International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 4 - Issue 12, December 2015 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Used Restraint Devices: Potential Infection-Hazards On Handcuffs In Ghana

[Full Text]



Mary Adu Kumi, Isaac Nyamekye, John Adu Kumi, Benjamin Adu Kumi



Keywords: Handcuffs, Risks, infectious diseases, public health, restraint devices



Abstract: The incidence of unknown routes of infectious diseases has become a major public health concern. Restraint devices such as handcuffs used by selected security agency from three (3) Police Stations in Accra were investigated for bacterial contamination. Five (5) handcuffs including two (2) slightly used ones, two (2) frequently used ones and one (1) sealed unused handcuff was purposely selected for the study. The presence and quantity of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and total coliforms on the handcuffs were measured. The Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and coliforms showed positive on all the four (4) used handcuffs but were not found on the sealed, unused handcuff. There was more contamination on frequently used handcuffs than slightly used ones. The presence and quantity of bacterial contaminants indicated Staphylococcus aureus (64%), Escherichia coli (8%) and total coliforms (28%). This shows that, used handcuffs harbour pathogenic bacteria, and could serve as potential routes of infectious diseases among users. This requires sensitization of the public on the cleaning of handcuffs between uses with disinfectants. Education on the use and cleaning of handcuff to users and security agencies could enhance environmental hygiene of restraint devices.



[1] Kramer, A., Schwebke, I. and Kampf, G. (2006) How long do nosocomial pathogens persist on inanimate surfaces? A systematic review BMC Infectious Diseases 2006, 6:130

[2] Nicole, C.,(2009). Handcuffs May Pose a New Hepatitis Transmission concern. Retrieved July 23, 2009

[3] Scott, E., Bloomfield, S.F. (2008). The survival and transfer of microbial contamination via cloths, hands and utensils. J. Appl Microbiol, (68) 271-278.

[4] Abad, F.X., Villena, C., Guix, S., Caballero, S., Pintó, R.M., Bosch, A. (2001) Potential role of fomites in the vesicular transmission of human astroviruses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2001, 67:3904-3907

[5] Allerberger, F., Ayliffe, G., Bassetti, M., Braveny, I., Bucher, A., Damani, N., Daschner, F.D., Dettenkofer, M., Ezpeleta, C., Gastmeier, P., Geffers, C., Giamarellou, H., Goldman, D., Grzesiowski, P., Gubina, M., Haanen, P.E., Haydouchka, I., Hubner, J., Kalenic, S., Van Knippenberg-Gordebeke, G., Kranenburg, A.M., Krcmery, V., Kropec, A., Kruger, W., Lemmen, S., Mayhall, C.G., Meester, M., Mehtar, S., Munzinger, J., Muzlovic, I., Ojajarvi, J., Rüden, H., Scott, G., Shah, P., Tambic-Andraszevic, A., Unertl, K., Voss, A., Weist, K. (2002) Routine surface disinfection in health care facilities: should we do it? American Journal of Infection Control 2002, 30:318-319

[6] Cozad, A., Jones, R. D. (2003) Disinfection and the prevention of infectious disease. American Journal of Infection Control 2003, 31:243-254.

[7] Prescott, L.M., Harvey, J.P., Klein, D.A. (1993): Microbiology, 2nd edition. W.M.C Brown, England. Pp. 706-707, 805.

[8] Dougherty, L. (2006). Central Venous Access Devices: Care and management. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford

[9] Gabriel, J.,(2008). Infusion therapy. Part two: Preventive and management of complications. Nurs Stand. 2008; 22(32): 41-8.

[10] Sleigh, D. J., Timburg, M.C. (1998) Notes on Medical Microbiology, 5th edition. Churchill-Livingstone, New York P.173.

[11] Reynolds KA. (2005). Hygiene of environmental surfaces. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 15 (3): 225-234.

[12] www.cuffcleaner.com/. why clean, Retrieved August 31, 2014

[13] The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) (2008) Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infections. www.cdc.gov/mrsa/index.html. www.cdc.gov/hepatitis, viral hepatitis, August 31, 2008,

[14] Li, Q., Estes, J.D., Schlievert, P.M., Duan, L., Brosnahan, A. J., Southern, P. J., Reilly, C.S., Peterson, M. L., Nancy Schultz-Darken, N., Brunner, K. G., Karla R. Nephew, K. R., Pambuccian, S., Lifson, J. D., Carlis, J. V., & Haase, A. T. (2009) Glycerol monolaurate prevents mucosal SIV transmission Nature 458, 1034-1038

[15] Osterholm, M.T., Hederg, C.W., MacDonald, K.L., (1995) Epidemiology of infectious diseases. In: Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s principles and practice of Infectious diseases vol.1, 4th edition Churchill-Livingstone, New York. P.165.

[16] Rusin, P., Maxwell, S., Gerba, (2002) Comparative surfaces to hand and fingertips-to-mouth transfer efficiency of gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria and phage. J Appl. Microbiology. Microbiology Lab manual spring 2007.

[17] Boone, S. A., Gerba, C.P. (2010): The prevalence of human Para influenza virus 1 on indoor office fomite Food and Environmental Virology, 2(1):41- 46.

[18] Bloomfield, S.F., Scott, E., Exner, M., Fara, G., Nath, K., Signorelli, C., Van der Voorden., (2010). Prevention of the spread of infectious: The need for a family- centered approach to hygiene promotion. American Journal of infectious control, Vol. 38, Issue 1, p1-2.

[19] Hota B: (2004) Contamination, disinfection, and cross-colonization: are hospital surfaces reservoirs for nosocomial infection? Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004, 39:1182-1189

[20] Aitken, C., Jeffries, D. J. (2001) Nosocomial spread of viral disease. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2001, 14:528-546.

[21] Garcia-Cruz CP, Najera Aguilar MJ, Arroyo-Helguera OE. Fungal and Bacterial Contamination on Indoor Surfaces of a Hospital in Mexico. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2012;5(3):460-4.

[22] Nworie A, Ayeni JA, Eze UA, Azi SO. Bacterial contamination of door handles/knobs in selected public Conveniences in Abuja metropolis, Nigeria: a public health threat. Continental J. Medical Research 6 (1): 7 - 11

[23] Angelotti, R., and Foter, M. J. (1958) A direct surface agar plate laboratory method for quantitatively detecting bacterial contamination on non-porous surfaces. Journal of Food Science, 23: 170-174.

[24] Bright ,K.R., Boone, S.A., Gerba, C.P. (2010), Occurance of bacteria and viruses on elementary classroom surfaces and the potential role of classroom hygiene in the spread of infectious diseases. J. School Nurs. 2010; 26-33-41.