International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 6 - Issue 10, October 2017 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Comparative Study Of The Use Of English Modals (Should And Ought-To) Among Educated Ghanaians

[Full Text]



Dr. Mustapha Bin Danquah





In his study, Holloway (2014) intimated that English takes the crown as the most common second language around the world with 55 countries speaking it as a second language. This corroborates Mydans’ (2007:2) expression that English is “riding the crest of globalization and technology”, because it dominates the world as no language ever has. By the most common estimates, 400 million people speak English as a first language, another 300 million to 500million as a fluent second language, and perhaps 750 million as a foreign language. Mydansfurther stated that it is “the common language in almost every aspect of life, from science to air traffic control and to a student playing with his classmates and on the radio, pop music carries the sounds of English to almost every corner of the earth” (p. 2). Little wonder, Winter (2014), the coordinator of a multidisciplinary research team, refers to English as the most influential language in the world.



[1] Aarts, F. and Wekker, H. (1987) A Contrastive Grammar of English and Dutch, Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden.

[2] Acheampong, T. O. (2011). Breaking out of the colonial shells Part III. www.mobile.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/features/artikel.php?ID… Retrieved January 10, 2015.

[3] Adika, G. S. K. (2012). English in Ghana: Growth, Tensions, and Trends. IJLTIC 2012 1 (1), 151-166

[4] Albakry, M., Ofori, D. (2011). Ghanaian English and code-switching in Catholic churches, World Englishes 30 (4) pp. 515-532.

[5] Cappelle, B. (2009) “Can We Factor Out Free Choice?” Describing and Modeling Variation in Grammar, ed. by Dufter, Andreas, Jürg Fleischer and Guido Seiler, 183-202, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York.

[6] Cappelle, B & De Sutter, G. (2010). Should vs. Ought to. Grammaticalisation and (Inter)Subjectivity’ project (Belgian Federal Government—Interuniversity Attraction Poles P6/44).

[7] Celce-Murcia, M. & Larsen-Freeman, D. (1983) The Grammar Book: An ESL/EFL Teacher’s Course, Newbury House, Rowley, MA.

[8] Close, R. A. (1981) English as a Foreign Language: Its Constant Grammatical Problems, 3rd ed., George Allen & Unwin, London.

[9] Coates, J. (1983) The Semantics of the Modal Auxiliaries, Croom Helm, London and Canberra.

[10] Collins, P. (2009) Modals and Quasi-Modals in English, Rodopi, Amsterdam and New York.

[11] Cresswell, J. (2008) (3rd Ed.)Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. SAGE Publications, Inc.

[12] Declerck, R. (1991) A Comprehensive Descriptive Grammar of English, Kaitakusha, Tokyo.

[13] Degani, Marta (2009) “Re-analysing the Semi-Modal Ought to: An Investigation of Its Use in the LOB, FLOB, Brown and Frown Corpora,” Corpus Linguistics: Refinements and Reassessments, ed. by Andrew Kehoe, 327-346, Rodopi, Amsterdam.

[14] Ereaut, G. (2011) Analysis and interpretation in Qualitative Market Research. SAGE Publication Ltd.

[15] Gailor, Denis (1983) “Reflections on Should, Ought to, and Must,” English Language Teaching Journal 37, 346-349.

[16] Harris, Martin (1986) “English Ought (to),” Linguistics across Historical and Geographical Boundaries: In Honour of Jacek Fisiakon the Occasion of His Fiftieth Birthday. Volume 1. Linguistic Theory and Historical Linguistics, ed. by Dieter Kastovski and AleksanderSzwedek, 345-358, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, New York and Amsterdam.

[17] Holloway, M. (2014). Second language around the world. http://www.movehub.com/ blog/global-second-languages. Retrieved December 8, 2014.

[18] Huddleston, Rodney and Geoffrey K. Pullum (2002) The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Kennedy, Graeme (2002) “Variation in the Distribution of Modal Verbs in the British National Corpus,” Using Corpora to Explore Linguistic Variation, ed. by Randi Reppen, Susan M. Fitzmaurice and Douglas Biber, 73-90, John Benjamins, Amsterdam and Philadelphia.

[19] Leech, Geoffrey (2003) “Modality on the Move: The English Modal Auxiliaries 1961-1992,” Directions in Corpus Linguistics. Proceedings of the Nobe Symposium 82, Stockholm, 4-8 August 1991, ed. by Roberta Facchinetti, Manfred Krug and Frank Palmer, 223-240, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York.

[20] Myhill, John (1996) “Should and Ought: The Rise of Individually Oriented Modality in American English,” English Language and Linguistics 1, 3-23.

[21] Nordquist, R. (2011) Notes on English Language. About.com.Grammar& Composition. http://grammar.about.com/od/grammarcompositionblog. Retrieved March 29, 2013.

[22] Nelson, C. N., and Todd, L. (1992). Ghana. In McArthur 1992:440 Palmer, Frank Robert (1987). The English Verb, 2nd ed., Longman, London and New York. Palmer, Frank Robert (1990) Modality and the English Modals, 2nd ed., Longman, London and New York.

[23] Winter, L. (2014). New study reveals most influential languages. http://www.iflscience. com/brain/new-study-reveals-most-influential-languages. Retrieved on December 11, 2014.