International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 10 - Issue 6, June 2021 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Impediments Regarding Citrus Canker Disease And Its Control Measures In District Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

[Full Text]



Ayesha Anwar Sulehri, Awais Ijaz, Rana Muhammad Amir, Rao Sabir Sattar, Ansa Rebi, Muhammad Hammad Raza, Amreena Begum, Hafiz Ali Raza



Citrus fruits, Citrus canker disease, Symptoms, Control measures, Bio-control.



Citrus is one of the significant fruit crops worldwide and also grown in Pakistan provinces. Punjab produces above 95% of this fruit crop due to a conducive growing environment. The citrus production gap is linked with numerous factors; the main factor is insects and diseases of citrus fruits. In this respect, the main problem is fewer responsiveness of farmers about citrus canker disease. At the time of need, farmers are not capable to achieve the demands of the citrus fruit, so make a vast gap in citrus manufacture. Citrus canker is an excessive disorder, the pathogen, normally characterized through visible rough scratches on fruit, stems and leaves, twig dieback, falling off undeveloped fruits and trees and defoliation. The aim of the current study was to identify the farmer’s awareness about the citrus canker disease and pest control measures. Therefore, the current study conducted in Tehsil Jaranwala, District Faisalabad. From the selected tehsil one union council was selected through purposive sampling technique and from eight villages of the union council (UC-15) citrus growers were selected which made a collective sample size of 120 respondents. A face-to-face interview was conducted for the collection of data. The results of the study presented that the majority of the respondents were growing Kinnow. Farmers suffering from many constraints as the majority of citrus growers faced citrus canker disease. Results indicated that research organizations, citrus development projects and newspaper were more effective source of information in order to control citrus canker disease. Respondents faced a lot of constraints regarding plant protection measures, these were non-availability of tube wells, expensive pesticides, spraying material due to high prices, lack of knowledge and less cooperation of extension workers. It is concluded from the current study that the growers need the training to increase the technical knowledge, finance for investment and pure chemicals for better protection. Growers were more dependent on conventional methods instead of bio-control. It is urged to the responsible sectors to create an awareness campaign should be launched regarding the effective control of the citrus canker disease and imparted the technical skills among growers to control it in an effective way.



[1] N. Gottig, B. S. Garavaglia, C. G. Garofalo, T. Zimaro, G. G. Sgro, F. A. Ficarra, G. Dunger, "Mechanisms of infection used by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in citrus canker disease." Current Research, Technology and Education Topics in Applied Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology 1, no. 1, vol.13, pp. 196-204, 2010.
[2] S. Ashraf, Khan, G. A, Ali, S. Ahmed, and M. Iftikhar, "Perceived effectiveness of information sources regarding improved practices among citrus growers in Punjab, Pakistan." Pak. J. Agri. Sci., vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 861-866, 2015.
[3] GOP. 2017. Pakistan Economic Survey (2016-17). Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock, Federal Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan. Available: http://www.finance.gov.pk/surv ey/chapters_17/pakistan_es_2016_17_pdf.pdf
[4] A. K. Das, "Citrus canker-A review. J. Applied Horti., vol. 5, no.1, pp. 52-60, 2003.
[5] K. J. Joshipura, F. B. Hu, Manson, M. J. Stampfer, E. B. Rimm, F. E. Speizer, G. Colditz, A. Ascherio, B. Rosner, D. Spiegelman and W. C Willett, The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease." Ann intern medi., vol.134, no.12, pp.1106-1114, 2001.
[6] Graham, J. H., & Leite Jr, R. P. (2004). Lack of control of citrus canker by induced systemic resistance compounds. Plant Disease, 88(7), 745-750.
[7] M. Y. Ashraf, A. Gul, M. Ashraf, F. Hussain and G. Ebert, "Improvement in yield and quality of Kinnow (Citrus deliciosa x Citrus nobilis) by potassium fertilization. J. Plant Nut., vol. 33, no.11, pp. 1625-1637, 2010.
[8] O. Pruvost, B. Boher, C. Brocherieux, M. Nicole and F. Chiroleu, "Survival of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in leaf lesions under tropical environmental conditions and simulated splash dispersal of inoculum." Phyto., vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 336-346, 2002.
[9] J. Qin, T. F. Burks, M. A. Ritenour and W. G. Bonn, "Detection of citrus canker using hyperspectral reflectance imaging with spectral information divergence." J. Food Eng., vol.93, no.2, pp.183-191, 2009.
[10] M. M. Raza, M. A. Khan, M. Atiq, R. Binyamin and M. Javaid, "Prediction of citrus canker epidemics generated through different inoculation methods". Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Prot., vol. 47, no. 11, pp. pp. 1335-1348,2014.
[11] B. A. Saleem, A. U. Malik, M. A. Pervez, A. S., Khan M. N. Khan, Spring application of growth regulators affects fruit quality of ‘Blood Red’sweet orange. Pak. J. Bot, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 1013-1023, 2008.
[12] A. Sanofer, "Role of citrus fruits in health. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., vol. 6 no. 2, pp. 121-123, 2014.
[13] E. C. Nisbet, K. E. Cooper and M.Ellithorpe, Ignorance or bias? "Evaluating the ideological and informational drivers of communication gaps about climate change." Public Underst Sci., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 285-301,2015.
[14] J. Silalahi, "Anticancer and health protective properties of citrus fruit components." Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., vol.11, no. 1, pp. 79-84, 2002.
[15] H. A. Raza, R. M. Amir, A. Saghir and M. Tahir, "Sugarcane production and protection constraints faced by the growers of Punjab, Pakistan with special focus on the role of agricultural extension worker in related mitigation." Pak. J. Agri. Sci., vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1681-1688, 2020.
[16] J. Li and N. Wang, "Foliar application of biofilm formation–inhibiting compounds enhances control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp." Citri. Phyto., vol.104, no. 2, pp. 134-142, 2014.
[17] J. Servaes, E. Polk, S. Shi, D. Reilly and T. Yakupitijage, "Towards a framework of sustainability indicators for ‘communication for development and social change’projects. Int. Commun. Gaz., vol. 74, no.2, pp. 99-123, 2012.