0.08, p<0.001), TCHOL (7.26±0.16 vs 5.85±1.65, p<0.001), LDL (4.71 ± 0.17 vs 3.83±0.16 p<0.001), and VLDL (1.12±0.03 vs 0.80±0.04 p<0.001), respectively were significantly higher in GDMs than the controls. Mean HDL for the GDMs was significantly lower in GDMs compared to controls (1.2±0.07 vs 1.46±0.08 p=0.023). Mean cortisol concentration for GDMs (509±12.02ng/ml) was significantly higher than controls (402.70±13.12ng/ml) (p<0.05). Also, mean progesterone was significantly higher in GDMs (46.41±2.75ng/ml) than controls (33.06±1.66ng/ml) (p<0.05). These study showed that generally, lipid parameters [LDL, total cholesterol, VLDL) were significantly higher in GDMs compared with controls. However, HDL was significantly higher in controls compared with GDM.

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G. Gnanavel

Abstract: - The Primary aim of this Project is to design the project for a Complete Vehicle Protection with Embedded Technology. In this project there are two sections, one is a vehicle unit another one is a monitoring unit. In a vehicle unit Accident is measured with the help of vibration sensor. Temperature is measured with the help of temperature sensor. Fuel Level measurement using Float. That sensor's output is given to the amplifier unit. After the amplification this output is given to the ATMEGA controller. Speed measurement using proximity sensor. This sensor's output is given to ATMEGA controller via (Signal Conditioning Unit) SCU. ATMEGA calculate the speed from this signal. If the vehicles have very high speed immediately turn off the vehicle by relay circuit. Here we used flash type reprogrammable controller. In the event of Accident ATMEGA controller transmits all these signals to the (personnel computer) PC via (Global System for Mobile communication)GSM MODEM. Other unit is a monitoring unit.GSM MODEM will receive those signals where the PC act as the Police station server. In case of accident some voice sound can be generated in the PC for attention. RS 232 is a serial communication cable. All sensed parameters are displayed in the Police station server. If vehicle is theft means we can locate the vehicle with the help of (Global Positioning system) GPS by using Internet Maps. And also we can stop the vehicle with the help of relay. This project is helpful for Police investigation purposes.

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O. I. Sekunowo, S. O. Adeosun, G. I. Lawal, S. A. Balogun

ABSTRACT:- Despite some of the desirable characteristics most aluminium bronze exhibits, abysmally deficient responses in certain critical applications necessitate mechanical properties enhancement. Hence, the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast aluminium bronze reinforced with iron granules (millscale) were investigated in this paper. Cast samples of the composite made from metal mould contain millscale in varied amount from 2-10 wt.%. The samples were homogenised at 11000C for 10 minutes in order to relief the as-cast structures. Standard specimens were prepared from these homogenised samples for tensile, charpy impact and microhardness tests while the composite microstructures were studied using an optical microscope. Results show that optimum improved mechanical properties were achieved at 4 wt.% millscale addition with ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 643.8MPa which represents 10.1% improvement over conventional aluminium-bronze. The composite also demonstrated impact resilence of 83.9J and micro-hardness value of 88.7HRB. Millscale presence in the aluminium bronze system induced a stable reinforcing kappa phase by nucleation mechanism which resulted to enhancement of mechanical properties. However, the composite properties were impaired on millscale addition above 4 wt.% due to grain clustering.

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Lini Abraham, Neenu Daniel

Abstract: - Image encryption plays an important role in the field of information security. Most of the image encryption techniques have some security and performance issues. So there is a need to compare them to determine which method is suitable for the application. Chaos based encryption algorithms are employed nowadays because of their better security and performance aspects. Chaotic behavior of a system is the sophisticated nature of a nonlinear system that looks random. This work is a review of two novel chaos based image encryption algorithms, namely a secure image encryption algorithm based on Rubik's cube principle and a new chaos-based fast image encryption algorithm in terms of the parameters like NPCR, UACI, Entropy and Correlation coefficient.

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Yaser Ahangari Nanehkaran

Abstract: - Recent developments in the fields of Internet and Information Technology have led to renewed interest extraordinary in electronic commerce in societies. Electronic commerce is supporting of customers, supplying of services and commodities, portion of business information, manages business transactions and maintaining of bond between suppliers, customers and vendors by devices of telecommunication networks. In the new global business companies and institutions providing merchandise and services, synchronously with evolution of the world in field of electronic commerce are in effect to change the logical and physical structure of their organization in this area. The purpose of this paper is to review of principles, definitions, history, frameworks, steps, models, advantages, barriers and limitations of electronic commerce.

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ABSTRACT: - This study reports on the impact of some personality factors, work values and socio-cultural factors on intrapreneurial orientation. It also examines the aspects and characteristics of entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship. This paper provides a review of theoretical studies on the concepts of entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, highlighting the similarities and differences between them. A great potential lies in applying business principles within existing organizations. In this study certain dimensions of the internal work environment, determining/moderating the development of an intrapreneurial culture. Antoncic and Hisrich (2003) describe eight intrapreneurship dimensions: (1)new ventures and new businesses; (2) product/service innovativeness innovativeness; (3) self-renewal; (4) proactiveness; (5)risk taking; (7) competitive aggressiveness. It explores the factors that determining a new business opportunities or by strating a new venture for an employer or independently.

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Nharingo Tichaona, Muzondo N. Maria., Madungwe Emaculate, Chigondo Fidelis, Guyo Upenyu, Nyamunda Benias.

Abstract: - The removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions is critical to minimize its toxicity to both plants and animals. Vigna subterranea (l.) Verdc hull (VSVH) was investigated for its potential to remove Cu(II) ions from wastewaters. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out to optimize pH, contact time, and dosage at constant temperature (25 ± 1 oC) and agitation rate (180 rpm). The effect of initial Cu(II) ion concentration was investigated under optimized conditions (pH, 6; contact time of 60 minutes and dosage of 6 g/L) and the equilibrium data were analyzed using two parameter isotherms; Temkin, Langmuir and Freundlich models. The equilibrium data fitted the isotherms in the order; Langmuir > Freundlich > Temkin, all with R2 > 0.98. The biosorption of Cu(II) ions by VSVH was found to be favorable (0 < RL< 1 and 1/n < 1), endothermic, spontaneous (∆Go = -11.11 kJ/mol) and chemisorption in nature. Very high removal efficiency and maximum sorption capacity were realized indicating the viability of the removal of Cu(II) ions by the novel biosorbent. The use of VSVH for the removal of Cu(II) ions from wastewaters can be implemented as a standalone technology or coupled with the conventional methods in order to complement their wastewater cleaning potentials.

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Brijesh Rajput

Abstract: - Digital piracy is a major challenge faced by content publishers and software vendors today. The ease of copying and sharing digital content has resulted in piracy. In this paper we examined some recent protection mechanism based on structure of digital disc and other modern technology includes watermark. The objective of this paper is to analyzing the existing technology and some loopholes. Moreover this paper aims at reducing piracy in liaison with the educated user and not with a hacker since the hackers posses special skills as there is no absolute way to prevent copying.

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Driss Ouzebla, Hassan B. Lazrek, Michael Smietana, Jean-Jacques Vasseur

Abstract: - An efficient method for synthesis of 1- Acetal diethyl-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde by combinaison of 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde and bromoacetal diethyl using Natural phosphate doped with K2CO3 (NP/K2CO3) is described .The reactions promoted by microwave irradiation are advantageous in many ways because of short reaction time, and solvent free reaction conditions . Several reactions of synthetic importance such as alkylation. have been satisfactorily done under microwave irradiation.

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Prerna, Rajesh Singh, Pawan Bhadana

Abstract:- Web is a collection of heterogeneous as well as unstructured set of news articles. This paper presents a novel approach to retrieve relevant news articles from heterogeneous and unstructured collection of articles. Efficient retrieval requires analysis of news articles based on keyword. Two problems that occur in the analysis of news articles are synonymy and polysemy. In this paper, we present a News Retrieval approach based on Latent Semantic Index (LSI) and Clustering. It includes projection of keyword-news article matrix into small spaces called clusters. After that, clustering approach is used to group relevant articles into clusters.

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Yi-Jen Mon

Abstract: - The proposed method called terminal sliding Fuzzy Sliding Parallel Distributed Compensation (TSF-PDC) control is developed in this paper to deal with the nonlinear systems subjected to bounded disturbances. The TSF-PDC controller is combined with Fuzzy Parallel Distributed Compensation (F-PDC) control and terminal sliding mode (TS) control to deal with nonlinear systems. In the design of TSF-PDC, some F-PDC control gains are used to stabilize every F-PDC systems; and the TS control is used to cope with disturbances and uncertainties of systems. In simulation, the inverted pendulum is illustrated to verify the effectiveness, performances and robustness. The simulation results of this proposed TSF-PDC controller demonstrate better performance and robustness than that of F-PDC control.

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P. Osei Bonsu, J.Y. Asibuo

ABSTRACT: - Application of inadequate quantities of fertilizers limits maize yield in Ghana. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of Mucuna pruriens, Canavalia ensiformis, and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) on maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield under 4 mineral fertilizer N levels in a rotational system. The legumes were established in April of 1996 and 1997 at Ejura in the forest-savanna transition zone of Ghana. During August of the respective years, the vegetation on the plots was slashed with a cutlass. Maize was planted in all the plots with blanket P and K application. Fertilizer N was applied as urea at four rates (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N/ha) to the maize in split applications at 1 and 5 weeks after planting. Mucuna and Canavalia produced more than 3 t/ha of biomass within 4 months. Mean maize grain yields after the legumes without fertilizer N were 2.3, 1.6 and 1.0 t/ha for Mucuna, Canavalia and soybean, respectively. Maize grown after legumes responded to fertilizer N and this is an indication that the legumes didn't supply the entire N required by maize for optimum yield. The highest marginal rates of return of maize grown after canavalia and soybean were at 90 kg N/ha whilst that of mucuna was at 60 kg N/ha. It was concluded that planting Mucuna and maize in rotation is the best among the systems considered in terms of monetary gain and soil organic matter addition and the application of 60 kg N/ha to maize planted after Mucuna was the most efficient management option.

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Prof. S. S. Asole, Ms. S. M. Mundada

Abstract: - Database and database technologies form a core component of many computing systems and applications which allow data to be stored, retained and shared electronically. As the use of database systems and the amount of data contained in these systems grows continuously and exponentially, database security has become an issue of utmost importance due to an increase in the number of incidents reporting the unauthorized exposure to sensitive data. Hence, the databases should be protected in such a way as to restrict the unauthorized persons from accessing the sensitive contents of database as well as the overall database as a whole. Thus, this paper involves a survey discussing various techniques providing content as well as access security to databases.

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Meftah Mehdawi, N. Riley, K. Paulson, A. Fanan, M. Ammar

Abstract: - Efficient use of the radio spectrum is a necessity for future wireless systems. Cognitive Radio (CR) systems promise large increases in spectral efficiency. An important design constraint for systems is understanding of the current use of frequency bands which may be used by future CR systems. This paper describes a set of spectrum occupancy measurements performed in Hull, UK, in November 2012 and proposes long-term studies in a single location. Observations provide evidence that the licensed spectrum is far from fully utilized in frequency. Measurements provide evidence of the spectral efficiency benefits that may be accrued by the dynamic reuse of the available spectrum. Such improved usage could break the current spectrum availability bottleneck. The measurement method is based on the energy detection principle.

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Praveen M Bidarakundi, Raghavendra Prasad S.G

Abstract: - Often implementation of the program will change .Implementations are changed to reduce running time and/or to reduce memory consumption (space complexity) of the program. Often there is need to test the two version of the software, one current and another newer version. Newer version will be having some extra methods/functions, but the remaining methods/functions will be same as that of current version. We need to make sure that these methods of current version have not been affected by the changes done in new version. (Regression Testing), and also often the methods will be refactored to different prototypes/signatures to offer abstraction. These new prototyped methods (signature changed methods) will in-tern invoke the previous method (before to new prototyping), i.e. newer prototyped methods are just wrappers around the previous methods. For instance APIs are wrapped around by corresponding methods .In this situation, it becomes important to test the newly prototyped methods that are wrappers around the old methods/APIs, as we need to verify the correct bindings/mappings of the older and newly prototyped methods. Usually developers write the unit tests to test their logic. But the testers cannot write them as tester lacks the knowledge of logic implemented, and tester may not have any knowledge of coding, but tester knows what each method does and what is it's expected behavior/return type. Thus we need to offer new way to test each method. We propose a novel framework, which addresses these important issues. Framework takes three input parameters namely, class to be tested, variable initialization values (test data), and expected results. From this information, framework automatically builds test driver class at runtime; on the fly on running the framework. Test driver class is used to test the class under test. This test driver class is compiled and executed to get the actual results for class under test. These generated actual results are compared with expected result to find methods different behaviors. Methods whose actual result is not matching with the expected result, then this implies that methods have different behavior, thus the test is failure, and else test is successful.

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ojwang george omondi

Returns are the determing factor in financial investment. Variability of these returns guide specific sectors to which investors plough their funds into. Geographical jurisdictions as well as sctoral bounderies keep investors yearning for information likely to help them control their returns. This paper seeks to demystify portfolio composition through ETFs in a diversified global economy.

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