International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 3- Issue 11, November 2014 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Biosynthesis And Production Of Sophorolipids

[Full Text]



Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Doumit Camilios-Neto, Cristiani Baldo, Agnes Magri, Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi



Index Terms: biosurfactants, glycolipid, sophorolipids, sophorose, yeast, Starmerella bombicola, Candida bombicola.



Abstract: Sophorolipids are biosurfactants belonging to the class of the glycolipid, produced mainly by the osmophilic yeast Candida bombicola. Structurally they are composed by a disaccharide sophorose (2’-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glycopyranose) which is linked β -glycosidically to a long fatty acid chain with generally 16 to 18 atoms of carbon with one or more unsaturation. They are produced as a complex mix containing up to 40 molecules and associated isomers, depending on the species which produces it, the substrate used and the culture conditions. They present properties which are very similar or superior to the synthetic surfactants and other biosurfactants with the advantage of presenting low toxicity, higher biodegradability, better environmental compatibility, high selectivity and specific activity in a broad range of temperature, pH and salinity conditions. Its biological activities are directly related with its chemical structure. Sophorolipids possess a great potential for application in areas such as: food; bioremediation; cosmetics; pharmaceutical; biomedicine; nanotechnology and enhanced oil recovery.



[1] P.A.J. Gorin, J.F.T. Spencer, & A.P. Tulloch, “Hydroxy fatty acid glycosides of sophorose from Torulopsis magnoliae,” Canadian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 39, no. 6199, pp. 846–855, 1961.

[2] H.J. Asmer, S. Lang, F. Wagner, & V. Wray, “Microbial production, structure elucidation and bioconversion of sophorose lipids,” Journal of Academic Industrial Research, vol. 65, no. 9, pp. 1460–1466, 1988.

[3] P. Chandran, & N. Das, “Role of Sophorolipid Biosurfactant in Degradation of Diesel Oil by Candida tropicalis,” Bioremediation Journal, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 19–30, 2012, doi:10.1080/10889868.2011.628351.

[4] X.-J. Ma, H. Li, & X. Song, “Surface and biological activity of sophorolipid molecules produced by Wickerhamiella domercqiae var sophorolipid CGMCC 1576,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 376, no. 1, pp. 165–172, 2012, doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2012.03.007.

[5] S.-H. Baek, X.-X. Sun, Y.-J. Lee, S.-Y. Wang, K.-N. Han, J.-K. Choi, J.-H. Noh, & E.-K. Kim, “Mitigation of harmful algal blooms by sophorolipid,” Journal Microbiology Biotechnology, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 651–659, 2003.

[6] G. Pekin, F. Vardar-Sukan, & N. Kosaric, “Production of Sophorolipids from Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 Using Turkish Corn Oil and Honey,” Engineering in Life Sciences, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 357–362, 2005, doi:10.1002/elsc.200520086.

[7] Y. Hirata, M. Ryu, Y. Oda, K. Igarashi, A. Nagatsuka, T. Furuta, & M. Sugiura, “Novel characteristics of sophorolipids, yeast glycolipid biosurfactants, as biodegradable low-foaming surfactants,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 142–146, 2009, doi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.03.012.

[8] Q.H. Zhou, & N. Kosaric, “Utilization of canola oil and lactose to produce biosurfactant with Candida bombicola,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 67–71, 1995.

[9] R.D. Ashby, A. Nuñez, D.K.Y. Solaiman, & T.A. Foglia, “Sophorolipid biosynthesis from a biodiesel co-product stream,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 625–630, 2005, doi:10.1007/s11746-005-1120-3.

[10] H.J. Daniel, M. Reuss, & C. Syldatk, “Production of sophorolipids in high concentration from deproteinized whey and rapeseed oil in a two stage fed batch process using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1153–1156, 1998.

[11] D.-S. Yoo, B.-S. Lee, & E.-K. Kim, “Characteristics of Microbial Surfactants as Antifungal Agent Against Plant Pathogenic Fungus,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1164–1169, 2005.

[12] K. Masaru, T. Nakane, Y. Akitani, K. Nobuchika, T. Nakada, S. Tomiyama, & J. Nagai, “Composition for high-density cold storage transportation,” Patent JP 21999000345173, 2001, Japan.

[13] B. Yuan, S. Yang, & J. Chen, “Antimicrobial Activity of Sophorolipids on Pathogenic Fungi Isolated from Fruits,” Chinese Journal of Applied Environmental Biology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 330–333, February 2012, doi:10.3724/SP.J.1145.2011.00330.

[14] L. Shao, X. Song, X.-J. Ma, H. Li, & Y. Qu, “Bioactivities of sophorolipid with different structures against human esophageal cancer cells, ”The Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 173, no. 2, pp. 286–91, April 2012, doi:10.1016/j.jss.2010.09.013.

[15] V. Dengle Pulate, S. Bhagwat, & A.A. Prabhune, “Microbial Oxidation of Medium Chain Fatty Alcohol in the Synthesis of Sophorolipids by Candida bombicola and its Physicochemical Characterization,” Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 173–181, July 2012, doi:10.1007/s11743-012-1378-4.

[16] V. Shah, G.F. Doncel, T. Seyoum, K.M. Eaton, I. Zalenskaya, R. Hagver, A. Azim, & R.A. Gross, “Sophorolipids , Microbial Glycolipids with Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Sperm-Immobilizing Activities,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 4093–4100, 2005, doi:10.1128/AAC.49.10.4093–4100.2005.

[17] R. Hardin, J. Pierre, R. Schulze, C.M. Mueller, S.L. Fu, S.R. Wallner, A. Stanek, V. Shah, R. a Gross, J. Weedon, M. Nowakowski, M.E. Zenilman, & M.H. Bluth, “Sophorolipids improve sepsis survival: effects of dosing and derivatives,” The Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 142, no. 2, pp. 314–319, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.jss.2007.04.025.

[18] S.-W. Kang, Y.-B. Kim, J.-D. Shin, & E.-K. Kim, “Enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil by microbial biosurfactant, sophorolipid,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 160, no. 3, pp. 780–90, March 2010, doi:10.1007/s12010-009-8580-5.

[19] C.N. Mulligan, R.N. Yong, & B.F. Gibbs, “Heavy metal removal from sediments by biosurfactants,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 85, no. 1-2, pp. 111–125, 2001.

[20] K. Kim, Y. Dalsoo, K. Youngbum, L. Baekseok, S. Doonhoon, & K. Eun-Ki, “Characteristics of sophorolipid as an antimicrobial agent, ” Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 235–241, 2002.

[21] T.T.L. Nguyen, & D.A. Sabatini, “Characterization and emulsification properties of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants and their applications,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 1232–1244, 2011, doi:10.3390/ijms12021232.

[22] M.B. Kasture, P. Patel, A.A. Prabhune, C. V Ramana, A.A. Kulkarni, & B.L. V Prasad, “Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by sophorolipids: Effect of temperature and sophorolipid structure on the size of particles,” Journal of Chemical Sciences, vol. 120, no. 6, pp. 515–520, January 2008, doi:10.1007/s12039-008-0080-6.

[23] S. Dhar, E.M. Reddy, A.A. Prabhune, V. Pokharkar, A. Shiras, & B.L. V Prasad, “Cytotoxicity of sophorolipid-gellan gum-gold nanoparticle conjugates and their doxorubicin loaded derivatives towards human glioma and human glioma stem cell lines,” Nanoscale, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 575–80, February 2011, doi:10.1039/c0nr00598c.

[24] A. Elshafie, S.N. Al-Bahry, Y.M. Al-Wahaibi, A.S. Al-Bemani, S.J. Joshi, & D. Al-Maqbali, “Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Possible Application in Enhancing Oil Recovery,” In 4 Th International Symposium on Applied Molecular Microbiology in Oil Systems (ISMOS) (pp. 1–63) 2013, Rio de Janeiro.

[25] B.S. Saharan, R.K. Sahu, & D. Sharma, “A review on biosurfactants: fermentation, current developments and perspectives,” Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Journal, vol. 2011, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2011.

[26] M. Nitschke, C. Ferraz, & G.M. Pastore, “Selection of microorganisms for biosurfactant production using agro industrial wastes,” Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 35,, pp. 81–85, 2004.

[27] R.S. Makkar, S.S. Cameotra, & I.M. Banat, “Advances in utilization of renewable substrates for biosurfactant production,” AMB Express, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 5, 2011, doi:10.1186/2191-0855-1-5.

[28] D.F. Jones, “Novel macrocyclic glycolipids from Torulopsis gropengiesseri,” Journal of the Chemical Society, vol. 39, pp. 479–484, 1967.

[29] A.P. Tulloch, & J.F.T. Spencer, “Fermentation of long-chain compounds by Torulopsis apicola IV. Products from esters and hydrocarbons with 14 and 15 carbon atoms and from methyl palmitoleate,” Canadian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1459–1465, 1968.

[30] F.C. Odds, M.G. Rinaldi, C.R. Cooper, A. Fothegill, L. Pasarell, & M.R. McGinnis, “Candida and Torulopsis: a blinded evaluation of use of pseudohypha formation as basis for identification of medically important yeasts,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 313-316, 1997.

[31] A.P. Tulloch, J.F.T. Spencer, & M.H. Deinema, “A new hydroxy fatty acid sophoroside from Candida bogoriensis,” Canadian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 345–348, 1968.

[32] J.F.T. Spencer, P.A.J. Gorin, & A.P. Tulloch, “Torulopsis bombicola sp.n,” Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 129–133, 1970.

[33] D.G. Cooper, & D.A. Paddock, “Torulopsis petrophilum and Surface Activity,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1426–1429, 1983.

[34] J. Chen, X. Song, H. Zhang, Y. Qu, & J. Miao, “Sophorolipid produced from the new yeast strain Wickerhamiella domercqiae induces apoptosis in H7402 human liver cancer cells,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 52–59, 2006, doi:10.1007/s00253-005-0243-z.

[35] J. Thaniyavarn, T. Chianguthai, P. Sangvanich, N. Roongsawang, K. Washio, M. Morikawa, & S. Thaniyavarn, “Production of Sophorolipid Biosurfactant by Pichia anomala, ” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, vol. 72, no. 8, pp. 2061–2068, 2008, doi:10.1271/bbb.80166.

[36] M. Konishi, T. Fukuoka, T. Morita, T. Imura, & D. Kitamoto, “Production of new types of sophorolipids by Candida batistae,” Journal of Oleo Science, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 359–369, 2008.

[37] T. Imura, Y. Masuda, H. Minamikawa, T. Fukuoka, M. Konishi, T. Morita, H. Sakai, M. Abe, & D. Kitamoto, “Enzymatic conversion of diacetylated sophoroselipid into acetylated glucoselipid: surface-active properties of novel bolaform biosurfactants,” Journal of Oleo Science, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 495–501, 2010.

[38] C.P. Kurtzman, N.P.J. Price, K.J. Ray, & T.-M. Kuo, “Production of sophorolipid biosurfactants by multiple species of the Starmerella (Candida) bombicola yeast clade,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 311, no. 2, pp. 140–146, 2010, doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2010.02082.x.

[39] C.P. Kurtzman, “Candida kuoi sp nov, an anamorphic species of the Starmerella yeast clade that synthesizes sophorolipids,” International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 62, no. Pt 9, pp. 2307–2311, 2012, doi:10.1099/ijs.0.039479-0.

[40] P. Chandran, & N. Das, “Characterization of sophorolipid biosurfactant produced by yeast species grown on diesel oil,” International Journal of Science and Nature, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 63–71, 2011.

[41] J. Poomtien, J. Thaniyavarn, P. Pinphanichakarn, S. Jindamorakot, & M. Morikawa, “Production and Characterization of a Biosurfactant from Cyberlindnera samutprakarnensis JP52T,” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, vol. 77, no. 12, pp. 2362–2370, 2013, doi:10.1271/bbb.130434.

[42] G. Basak, , D. Devlin , D. Nilanjana . “Dual Role of Acidic Diacetate Sophorolipid as Biostabilizer for ZnO Nanoparticle Synthesis and Biofunctionalizing Agent against Salmonella enterica and Candida albicans.” Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 87–96, 2013., doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1307.07081.

[43] C.A. Rosa, & M.-A. Lachance, “The yeast genus Starmerek gen nov and Starmerella bombicola sp nov , the teleomorph of Candida bombicola (Spencer, Gorin & Tullock) Meyer & Yarrow,” International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 48,, pp. 1413–1417, 1998.

[44] C.A. Rosa, M. Lachance, J. Silva, J.A. Teixeira, M. Marini, Y. Antonini, & R. Martins, “Yeast communities associated with stingless bees,” FEMS Yeast Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 271–275, 2003, doi:10.1016/S1567-1356(03)00173-9.

[45] M.A. Santos, T. Ueda, K. Watanabe, & M.F. Tuite, “The non-standard genetic code of Candida spp: an evolving genetic code or a novel mechanism for adaptation?,” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 423–431, 1997.

[46] Bourdichon, François, Serge Casaregola, Choreh Farrokh, Jens C. Frisvad, Monica L. Gerds, Walter P. Hammes, James Harnett, et al. 2012. “Food Fermentations: Microorganisms with Technological Beneficial Use.” International Journal of Food Microbiology 154: 87–97. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.12.030.

[47] T.J.P. Smyth, A. Perfumo, R. Marchant, & I.M. Banat, “Isolation and Analysis of Low Molecular Weight Microbial Glycolipids” Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology (pp. 3717–3718) (K. N. Timmis, Ed.), 2010, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg doi:10.1007/978-3-540-77587-4.

[48] N.P.J. Price, K.J. Ray, K.E. Vermillion, C. a Dunlap, & C.P. Kurtzman, “Structural characterization of novel sophorolipid biosurfactants from a newly identified species of Candida yeast,” Carbohydrate Research, vol. 348,, pp. 33–41, 2012, doi:10.1016/j.carres.2011.07.016.

[49] R.T. Otto, H.J. Daniel, G. Pekin, K. Müller-Decker, G. Fürstenberger, M. Reuss, & C. Syldatk, “Production of sophorolipids from whey II Product composition, surface active properties, cytotoxicity and stability against hydrolases by enzymatic treatment,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 52,, pp. 495–501, 1999.

[50] Y. Hu, & L.-K. Ju, “Sophorolipid production from different lipid precursors observed with LC-MS,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 593–601, 2001, doi:10.1016/S0141-0229(01)00439-2.

[51] A. Nuñez, R.D. Ashby, T.A. Foglia, & D.K.Y. Solaiman, “Analysis and characterization of sophorolipids by liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization,” Chromatographia, vol. 53,, pp. 673–677, 2001.

[52] D.A. Cavalero, & D.G. Cooper, “The effect of medium composition on the structure and physical state of sophorolipids produced by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214,”Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 31–41, 2003, doi:10.1016/S0168-1656(03)00067-1.

[53] D.K.Y. Solaiman, R.D. Ashby, A. Nuñez, & T. a Foglia, “Production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola grown on soy molasses as substrate,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 1241–1245, 2004, doi:10.1023/B:BILE.0000036605.80577.30.

[54] X. Ma, H. Li, L.-J. Shao, J. Shen, & X. Song, “Effects of nitrogen sources on production and composition of sophorolipids by Wickerhamiella domercqiae var sophorolipid CGMCC 1576,”Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 1623–1632, 2011, doi:10.1007/s00253-011-3327-y.

[55] I.A. Ribeiro, M.R. Bronze, M.F. Castro, & M.H.L. Ribeiro, “Design of selective production of sophorolipids by Rhodotorula bogoriensis through nutritional requirements,” Journal of Molecular Recognition, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 630–640, 2013, doi:10.1002/jmr.2188.

[56] A. Nuñez, R.D. Ashby, T. a Foglia, & D.K.Y. Solaiman, “LC/MS analysis and lipase modification of the sophorolipids produced by Rhodotorula bogoriensis,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 1087–93, July 2004, doi:10.1023/B:BILE.0000032970.95603.6d.

[57] S. Ito, M. Kinta, & S. Inoue, “Growth of yeasts on n-alkanes: inhibition by a lactonic sophorolipid produced by Torulopsis bombicola,” Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 2221–2223, 1980.

[58] K. Joshi-Navare, P. Khanvilkar, & A. Prabhune, “Jatropha oil derived sophorolipids: production and characterization as laundry detergent additive,” Biochemistry Research International, vol. 2013, pp. 1–11, January 2013, doi:10.1155/2013/169797.

[59] L. Fracchia, M. Cavallo, M.G. Martinotti, & I.M. Banat, “Biosurfactants and Bioemulsifiers Biomedical and Related Applications – Present Status and Future Potentials,” pp. 325-326, In D. N. Ghista (Ed.), Biomedical Science, Engineering and Technology (1st ed., p. 876) 2011, Rijeka: InTech.

[60] J.A. Casas, S. García de Lara, & F. García-Ochoa, “Optimization of a synthetic medium for Candida bombicola growth using factorial design of experiments,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 221–229, 1997, doi:10.1016/S0141-0229(97)00038-0.

[61] R.K. Hommel, L. Weber, A. Weiss, U. Himmelreich, O. Rilke, & H.P. Kleber, “Production of sophorose lipid by Candida (Torulopsis) apicola grown on glucose,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 147–155, 1994, doi:10.1016/0168-1656(94)90107-4.

[62] I.N.A. Van Bogaert, K.M.J. Saerens, C. De Muynck, D.W.G. Develter, W. Soetaert, & E.J. Vandamme, “Microbial production and application of sophorolipids (a),” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 23–34, 2007, doi:10.1007/s00253-007-0988-7.

[63] S. Ito, & S. Inoue, “Sophorolipids from Torulopsis bombicola: possible relation to alkane uptake,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1278–1283, 1982.

[64] X.-X. Sun, J.-K. Choi, & E.-K. Kim, “A preliminary study on the mechanism of harmful algal bloom mitigation by use of sophorolipid treatment,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 304, no. 1, pp. 35–49, 2004, doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2003.11.020.

[65] V. Shah, D. Badia, & P. Ratsep, “Sophorolipids having enhanced antibacterial activity,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 397–400, 2007, doi:10.1128/AAC.01118-06.

[66] V. Shah, M. Jurjevic, & D. Badia, “Utilization of restaurant waste oil as a precursor for sophorolipid production,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 512–515, 2007, doi:10.1021/bp0602909.

[67] A. Azim, V. Shah, G.F. Doncel, N. Peterson, W. Gao, & R.A. Gross, “Amino acid conjugated sophorolipids: A new family of biologically active functionalized glycolipids,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1523–1529, 2006, doi:10.1021/bc060094n.

[68] J.D. Desai, & I.M. Banat, “Microbial production of surfactants and their commercial potential,” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 47–64, 1997.

[69] A.M. Davila, R. Marchal, & J.-P. Vandecasteele, “Sophorose lipid production from lipidic precursors: Predictive evaluation of industrial substrates,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 249–257, July 1994, doi:10.1007/BF01569757.

[70] A. Albrecht, U. Rau, & F. Wagner, “Initial steps of sophoroselipid biosynthesis by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 grown on glucose,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 67–73, 1996.

[71] Y.-B. Kim, H.S. Yun, & E.-K. Kim, “Enhanced sophorolipid production by feeding-rate-controlled fed-batch culture,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, no. 23, pp. 6028–6032, 2009, doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2009.06.053.

[72] A.D.J. Cortés-Sánchez, H. Hernández-Sánchez, & M.E. Jaramillo-Flores, “Biological activity of glycolipids produced by microorganisms: new trends and possible therapeutic alternatives,” Microbiological Research, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 22–32, 2013, doi:10.1016/j.micres.2012.07.002.

[73] I.N. a Van Bogaert, S. Groeneboer, K.M.J. Saerens, & W. Soetaert, “The role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in microbial fatty acid metabolism,” The FEBS Journal, vol. 278, no. 2, pp. 206–221, 2011, doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2010.07949.x.

[74] K. Ciesielska, B. Li, S. Groeneboer, I.N.A. Van Bogaert, Y.-C. Lin, W. Soetaert, Y. Van de Peer, & B. Devreese, “SILAC-Based Proteome Analysis of Starmerella bombicola Sophorolipid Production,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 4376–92, October 2013, doi:10.1021/pr400392a.

[75] K. Ciesielska, I.N.A. Van Bogaert, S. Chevineau, B. Li, S. Groeneboer, W. Soetaert, Y. Van de Peer, & B. Devreese, “Exoproteome analysis of Starmerella bombicola results in the discovery of an esterase required for lactonization of sophorolipids,” Journal of Proteomics, vol. 98, no. 2014, pp. 159–74, February 2014, doi:10.1016/j.jprot.2013.12.026.

[76] K.M.J. Saerens, S.L.K.W. Roelants, I.N. a Van Bogaert, & W. Soetaert, “Identification of the UDP-glucosyltransferase gene UGTA1, responsible for the first glycosylation step in the sophorolipid biosynthetic pathway of Candida bombicola ATCC 22214,” FEMS Yeast Research, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 123–132, 2011, doi:10.1111/j.1567-1364.2010.00695.x.

[77] I.N.A. Van Bogaert, D. Develter, W. Soetaert, & E.J. Vandamme, “Cloning and characterization of the NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase gene (CPR) from Candida bombicola,” FEMS Yeast Research, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 922–928, 2007, doi:10.1111/j.1567-1364.2007.00262.x.

[78] I.N.A. Van Bogaert, K. Holvoet, S.L.K.W. Roelants, B. Li, Y.-C. Lin, Y. Van de Peer, & W. Soetaert, “The biosynthetic gene cluster for sophorolipids: a biotechnological interesting biosurfactant produced by Starmerella bombicola,” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 501–509, 2013, doi:10.1111/mmi.12200.

[79] D.G. Cooper, & D.A. Paddock, “Production of a Biosurfactant from Torulopsis bombicola,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 173–176, 1984.

[80] R.D. Ashby, D.K.Y. Solaiman, & T. a Foglia, “Property control of sophorolipids: influence of fatty acid substrate and blending,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1093–1100, 2008, doi:10.1007/s10529-008-9653-1.

[81] V. Bajaj, A. Tilay, & U. Annapure, “Enhanced production of bioactive Sophorolipids by Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069 by design of experiment approach with successive purification and characterization,” Journal of Oleo Science, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 377–386, 2012.

[82] Q.H. Zhou, & N. Kosaric, “Effect of Lactose and Olive Oil on Intra and Extracellular Lipids of Torulopsis bombicola,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 477–482, 1993.

[83] U. Göbbert, S. Lang, & F. Wagner, “Sophorose lipid formation by resting cells of Torulopsis bombicola,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 225–230, 1984.

[84] V. Klekner, N. Kosaric, & Q.H. Zhou, “Sophorose lipids produced from sucrose,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 345–348, 1991.

[85] I.A. Ribeiro, M.R. Bronze, M.F. Castro, & M.H.L. Ribeiro, “Sophorolipids: improvement of the selective production by Starmerella bombicola through the design of nutritional requirements,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 1875–1887, 2012, doi:10.1007/s00253-012-4437-x.

[86] H.J. Daniel, R.T. Otto, M. Reuss, & C. Syldatk, “Sophorolipid production with high yields on whey concentrate and rapeseed oil without consumption of lactose,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 805–807, 1998.

[87] A. Daverey, & K. Pakshirajan, “Production of sophorolipids by the yeast Candida bombicola using simple and low cost fermentative media,” Food Research International, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 499–504, 2009, doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2009.01.014.

[88] I.N.A. Van Bogaert, S.J.J. Fleurackers, S. Van Kerrebroeck, D.W.G. Develter, & W. Soetaert, “Production of new-to-nature sophorolipids by cultivating the yeast Candida bombicola on unconventional hydrophobic substrates,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 734–741, April 2011, doi:10.1002/bit.23004.

[89] J.A. Casas, & F. García-Ochoa, “Sophorolipid production by Candida bombicola: medium composition and culture methods,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 488–494, 1999.

[90] Q.H. Zhou, V. Klekner, & N. Kosaric, “Production of sophorose lipids by Torulopsis bombicola from safflower oil and glucose,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 89–91, 1992.

[91] S. Ogawa, & Y. Ota, “Influence of Exogenus Natural Oils on the w-1 and w-2 Hidroxy Fatty Acid Moiety of Sophorose Lipid Produced by Candida bombicola,” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 2466–2468, 2000.

[92] A. Daverey, & K. Pakshirajan, “Pretreatment of synthetic dairy wastewater using the sophorolipid-producing yeast Candida bombicola,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 163, no. 6, pp. 720–728, 2011, doi:10.1007/s12010-010-9077-y.

[93] W. Bednarski, M. Adamczak, J. Tomasik, & M. Paszczyk, “Application of oil refinery waste in the biosynthesis of glycolipids by yeast,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 15–18, 2004, doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2004.01.009.

[94] M. Deshpande, & L. Daniels, “Evaluation of sophorolipid biosurfactant production by Candida bombicola using animal fat,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 54, no. 1995, pp. 143–150, 1995.

[95] A.P. Felse, V. Shah, J. Chan, K.J. Rao, & R.A. Gross, “Sophorolipid biosynthesis by Candida bombicola from industrial fatty acid residues,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 316–323, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.enzmictec.2006.04.013.

[96] A. Brakemeier, S.L. Tm, D. Wullbrandt, L. Merschel, A. Benninghoven, N. Buschmann, & F. Wagner, “Novel Sophorose Lipids from Microbial Conversion of 2-Alkcanols,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1183–1188, 1995.

[97] A. Brakemeier, D. Wullbrandt, & S. Lang, “Candida bombicola : production of novel alkyl glycosides based on glucose/2-dodecanol,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 161–166, 1998, doi:10.1007/s002530051271.

[98] I.N.A. Van Bogaert, S.J.J. Fleurackers, S. Van Kerrebroeck, D.W.G. Develter, & W. Soetaert, “Production of new-to-nature sophorolipids by cultivating the yeast Candida bombicola on unconventional hydrophobic substrates,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 734–741, April 2011, doi:10.1002/bit.23004.

[99] J.-D. Shin, J. Lee, Y.-B. Kim, I.-S. Han, & E.-K. Kim, “Production and characterization of methyl ester sophorolipids with 22-carbon-fatty acids,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 9, pp. 3170–3174, 2010, doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2009.12.019.

[100] W.C. McCaffrey, & D.G. Cooper, “Sophorolipids production by Candida bombicola using self-cycling fermentation,” Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 146–151, 1995, doi:10.1016/0922-338X(95)94082-3.

[101] U. Rau, S. Hammen, R. Heckmann, V. Wray, & S. Lang, “Sophorolipids: a source for novel compounds,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 85–92, 2001, doi:10.1016/S0926-6690(00)00055-8.

[102] F.J. Rispoli, D. Badia, & V. Shah, “Optimization of the fermentation media for sophorolipid production from Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 using a simplex centroid design,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 938–44, 2010, doi:10.1002/btpr.399.

[103] S. Shah, & A.A. Prabhune, “Purification by silica gel chromatography using dialysis tubing and characterization of sophorolipids produced from Candida bombicola grown on glucose and arachidonic acid,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 267–272, 2007, doi:10.1007/s10529-006-9221-5.

[104] A. Daverey, & K. Pakshirajan, “Sophorolipids from Candida bombicola using mixed hydrophilic substrates: production, purification and characterization,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 246–253, 2010, doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2010.04.002.

[105] A. Daverey, & K. Pakshirajan, “Kinetics of growth and enhanced sophorolipids production by Candida bombicola using a low-cost fermentative medium,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 160, no. 7, pp. 2090–2101, 2010, doi:10.1007/s12010-009-8797-3.

[106] D.K.Y. Solaiman, R.D. Ashby, J. a Zerkowski, & T. a Foglia, “Simplified soy molasses-based medium for reduced-cost production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1341–1347, 2007, doi:10.1007/s10529-007-9407-5.

[107] V. Guilmanov, A. Ballistreri, G. Impallomeni, & R.A. Gross, “Oxygen transfer rate and sophorose lipid production by Candida bombicola,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 489–494, 2002, doi:10.1002/bit.10177.

[108] P. Ratsep, & V. Shah, “Identification and quantification of sophorolipid analogs using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 354–356, 2009, doi:10.1016/j.mimet.2009.06.014.

[109] A.M. Davila, R. Marchal, & J.-P. Vandecasteele, “Sophorose lipid fermentation with differentiated substrate supply for growth and production phases,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 47,, pp. 496–501, 1997.

[110] U. Rau, C. Manzke, & F. Wagner, “Influence of substrate supply on the production of sophorose lipids by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 149–154, 1996.