International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 2- Issue 5, May 2013 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Further Curing Of Lebanese Compost: Improving Quality And Stability

[Full Text]



Ahmad Najib Kobaissi, Karim Souhail Al-Souki, Hussein Jaafar Kanbar, Ali Ahmad Kanso.



Keywords: Chemical analysis, composting, cured sample, metal content, non-cured sample, physical analysis, stability tests.



Abstract: Assessment of compost quality from municipal solid waste (MSW) in a country like Lebanon, where national standards and quality assurances are still primitive, is an arduous task. Based on this fact, the present study was undertaken to determine the quality and stability of the compost produced in Ain Baal compost plant, in south Lebanon. Screened Samples were taken and divided into two categories. The first category was left without any interference as taken from the source (termed non-cured), whereas the second was further cured (termed cured). Analysis of both, the cured and non-cured samples showed a great variation based on the chemical and physical properties, metal content and stability tests. The control and enhancement of the curing period, aeration and moistening of the starting feedstock greatly improved the quality of the resulted compost. pH value, moisture content, C/N ratio and mineral nitrogen ammonia fitted the acceptable range after treatment. This fact reveals that with proper care and organization of the entire composting process, it is possible to improve the quality of the final product, and thus use it as agricultural supplements as a final objective. This report aims to demonstrate the current status of produced compost from Ain-Baal facility as well as to highlight on the possible enhancement of its quality.



[1]. A.M.Taiwo,“Composting as a sustainable waste management technique in developing countries,”Maejo Int. J. Sci. Technol, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 93-102, 2011.

[2]. B. Aldrich and J.Bonhotal, “Aerobic composting affects manure's nutrient content,”Northeast Dairy Business. Cornell University, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,http://cwmi.css.cornell.edu/aerobiccomposting.pdf. 2006.

[3]. B. Beck-Friis, S.Smars, H.Jonsson, Y.Eklind and H.Kirchmann,“Composting of source-separated household organics at different oxygen levels: Gaining an understanding of the emission dynamics,”Comopst. Sci. Util, vol. 11, pp. 41-50, 2003.

[4]. B.Lugtenberg and F.Kamilova,“Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria,”Annu. Rev. Microniol, vol. 63, pp. 541-556, 2009.

[5]. C. Francou, M. Poitrenaud and S. Houot, ”Stabilization of organic matter during composting: Influence of process and feedstocks,”Compost. Sci. Util, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 72-83. 2005.

[6]. C. Garcia, T. Hernandez and F. Costa,“Changes in carbon fractions during composting and maturation of organic wastes,”J. Environ. Manage,vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 433-439, 1991.

[7]. California Compost Quality Council (CCQC). Compost maturity index. California, USA, pp. 3-26, 2001.

[8]. Consulting Environmental Engineers. Environmental impact assessment report: Solid waste treatment facility in Ain Baal, Caza of Tyre, South Lebanon. YMCA- Lebanon,pp. 18-20,2005.

[9]. D. Elango, N. Thinakaran, P. Panneerselvam and S. Sivanesan,“Thermophilic composting of municipal solid waste,”Appl. Energy, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 663-668, 2009.

[10]. D.C. Shyamala and S.L. Belagali, “Studies on variations in physico-chemical and biological characteristics at different maturity stages of municipal solid waste compost,”Int. J. Environ. Scienc, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1984-1997,2012.

[11]. D.D. Cabanas-Vargas, M.A. Sanchez-Mondero, S.T.Urpilainen, A.Kamilaki and E.I.Stentiford, “Assessing the stability and maturity of compost at large-scale plants,”Ingeniéria, vol. 9, pp. 25-30, 2005.

[12]. E. Pagans, R. Barrena, X. Font and A. Sanchez, « Ammonia emissions from the composting of different organic wastes. Dependency on process temperature,” Chemosphere,vol. 62, pp. 1534-1542, 2005.

[13]. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency),Composting yard trimmings and municipal solid waste. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, pp. 2-94, 1994.

[14]. F. Madrid, R. Lopez and F. Cabrera,“Metal accumulation in soil after application of municipal solid waste compost under intensive farming conditions,”Agric. Ecosyst. Environ, vol. 119, pp. 249-256, 2007.

[15]. F.Zhiyi, “A fuzzy inference system for synthetic evaluation of compost maturity and stability,”Master thesis. University of Regina, Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, Saskatchewan, Canada, 2004.

[16]. F.J.Larney and R.E.Blackshaw,“Weed seed viability in compost beef cattle feedlot manure,”J. Env. Qual, vol. 32, pp. 1105-1113, 2003.

[17]. J.Michel, C. Fredrick and C.A. Reddy,“Effect of oxygenation level on yard trimmings composting rate, odor production, and compost quality in bench-scale reactors,”Compost Sci. Util,vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 6-14, 1998.

[18]. J.H. Hsu and S.L. Lo,“Effect of composting on characterization and leaching of copper, manganese, and zinc from swine manure,”Environ. Pollut, vol. 114, pp. 119-127, 2000.

[19]. K. Fricke and H. Vogtmann,“Compost quality: Physical characteristics, nutrient content, heavy metals and organic chemicals,”Toxicol. Environ. Chem, vol. 43, pp. 95-114. 1994.

[20]. L. Herity,“A study of the quality of waste derived compost in Ireland,” Master Thesis. Queens University of Belfast, Faculty of Engineering, Ireland. 2003.

[21]. L.J. Sikora, A. Ramirez and T.A. Troeschel, “Laboratory composter for simulation studies,”J. Env. Qual, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 219-224, 1983.

[22]. Lenntech. Nickel and water: reaction mechanisms, environmental impact and health effects. Water Treatment Solutions, http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/water/nickel/nickel-and-water.htm. 2011.

[23]. M. Fang, M.H. Wong and J.W.C. Wong,“Digestion activity of thermophilic bacteria isolated from ash-amended sewage sludge compost,”Water. Air. Soil. Poll, vol. 126, pp. 1-12. 2001.

[24]. M. Farrell and D.L. Jones, “Critical evaluation of municipal solid waste composting and potential compost markets,”Bioresource. Technol, vol. 100, pp. 4301-4310, 2009.

[25]. M.Prasad and D.N. Chualain, Analysis of Green Waste Compost from Dublin City Council and Interpretation of Results. Bord Na Mona Horticulture Ltd. Pp. 2-8, 2003.

[26]. M.G.Pace, B.E. Miller and K.L.Farrell-Poe,“The Composting Process”. Utah State University Extension. All Archived Publications. Paper 48. http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/extension_histall/48. 1995.

[27]. M.L. Cabrera, D.E. Kissel and M.F. Vigil, “Nitrogen mineralization from organic residues: Research opportunities,”J. Env. Qual, vol. 34, pp. 75-79, 2005.

[28]. N.M.Trautmann and M.E.Kransy,Composting in the classroom: Scientific inquiry for Highschool students. NY, USA,pp. 71-78. 1997.

[29]. P.Delaune, P.Moore, T. Daniel, D. Nichls, D. Edwards and J.Lemunyon,“Reducing ammonia volatilization and phosphorus runoff from composted poultry litter using chemical amendments,” University of Arkansas, 1999.

[30]. P.Weppen, “Determining compost maturity: Evaluation of analytical properties,”Compost Sci.Util, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 6-15, 2002.

[31]. R. E. Graves and G. M. Hattemer,National engineering handbook. Composting. Part 637 - Environmental engineering. Chapter 2 – Composting. United States Department of Agriculture. Natural resources conservation services, USA, pp. 16-40. 2000.

[32]. R.Helgesen,Compost interpretation of test results, Soil and Plant Tissue Testing Laboratory. University of Massachusetts. Ahmerst, USA,pp. 4-5, 2009.

[33]. S.Zhao, X. Liu and L.Duo,“Physical and chemical characterization of municipal solid waste compost in different particle size fractions,” Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 509-515, 2011.

[34]. S.T.Jakobsen,“Leaching of nutrients from pots with and without applied compost,” Resour. Conserv. Recy, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-11, 1996.

[35]. S.T. Macgregor, F.C. Miller, K.M.Psarianos and M.S. Finstein,“Composting process control based on interaction between microbial heat output and temperature,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1321-1330, 1981.

[36]. The US Composting Council,Field guide to compost use. The US Composting Council, pp. 63-72, 2001.

[37]. United States Environmental Protection Agency,Groundwater information sheet, Mercury. California State Water Resources Control Board, pp. 5-6, 2009.

[38]. W.F. Brinton,Compost quality standards and guidelines: An international view. Woods End Research Laboratory Inc., USA, 2000, pp. 26-30.

[39]. Woods End Laboratories. Laboratory test interpretation, Journal of Woods End Laboratory Inc. pp. 1-8, 2011.

[40]. X.L.Sun, "Nitrogen transformation in food-waste composting,” Mater thesis. University of Regina, Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, Saskatchewan, Canada. 2006.

[41]. Y.B. Guanzon and R.J.Holmer, “Composting of organic wastes: A main component for successful integrated solid waste management in Philippine cities,” Paper presented during the National Eco-Waste Multisectoral Conference and Techno Fair at Pryce Plaza Hotel, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines, 16-18 July, pp. 4-5, 2003.