International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Contact Us

IJSTR >> Volume 3- Issue 11, November 2014 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Diet And Feeding Ecology Of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus And Nile Perch, Lates Niloticus In Protected And Unprotected Areas Of Lake Victoria, Tanzania

[Full Text]



Ng'wala James Jihulya



Keywords: Detritus, Caridina nilotica, Haplochromis spp, Stomach contents, Lates niloticus, Orechromis niloticus, Phytoplanktons.



Abstract: Diet and feeding ecology of O. niloticus and L. niloticus in Rubondo Island National Park (RINP) an area protected from fishing and Kome Island (KI) an area unprotected from fishing activities in Lake Victoria were compared. Important food items of O. niloticus and L. niloticus both in RINP and KI areas did not differ. Main food items of O. niloticus were detritus, remains of water hyacinth and phytoplanktons. Phytoplanktons in O. niloticus stomachs were from five classes of Cynanophyceae, Basillariophyceae, Chrolophyceae, Dinophyceae and Euglenophyceae. Class Cyanophyceae had the highest number of occurrences than any of the phytoplankton observed in the stomachs of O. niloticus. The percentages of occurrences were 65.96, 24.2, 9.61, 0.01 and 0.01 for Cyanophyta, Chlophyta, Diatom, Euglenophyta and Dinophyta respectively. High indices of relative importance (IRI%) of haplchromine fishes in L. niloticus stomachs in both areas show that L. niloticus has returned to its original food of haplochromine fishes as it was during its upsurge in Lake Victoria. The indices of relative importance (IRI %) of haplochromine fishes for L. niloticus in KI and RINP areas were 95.3% and 87.3% for KI and RINP areas respectively. The second important prey was Caridina nilotica with indices of relative importance of 1.2% and 12.7% for KI and RINP areas respectively. Insects were important food of juvenile L. niloticus. Cannibalism of L. niloticus occurred in both areas.



[1] I.E. Batjakas, R.K Edgar, and L.S.Kaufman“Comparative efficiency of indigenous and introduced planktivores from LakeVictoria: Experimental studies on Oreochromis escu esculentus and Oreochromis niloticus,” Hydrobiologia, 347:1997.

[2] M. Njiru, J.B. Okeyo-Owuor, M. Muchiri, and I.G.Cowx, Shifts in food of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Victoria,” African Journal of Ecology, 44: pp 163-170, 2004.

[3] G.N.Bwanika,L.J. Chapman ,Y. Kizito, and J.Balirwa,“ Cascading effects of introduced Nile perch (Lates niloticus) on the foraging ecology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus),” Ecology of reshwater Fisheries, 15: pp 470-485, 2006.

[4] Njiru, M., Ojuok, J.E., Okeyo-Owuor, J.B., Muchiri, M., M.J. Ntiba, and I.G. Cowx,” Some biological aspects and life history strategies of Nile tilapia O. niloticus L in Lake Victoria, Kenya. East African Wildlife Society,” 44: pp 30- 37, 2006 .
[5] W.Ligtvoet, A.I. Chande, and O..Mosille, “A preliminary description of artisanal Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fishery in southern Lake Victoria,”FAO Fish.Rep. 388 pp 72–85, 1988.

[6] T.O.Acere,” Observations on the biology of the Nile perch (L. niloticus) and the growth of its fishery in the northern waters of Lake Victoria,”FAO Fisheries Report, 335: pp 42- 611985.

[7] Dadebo, E., I. Ahlgren, and G .Ahlgren,. “Maturation, Sex ratio and fecundity of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L.) (Pisces: entropomidae) in Lake Chamo, Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Science, 28: pp 151-160, 2005.

[8] R.Ogutu-Ohwayo, “ Management of Nile perch, Lates niloticus in Lake Victoria in light of the changes in its life history haracteristics,”African Journal of Ecology, 42: 306- 312, 2004.

[9] M.Njireu, A.Getabu, T.Jembe, C.Ngugi, M.Owili, and M. Vanderkinap, Management of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticusL) Fishery in the Kenyan portion of Lake Victoria, in light of changes in its life history, and ecology, Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and management”, 13: pp 117-124, 2008.

[10] R.I.Welcomme,” Studies on the effect of abnormally high water levels on the ecology of fish in certain shallow regions of Lake Lake Victoria,” Journal of Zoology,London, 160: pp 405-436, 1970.

[11] Y.Teferi, D. Admassu, and Y. Mengistou, “The food and feeding habits of Oreochromis niloticus L. (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Lake Chamo, Ethiopia,” Ethiopian Journal of Science 23: pp 1-12, 2000.

[12] K.P.C. Goudswaards, J.H. Wanink, F.Witte, and E.F.B. Katunzi, “Diel vertical of major fish- species in Lake Victoria, East Africa,” Hydrobiologia, 513: pp 141-152, 2004.

[13] E. Cortes, “A critical review of methods forstudying fish feeding based on analysis of stomach elasmobranch Fishes,”Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 54: pp 726-738, 1997.

[14] E.J. Hyslop,” Stomach contents analysis-a review methods and their applications,” Journal of Fish Biology, 1 : pp 411-429, 1980.

[15] D.I.A..Rodriquez,V.H.C. Escolana, C.Q.Velazquez, and C.A.S. Zavala, “Feeding habits of the Panama Brief squid (Lolliguncula 194-201 panamensis) in the Gulf of Calfornia,” Mexico Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 6: 194-201, 2011.

[16] P.J. Schofield, and, L.J. Chapman, “Interactions between Nile perch, Lates niloticus and other fishes in Lake Nabugabo, Uganda,”Environmental Biology of Fishes,” 55(4): pp 343- 358, 1999.

[17] E.Darbyson, D.P.Swain, D. Chabot, and M. Castonguay, “ Diel variation in feeding rate and prey consumption of herring and mackerel in the southern Gulf of St Lawrence,” Journal of Fish Biology, 63: 1235-1257.2003.

[18] M.Njiru, M. Muchiri, J.B. Okeyo-Owour, and Nile tilapia, I.G.Cowx,“Distribution of phytoplankton and feeding of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Victoria, Kenya. In LVFO 2005: Proceedings of Lake Victoria 2000. A new Beginning Conference.15-19 May 2000, Jinja,” 2005.

[19] Van Meel, L. (1946-1947),” Le phytoplankton 1946-1947 Hydrobi Lac Tanganyika Vol IV fasc 1,”

[20] B. S .Holmogren,L. Ramberg, and C. Annell,” Compendium for Underversiningen 1 fytoplan. Limnologiska Institutionen Uppsala,” 1971.

[21] I.Jardas, M.Santic, and A.Pallaoro, “Diet composition and feeding intensity of horse mackerel, Trachurustrachurus (Oteichtheys: Carangidae) in the eastern Adriatic,” Marine Biology, 144: pp 1051-,1056, 2004.

[22] S.O.Adeyemi, N.O. Bankole, A.I. Adikwu, and P.M. Akumbo,“Age, growth mortality of some commercially important fish species in Gbedikere Rivers, 2: 45- 51, 2009.

[23] H.B.O. Lung’Aiya, A. Mharzi, M. Tackx, J. Gichuki, and J.J Symoens, “Phytoplankton community structure and environment in the Kenyan waters of Lake Victoria,” Freshwater Biology, 43: pp 529-543, 2000.

[24] R. Semyalo, T. Rohlack, D. Kayiira, Y.S. Kizito, S. Byarujali, G.Nyakairu, and P. Larsson,” On the diet of Nile tilapia in two eutrophic trophical lakes containing toxin producing cyanobacteria,”Limnologica- Ecology and Management of Inland Waters, 41: pp 30-36, 2 010.

[25] M.Ndebele-Murisa, C.F Mucil, and L. Raitt, “A review of phytoplankton dynamics in tropical African lakes,” South African Journal of Science, 106: pp 12-16. 2010.

[26] G.W.Ngupula, and E.Mlaponi, “Changes in abundance of Nile shrimp, Caridina nilotica (Roux) following the decline of Nile perch and recovery of native haplochromine fishes, Lake Victoria, Tanzanian waters,”Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Environmental management, 13: 196-202, 2010.

[27] R. Ogutu-Owhayo, “ The decline of native fishes of lakes Victoria and Kyoga (East Africa) and the impact of Victoria and Kyoga(East Africa) and the impact of introduced species, especially the Nile perch, Lates niloticus and the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus,” Environmental Biology of Fishes, 27: pp 81-96. 1990.

[28] O.C.Mkumbo, and W. Ligtvoet, “Changes in the diet of Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L), in the Mwanza Gulf, Lake Victoria,” Hydrobiologia, 232: 79-83, 1992.

[29] K Witte, F, “Spatial and seasonal patterns in the feeding Katunzi, E.F.B., Van Densen, W.L.T., Wanink, J.H, and habitats of juvenile Lates niloticus (L.), in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria,” Hydrobilogia, 568: pp 121-133,2006.

[30] J.F. Kitchell, D.E. Schindler, R.Ogutu-Owhayo, and P.N. Reinthal,”The Nile perch in Lake Victoria: interaction between predation and fisheries, Ecological Applications 7: 653-664,” 1997.

[31] T. Matsuishi, L. Muhoozi, O.C. Mkumbo, Y. Budeba, M..Njiru, A. Asila, A. Othina, A, andI.G Cowx, “Are the Exploitation pressures on the Nile perch Fisheries Resources of Lake Victoria a cause for concern?” Fisheries Management and Ecology, 13: pp 53- 71, 2006.

[32] J. Ogari,” Report on the 3rd session of Sub- committee for the development and management of the fisheries of Lake Victoria-Jinja,” Uganda, 4-5) October 1984, 1988.

[33] J.A Oso, I.A. Ayodele, and O. Fagbuaro,” Food and feeding habits of Oreochromis niloticus (L) and Sa rotherodon galilaeus (L) in a Tropical Reservior,” World Journal of Zoology, 1: 118-121, 2006.

[34] A. Keast, “Trophic and spatial interrelationships in the fish species of an Ontario temperate lake,” Environmental Biology of Fishes, 3: pp 7-31, 1978.

[35] B. Christensen, and L. Persson, “Species –specific antipredatory behaviours: effects on prey in different habitats,”Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiolgy, 32: 1- 9, 1993.

[36] Y. L. Budeba, and I.G. Cowx, “The role of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica (Roux) in the diet of the major Ecosystem Health and Management, 10: pp 368- 380, 2007.

[37] R.Rangarajan, “Food and feeding habits of snapper, Lutjanus kasmira (Forskal) from the Andaman Sea, Indian Journal of Fisheries,” 17: 43-52, 1970.

[38] P. Guidetti, “Marine reserve re-established lost predatory interactions and cause community change in rocky reefs,” Ecological applications, 16: 963-976, 2006.

[39] A.F.M. El-Sa yed, “Tilapia Culture,” CABI Publishing Wallingford Oxfordshire Ox 10 8 DE UK 277 P, 2006. [40] H. Amisah, and N.W. Agbo, “An investigation into food and feeding ecology of potential aquaculture,” Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 12 (3): pp 15-18, 2008.

[40] P.O. Ajah, “Prey selection and predation behaviour of Heterobranchus longifilis Val. (1840) larvae during first exogenous feeding,” African Journal of Food Science, 4: 73-79, 2010.