International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 2- Issue 11, November 2013 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Characterization Of Abiotic Status Of Lake Mansar At Surinsar- Mansar Ramsar Site In The NW Himalayas

[Full Text]



S.M. Zubair, A.H. Ahrar



Keywords: Total Alkalinity, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Total Hardness, Sulphates, Total Phosphates, Silicates, Nitrates, Ammonia, Lake Mansar.



Abstract: Lake Mansar is a cherished tourist destination due to which many business outlets have been established along its bank. A greater portion of its catchment area has been converted into agricultural and residential purposes due to which silt and soil eroded form the catchment area is washed into the lake. Consequently the lake has been reduced to a mere sink for domestic as well municipal sewage, detergents, soaps, faecal matter, cow dung, agricultural run-off from the fields in the catchment area and nutrients from the cremation ground and deer park located along the bank of the lake. To further aggravate the problem of the lake, Department of Public Health and Hygiene is abstracting 3 lac gallons of water a day from the water body to supply potable water to 20 thousand people. Subsequently the present study revealed that lake water remains hard all throughout the year with BOD values fluctuating from clean to fairly clean category and hardness values varying from moderately hard to hard water body, total phosphates varying its trophic status from mesoeutrophic to hypereutrophic and values of Nitrate Nitrogen placing it in eutrophic category.



[1]. Adoni, A.D. (1985): Workbook on Limnology. Pratibha Publishers, C-10 Gour Nagar, Sagar – 470 003, India. 216 pp. APHA (1985)

[2]. Armstrong, F.A.J. and Schindler, D.W. (1971): Preliminary chemical characterization of waters in the experimental lakes area, North-western Ontario. J. Fish Res. Board Can., 28: 171-187.

[3]. Asuquo, F.E. (1989): Water quality of the Calabar River, Nigeria. Trop. Ecol., 30(1): 31-40.

[4]. Bailey-Watts, A.E. (1976): Diatom silica relations in the plankton of Loch Laven, Kinross. Freshwater Biol., 6: 69-80.

[5]. Barko, J.W. and Smart, R.M. (1981): Comparative influences of light and temperature on the growth and metabolism of selected submersed freshwater macrophytes. Ecol. Monogr., 51: 219-235.

[6]. Barret, P.H. (1953): Relationship between alkalinity and absorption and regeneration of added phosphorus in fertilized trout lakes. Am. Fish. Soc., 82: 78-90.

[7]. Biggar, J.W. and Corey, R.B. (1969): Agricultural drainage eutrophication. In: Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences, Correctives. National Academy of Sciences, Washington D.C. pp. 404-445.

[8]. Blum, J.L. (1957): An ecological study of the algae of the saline river, Michigan. Hydrobiol., 9: 361- 408.

[9]. Bolas, P.M. and Lund, J.W.G. (1974): Some factors affecting the growth of Cladophora glomerata in the Kentisch Stour. Treat. Exam., 23: 25-51.

[10]. Boralkar, D.B. (1981): Studies of the Krishna River ecosystem between Karod and Sangli (Maharashtra). A report of the project carried out by Science Colllege Karod, during July-December, 1980. pp. 1-18.

[11]. Bostrom, B., Jansson, M. and Forsberg, C. (1982): Phosphorus release from lake sediments. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. Ergebn. Limnol., 18: 5-59.

[12]. Brock, T.C.M., Arts, G.H.P., Goossen, L.L.M. and Rutenfrans, A.H.M. (1983a): Structure and annual biomass production by Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze (Menyanthaceae). Aquat. Bot., 17: 167-188.

[13]. Chapin, J.D. and Uttormark, P.D. (1973): Atmospheric Contributions of Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Tech. Rep. Wat. Resources Ctr. Univ. Wisc. 73-2. 35pp.

[14]. Clarke, G.L. (1934): Factors affecting the vertical distribution of copepods. Ecol. Monogr., 4: 530–540.

[15]. Cole, C.A. (1975): A Textbook of Limnology. 2nd Edn. New York. The C.V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, London. 726pp.

[16]. Cole, J.J., Caraco, N.F. and Likens, G.E. (1990): Short range atmospheric transport: A significant source of phosphorus to an oligotrophic lake. Limnol. Oceanogr., 35: 1230-1237.

[17]. Conley, D.J., Schelske, C.L. and Stoermer, E.F. (1993): Modification of the biogeochemical cycle of silica with autrophication. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 101: 179-192.

[18]. Coscun, I., Yurteri, S., Mirat, T. and Gurol, D. (1987): Removal of dissolved organic contaminants by ozonation. Environmental Progress, 6(40): 240-244.

[19]. Das, H.B., Kalita, H., Saikia, L.B., Borah, K. and Kannur, S.B. (1992): Physico-chemical characteristics of Brahmanputra water at Tezpur. Poll. Res. 11(3): 169-172.

[20]. Denny, P. (1972): Lakes of South-western Uganda. I. Physical and chemical studies on Lake Bunyonyi. Freshwater Biol., 2: 143-158.

[21]. Dixit, S., Verma, N., Tiwari, S. and Bajpai, A. (2005): The effects of aeration units on water quality in Upper Lake, Bhopal, India. Electronic Green Journal, Issue 22: 1-5

[22]. Edmondson, W.T. (1992): Nutrients and phytoplankton in lake Washington. In: Nutrients and eutrophication. The limiting nutrient controversy (Likens, G.E. ed.). Spec. Symposium Limnol. and Oceanogr., 1: 172-193.

[23]. Ellis, M.M., Westfall, B.A. and Ellis, M.D. (1946): Determination of Water Quality. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. Interior, Res. Rept. 9: 122pp.

[24]. Fish, G.R. (1956): Chemical factors limiting growth of phytoplankton in Lake Victoria. East African Agricult. J., 21: 152-158.

[25]. Fisher, D.N., Gambell, A.W., Likens, G.E. and Bormann, F.H. (1968): Atmospheric contributions to water quality of streams in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Water Resources Res., 4: 1115-1126.

[26]. Freiser, H. and Fernando, Q. (1966): Ionic equilibria in Analytical Chemistry. Wiley and Sons, New York.

[27]. Gambrell, R.P. and Patrick, W.H.Jr. (1978): Chemical and microbiological properties of anaerobic soils and sediments. In: Plant life in aerobic environments (Hook, D.D. and Crawfors, R.M.M. eds.). Ann. Arbor. Aci. Inc. Ann. Arbor. Mich. pp. 375-425.

[28]. Ganapati, S.V. (1960): Ecology of Tropical waters. Proc. Symp. Algalogy, ICAR New Delhi. 204 – 218.

[29]. Gassmann, G. and Schorn, F. (1993): Phosphine from harbor surface sediments. Naturwissenschaften, 80: 78-80.

[30]. Glindemann, D., Stottmeister, U. and Bergmann, A. (1996): Free phosphine from the anaerobic biosphere. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 3: 17-19.

[31]. Gochhait, B.C. (1991): Studies on limnological factors of river Buddhabalanga at Baripada (Orissa). Ph. D. thesis, Utkal University.

[32]. Goel, P.K., Trivedy, R.K. and Gopal, B. (1981): Role of limnological studies in monitoring sewage pollution. Proc. of Silver Jubilee Symp. on Trop. Ecol. Bhopal, India. Sec. 68-77.

[33]. Goldman, C.R and Horne, A.J. (1983): Limnology. Mc Graw- Hill international Book Company. pp. 464.

[34]. Golterman, H.L. (1975a): Physiological Limnology. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co. New York. 489pp.

[35]. Golterman, H.L. (1975b): “Chemistry of Running Waters”, pp. 39-80. In: River Ecology (Whitton, B.A. ed.). Blackwell, Oxford.

[36]. Gonzalves, E.A. and Joshi, D.B. (1946): Fresh water algae near Bombay. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 46(1): 154-176.

[37]. Hannen, H.H., Young, W.C. and Joe, J.M. (1972): Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in three Central Texas impoundments. Hydrobiol., 40(1): 121-129.

[38]. Hem, J.D. (1960a): Complexes of ferrous iron with tannic acid. In: Chemistry of Iron in Natural Water. U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-Supply Pap. 1459-D: 75-94.

[39]. Hem, J.D. (1960b): Some chemical relationships among sulfur species and dissolved ferrous iron. In: Chemistry of Iron in Natural Water. U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-Supply Pap. 1459-C: 57-73.

[40]. Hemond, H.F. (1994): Role of organic acids in acidification of freshwaters. In: Acidification of Freshwater Ecosystems: Implications for the future (Steinberg, C.E.W. and Wright, R.F. eds.). John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. pp. 103-115.

[41]. Hosetti, B.B. and Patil, H.S. (1987): Performance of stabilization ponds at different depths (Mitchell, R. ed.). John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. Vol. 2, 1-30.

[42]. Houle, D. and Carignan, R. (1995): Role of SO2 adsorption and desorption in the long term S budget of a coniferous catchment on the Canadian Shield. Biogeochemistry, 28: 161-182.

[43]. Hutchinson, G.E. (1957): Treatise on Limnology, Vol. I. John Wiley and Sons, New York, London.

[44]. Iqbal, S.K. and Kataria, H.C. (1995): Physico-chemical analysis and water quality assessment of Upper Lake of Bhopal. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 15(7): 504 – 509.

[45]. Jansson, M., Persson, G. and Broberg, O. (1986): Phosphorus in acidified lakes: The example of Lake Gardsjon, Sweden. Hydrobiol., 139: 81-96.

[46]. Jensen, M.L. and Nakai, N. (1961): Sources and isotopic composition of atmospheric sulfur. Science, 134: 2102-2104.

[47]. Jhingran, V.G. (1975): Fish and Fisheries of India. First Edition. Hindustan Publishing Corporation (India), Delhi. 954pp.

[48]. Jhingran, V.G. (1978): Fish and Fisheries of India. Hindustan Publishing Corporation (India), Delhi. pp.954.

[49]. Jordan, T.E. and Weller, D.E. (1996): Human contributions to terrestrial nitrogen flux. Bioscience, 46: 655-664.

[50]. Kadlec, J. (1960): The effect of a draw down on the ecology of a water fowl impoundments. Rep. 2276, Game Dep. Mich. Dep. Conserv., Lansing: 181pp.

[51]. Kamiyama, K., Okuda, S. and Kawai, A. (1977): Studies on the release of ammonium nitrogen from the bottom sediments in freshwater regions. II. Ammonium nitrogen in dissolved and absorbed form in the sediments. Jpn. J. Limnol., 38: 100-106.

[52]. Krishnan, P.V. and Prasad, R. (1970): Tectonic framework of a tertiary belt of the Sub-Himalayas of Jammu. Publication Centre Advance studies Geology, Chandigarh, No. 7-19.

[53]. Kudesia, V.P. (1980): Water Pollution. (Principles of disinfection of drinking water and its analysis Ist Edn. K.K. Mittal, Pragati Prakashan. Meerut, India.

[54]. Kulkarni, A.Y., Khatavkar, S.D. and Goel, P.K. (1988): Studies on physico-chemical characteristics of the water bodies at Aundh in South Western Maharashtra with reference to the stress of human activities. Indian J. Environmental Protection, 8(2): 109-114.

[55]. Kumar, A., Bohra, C. and Singh, A.K. (2002): Ecotechnology for limnological profile of Kawar Lake with special reference to Biogechemical cycles. In: Ecology and Ethology of Aquatic biota (Kumar, A. ed.). Daya Publishing House, Delhi, India, vol. II, pp. 149-200.

[56]. Lal, R. (1998): Soil erosion impact on agronomic productivity and environment quality. Crit. Rev. Pl. Sci., 17: 319-464.

[57]. Laxmaiah, C.H., Mehmood, S.K. and Rao, V.N. (1994): Nutrient status and biological characteristics of Nacharam Lake. Poll. Res., 13(3): 253-258.

[58]. Lee, G.F. (1962): Studies on the Iron, Manganese, Sulphate and Silica balance and distributions for Lake Mendota Madison, Wisconsion. Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. Art. Litt., 51: 145-155.

[59]. Lee, G.F., Bentley, E. and Amundson, R. (1975): Efffects of Marshes on water quality. In: Coupling of land and water systems (Hasler, A.D. Ed.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Beiddberg, New York. pp. 105-126

[60]. Lehman, J.T. and Branstrator, D.K. (1994): Nutrient dynamics and turnover rates of phosphate and sulfate in Lake Victoria, East Africa. Limnol. Oceanogr. 39: 227-233.

[61]. Lewis, W.M.Jr. (1986): Nitrogen and phosphorus runoff losses from a nutrient-poor tropical moist forest. Ecology, 67: 1275-1282.

[62]. Liao, C.F.H. and Lean, D.R.S. (1978): Nitrogen transformations within the trophogenic zone of lakes. J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 35: 1102-1108.

[63]. Maitland, P.S. (1978): Biology of Fresh waters, Ist ed. Blackie and Son Limited, Bishopbriggs Glasgow. G642NZ.

[64]. Manny, B.A., Johnson, W.C., and Wetzel, R.G. (1994): Nutrient additions by waterfowl to lakes and reservoirs: Predicting their effects on productivity and water quality. Hydrobiol., 279/280: 121-132.

[65]. Manny, B.A., Wetzel, R.G., and Johnson, W.C. (1975): Annual contribution of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus to a hard water lake by migrant Canada geese. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 19: 949-961.

[66]. Mason, W.P. and Bushwell, A.M. (1950): Examination of Water. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York. pp.652.

[67]. Matsudaria, Y. and Kato, T. (1943): The quantities and qualities of the impurities contained in the rain water falling in the cities of Osaka and Kobe. Japan Univ. to Sora, 23: 71-86.

[68]. Maulood, B.K. and Hinton, G.C.F. (1980): A study of the pollution ecology of Kaliasan River (Iraq) with particular reference to Sulaimaniyah Sugar factory. Zanco Ser. A pure Appl. Sci., 6: 97-124.

[69]. McColl, R.H.S. and Forsyth, D.J. (1973): The limnology of a thermal lake: Lake Rotowhero, New Zealand.1.General description and water chemistry. Hydrobiol., 43(3): 313-332.

[70]. McKeague, J.A. and Cline, M.G. (1963a): Silica in soil solutions. I. The form and concentration of dissolved silica in aqueous extracts of some soils. Can. J. Soil Sci., 43: 70-82.

[71]. McKeague, J.A. and Cline, M.G. (1963b): Silica in soil solutions. II. The adsorption of monosilicic acid by soil and other substances. Can. J. Soil Sci., 43: 83-96.

[72]. Mitchell, S.F. (1975): Phosphate, nitrate and chloride in a eutrophic coastal lake in New Zealand. N. Z. J. Marine Freshwat. Res., 9(2): 183-198.Moss et al. (1980)

[73]. Munawar, M. (1970): Limnological studies in fresh water ponds of Hyderabad, India. I. The biotope, Hydrobiol., 25(1):127-162.

[74]. Naik, S. and Purohit, K.M. (1996): Physico-chemical analysis of some community ponds of Rourkela. I.J.E.P., 16(19): 679-684.

[75]. Nanda, S.N. and Tiwari, T.N. (2002): Quality of water in the Hirakud reservoir. In : Management of Aquatic Habitats (Mishra, S.R. Ed.). Daya Publishing House, New Delhi, pp. 62-72.

[76]. NEERI (1986): Manual on Water and Waste Water Analysis. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur.

[77]. Newman, E.I. (1995): Phosphorus inputs to terrestrial ecosystems. J. Ecol., 83: 713-126.

[78]. Nriagu, J.O. and Hem, J.D. (1978): Chemistry of pollutant sulfur in natural waters. In: Sulfur in the environment. II. Ecological Impacts (Nriagu, J.O. ed.). John Wiley & Sons, New York. pp. 211-270.

[79]. Nudds, K. (2002): Cole notes: BOD is bad. Aquatalk, VI(2): 3

[80]. Otsuki, A. and Wetzel, R.G. (1972): Coprecipitation of phosphate with carbonates in a marl lake. Limnol. Oceanogr., 17: 763-767.

[81]. Pasternak, K. and Kasza, H. (1979): Chemical reaction and Primary production of the phytoplankton in the warmed water of the Rybrik reservoir. Acta Hydrobiol., 20(4): 305-322.

[82]. Pehwa, D.V. and Mehrotra, S.N. (1966): Observations of fluctuation in the abundance of plankton in relation to certain hydrobiological condition of River Ganga. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 36B(2): 157-189.

[83]. Philipose, M.T. (1959): Freshwater phytoplankton of inland fisheries. Proc. Symp. Algology, I.C.A.R., New Delhi, pp. 272-291.

[84]. Rao, V.S. (1972): An ecological study of three freshwater ponds of Hyderabad India I. The Environ. Hydrobio., 39: 351-372

[85]. Ray, P. and David, A. (1966): Effect of industrial wastes and sewage upon the chemical and biological composition and fisheries of the River Ganga at Kanpur (U.P.). J. Environ. Hlth., 8: 307-339.

[86]. Ray, P., S.B. Singh and K.L. Sehgal (1966): A study of some aspects of ecology of the river Ganga and Yamuna at Allahabad (U.P.) in 1958-59. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. India, 36B(3): 235-272.

[87]. Rippey, B. (1983): A laboratory study of the silicon release process from a lake sediment (Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland). Arch. Hydrobiol., 96: 417-433.

[88]. Rodhe, W. (1948): Environmental requirements of freshwater plankton algae. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses, 10: 1-149.

[89]. Ruttner, F. (1963): Fundamentals of Limnology, 3rd Edition (Translated by D.G. Frey and F.E.J. Fry). University of Toronto Press, Cananda.

[90]. Saad, M.A.H. and Samir, E.A. (1979): Limnological studies on the river Tigris. Iraq. II. Seasonal variations of nutrients. Int. Rev. Gesamten. Hydrobiol., 63(5): 705-720.

[91]. Sahai, R. and Sinha, A.B. (1969): Investigation on bio-ecology of inland waters of Gorakhpur (U.P.) India. I. Limnology of Ramgarh lake. Hydrobiol. 34: 433-447.

[92]. Sawyer, C.H. (1960): Chemistry for sanitary Engineers. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York.

[93]. Saxena, A. (1998): Primary productivity studies in a sewage polluted lake with special reference to phytoplankton. Ph.D. Thesis, Barkatullah University, Bhopal.

[94]. Schelske, C.L. and Stoermer, E.F. (1971): Eutrophication, silica depletion and predicted changes in algal quality in Lake Michigan. Science, 173: 423-424.

[95]. Sehgal, H.S. (1980): Limnology of Lake Surinsar, Jammu with reference to zooplankton and fishery prospects. Ph.D. thesis, University of Jammu.

[96]. Shukla, S.C., Kant, R. and Tripathy, B.D. (1989): Ecological investigations on physico-chemical characteristics and phytoplankton productivity of river Ganga at Varanasi. Geobios, 16(1): 20-27.

[97]. Singh, M. (1965): Phytoplankton periodicity in a small lake near Delhi. I. Seasonal fluctuations of the physico-chemical characteristics of the water. Phykos, 4: 61-68.

[98]. Skaggs, R.W., Breve, M.A. and Gilliam, J.W. (1994): Hydrologic and water quality impacts of agricultural drainage. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol., 24: 1-32.

[99]. Sommer, V. (1989): Nutrient status and nutrient competition of phytoplankton in a shallow hyper-eutrophic lake. Limnol. Oceanogr., 34: 1162-1173.

[100]. Stadelmann, P. (1971): Strickstoffkreislauf und Primarproduktion im mesotrophen Vierwaldstattersee (Horwer Bucht) und im eutrophen Rotsee, mit besonderer Berucksichtigung des Nitrts als limitierenden Faktors. Schweiz. Z. Hydrol., 33: 1-65.

[101]. Steele, D.W. and Buttle, J.M. (1994): Sulphate dynamics in a northern wetland catchment during snowmelt. Biogeochemistry, 27: 187-211.

[102]. Stewart, K.M. and Markello, S.J. (1974): Seasonal variations in concentrations of nitrate and total phosphorus and calculated nutrient loading for six lakes in Western New York. Hydrobiol., 44(1): 61-89.

[103]. Stumm, W. and Morgan, J.L. (1995): Aquatic chemistry: Chemical equilibria and rates in natural waters. 3rd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 1040pp.

[104]. Sundarraj, U. and Krishnamurthy, K. (1981): Environmental features of an interior mangrove region in Pitchvaram. Proc. of Silver Jubilee Symp. of Trop. Ecol. Bhopal. pp.257-275.

[105]. Swingle, H.S. (1967): Standarization of chemical analysis for water and pond muds. FAO Fish Rep., 44 (4): 397-421.

[106]. Tessenow, U. (1966): Untersuchungen uber den Kieselsaurehaushalt der Binnengewasser. Arch. Hydrobiol. (Suppl), 32: 1-136.

[107]. Toetz, D.W. (1973a): The limnology of nitrogen in an Oklahoma reservoir: Nitrogenase activity and related limnological factors. Am. Midland Nat., 89: 369-380.

[108]. Toetz, D.W. (1973b): The Kinetics of NH4 uptake by Ceratophyllum. Hydrobiologia, 41: 275-290.

[109]. Tripathi, A.K. and Pandey, S.N. (1990): Water Pollution. Ashish Publishing House, Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi-110 026.

[110]. Trussel, R.P. (1972): The percent un-ionized ammonia in aqueous ammonia solutions at different pH levels and temperatures. J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 29: 1505-1507.

[111]. Upadhyay, N. (1998): Physico-chemical analysis of Kaliasote dam water to evaluate its versatile potentiality including irrigation use. Ph.D. Thesis, Barkatullah University, Bhopal.

[112]. USEPA (2006): Total maximum daily load (TMDL) for dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand in St. John River above Sawgrass Lake (WBID 2893X) middle St. Johns River basin, Florida. USEPA region 461 Forsyth Street SW Atlanta, Georgia 30303.

[113]. Vass, K.K., Raina, H.S., Zutshi, D.P. and Khan, M.A. (1977): Hydrobiological studies on River Jhelum. Geobios, 4: 228-242.

[114]. Vollenweider, R.A. (1968): Water Management Research: Scientific fundamentals of the eutrophication of lakes and flowing waters, with particular reference to nitrogen and phosphorous as factors in eutrophication. Technical Report, O.E.C.D. Paris. pp.143.

[115]. Vollenweider, R.A., Munnawar, M. and Stadelmann, P. (1974): A comparative review of phytoplankton and primary production in the Laurentian Great Lakes. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 31: 739-752.

[116]. Voznaya, N.F. (1981): Chemistry of water and microbiology. Translated from the Russian by Alexander Rosinkin. Ist Edition. Mir Publishers, Moscow.

[117]. Wehr, J.D., Brown, L.M. and O’Grady, K. (1987): Highly specialized nitrogen metabolism in a freshwater phytoplankter, Chrysochromulina breviturrita. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 44: 736-742.

[118]. Welch, P.S. (1952): Limnology. Second Edition. Mc Graw Hill, Book Co. New York and London.

[119]. Wetzel, R.G. (1975): Limnology. W.B. Sanunders Co. Philadelphia, pp. 743.

[120]. Wetzel, R.G. (2001): Limnology: Lake and River Ecosystems. 3rd Edition. Academic Press: A Harcourt Science and Technology Company, 525B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, California. pp.1000.

[121]. Wiebe, A.H. (1931a): Notes on the exposure of several species of fish to sudden changes in the hydrogen ion concentration in the water and to an atmosphere of pure oxygen. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.: 216-224.

[122]. Wiebe, A.H. (1931b): Dissolved phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen in the water of the Mississippi river. Science, 73: 652.

[123]. Wiebe, A.H. (1931c): Notes on the exposure of several species of pond fishes to sudden changes in pH. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 50: 380-393.

[124]. WQM Report (1999): Annual report on water quality monitoring of upper and lower lakes of Bhopal. Vol. I and II.

[125]. Wurts, W.A. and Durborow, R.M. (1992): Interactions of pH, carbon dioxide, alkalinity and hardness in fish ponds. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center, Publication No. 464.

[126]. Zutshi, D.P. (1985): The Himalayan lake ecosystem. In: Environmental Regeneration in Himalayas: Concept and Strategies (Singh, J.S. Ed.). The Central Himalayan Environmental Association and Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital, pp. 325-342.