International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 2- Issue 11, November 2013 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Effectiveness Of Somatic Embryogenesis In Eliminating The Cassava Mosaic Virus From Infected Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Plant Materials

[Full Text]



Damba, Y., Quainoo, A. K,, Sowley, E. N. K.



Index Terms: African cassava mosaic virus, cassava mosaic disease, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, east african cassava mosaic virus, polymerase chain reaction and somatic embryogenesis.



Abstract: Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for many people in the tropical regions. However, yield of cassava has reduced of late due to high incidence of cassava mosaic disease (CMD) which is caused by the cassava mosaic virus (CMV). This necessitated the study on the production of disease free cassava materials from CMD cassava plants through somatic embryogenesis. CMV infected cassava leaves were cultured for callus tissue induction and somatic embryos (SE) generation on modified MS media supplemented with 2, 4-D. The SE maturation was carried out on modified MS media supplemented with Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP). Callus tissue initiation and induction started ten (10) days after plating (DAP), SE were generated 35 DAP and survival rate of explants was 90.2 %. Maturation of SE occurred 60 DAP and the number of somatic embryos per explant ranged from 5 - 14. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) were used to detect the presence of CMV on leaves, callus tissues and SE. East African Cassava Mosaic Virus (EACMV) and African Cassava Mosaic Virus (ACMV) were two different strains of CMV detected in the leaf, callus tissue and SE from CMD cassava explants. The SE that was generated from CMV infected leaves of cassava showed 87.5% virus free with the PCR technique of viral particle detection. The outcome of the study demonstrated the effectiveness of somatic embryogenesis in eliminating the ACMV from infected materials and EACMV from infected cassava plants to produce viral free planting materials.



[1]. Brown J. K., Frohlick D. H and Rosell R. C. (1995). The sweet potato or sliver leaf whiteflies: Biotypes Bemisiatabacior a species complex? Annual review of Entomology 40:511 – 534.

[2]. Calvert L. A. and Thresh J. M. (2002). The Viruses and Virus Diseases of Cassava. In Cassava: Biology, Production and Utilization. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Pp. 237–60.

[3]. Candresse T. Hammond R. W. and Hadidi A. (1998). Detection and Identification Plant Viruses and Viroids Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). In Control of Plant Virus Diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA. Pp. 399–416.

[4]. Chawla H. S. (2002). Introduction to Plant Biotechnology. Second edition (2nd) published by Science publishers Enfield, New Hampshire U.S.A. Pp. 528

[5]. Clark M. F. and Adams A. N. (1977). Characteristics of the Microplate Method of Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Plant Viruses. Journal of General Virology 34: 475–483.

[6]. Cudjoe, A., James, B. and Gyamenah. J. (2005). Whiteflies as vectors of plant viruses in cassava and sweet potato in Africa- Ghana: Inwhitefly and whitefly-borne viruses in the tropics: Building a knowledge base on Global action. CIAT, Colombia. Pp. 24-29.

[7]. D’Onghia A. M., Carimi F., depasquale F., Djeeouah K. and Martelli G. P. (2001). Elimination of citrus psorosis virus by Somatic Embryogenesis form Stigma and Style Cultures. PlantPathology 50(2): 266- 269.

[8]. Deng D., Otim-Nape G. W., Sangare A., Ogwal S., Beachy R. N., Fauquet C. M, (1997). Presence of a new virus associated with cassava mosaic outbreak in Uganda. African Journal of Root and Tuber Crops 2: 23-28.

[9]. Dodds J. H. and Roberts L. W. (1995). Experiments in plant tissue culture. Cambridge University Press, New York, United State of America. Pp. 789

[10]. Egnin M., Mora A. and Prakash C. S. (1998). Factors Enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mediated Gene Transfer in Peanut (Arachis Hypogea L.). In vitro cellular and Developmental Biology plants 34: 310-318.

[11]. Fajinmi A. A., Fajinmi O. B. and Amusa N. A. (2011). An Overview of Citrus Virus Disease and its Control in Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Developmental Research 2 (2): 151-157

[12]. Fargette D., Fauquet C. M., Thouvenel J. C. (1988). Yield losses induced by African cassava virus in relation to mode and date of infection. Tropical Pest management 34: 89-91.

[13]. Fondong V. N., Pita J. S., Rey M. E. C., De Kochko A., Beachy R. N. and Fauquet C. M. (2000). Evidence of Synergism Between African Cassava Mosaic Virus and A New Double Combination Virus Infecting Cassava in Cameroon. Journal of General Virology 81: 287-297.

[14]. Goussard P. G. and Wiid J (1992). The Elimination of Fanleaf virus from grapevines using in vitro somatic embryogenesis combined with heat therapy. South African Journal Enol. Vitic. 13(2): 81-83.

[15]. Goussard P. G., Wiid J. and Kasdorf G. G. F. (1991). The effectiveness of in vitro somatic embryogenesis in eliminating fan leaf virus and leaf-roll associated viruses from grapevines. South African Journal Enol. Vitic. 29: 95-106.

[16]. Hadidi A., Levy L. and Podleckis E. V. (1995). Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology in Plant Pathology In: Molecular Methods in Plant Pathology, U. S. CRC Press, Florida, USA. Pp. 167–187.

[17]. Hankoua B. B., Ng S. Y. C., Puonti-Kaerlas J., Fawole I., Dixon A. G. O., Pillay M. (2005). Regeneration of a wide range of African cassava genotypes via shoot organogenesis from cotyledon of maturing somatic embryos and conformity of the field-established regenerants. Plant Cell, Tissue Organ 81(2):200-211

[18]. Henson J. M. and French R. (1993). The Polymerase Chain Reaction and Plant Disease Diagnosis. Annual Review of Phytopathology 31: 81–109.

[19]. Legg J. P., Owor B., Sseruwagi P. and Ndunguru J. (2006). Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease in East and Central Africa: Epidemiology and Management of a Regional Pandemic. Advances in Virus Research 67: 355-418.

[20]. Nweke F. I., Spencer D. S. C. and Lynam J. K. (2002). The Cassava Transformation: Africa’s Best-Kept Secret. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, USA, Pp 1-7.

[21]. Pacumbaba R. P. (1985). Virus-free shoots from Cassava Stem Cuttings Infected with Cassava Latent Virus. Plant Disease 69:231-232.

[22]. Quainoo A. K. (2011). Age of Callus Tissues and Cotyledonary Materials on the Selection of Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus-free Somatic Embryos. Research in Biotechnology 2(2): 75-81.

[23]. Quainoo A. K., Wetten, A. C. and Allainguillaume, J. (2008). The Effectiveness of Somatic Embryogenesis in Eliminating the Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus from Infected Cocoa Trees. Journal of Virology Methods 149/1: 91-96.

[24]. Rossel H. W., Thottappilly G., Van Lent J. M. W., Huttinga H., (1988). The etiology of cassava mosaic disease in Nigeria. In: Proceedings of International Seminar on African cassava mosaic disease and its control, Wageningen: CTA/FAO/ORSTOM/IITA/IAPC, Pp 43-46.

[25]. Statistical, Economic and Social Research and Training Centre for Islamic Countries (2007). Food Security and Poverty Alleviation initiative in the OIC member states of Sub-Sahara Africa: A Preamble to cassava integrated project.

[26]. Thresh J. M. (2001). Report on visits to Mozambique. National Resources Institue. http://www.cpp.uk.com/downloads/cbsd/btor1.pdf. Accessed 13th may, 2008.

[27]. Thresh J. M. (2003). Control of Plant Virus Diseases In Sub-Saharan Africa: The Possibility and Feasibility of an Integrated Approach. African Crop Science Journal (11) 3: 199-223,

[28]. Were H. K Winter S. and Maiss E. (2003). Distribution of Begomoviruses Infecting Cassava in Africa. Journal of Plant Pathology 85 (3): 145-151

[29]. Zhou X., Liu Y., Calvert L., Munoz D., Otim-Nape G. W., Robinson D. J., Harrison B.D., (1997). Evidence that DNAA of a geminivirus has arisen by interspecific recombination. Journal of General Virology 78: 2101-2111.