International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Contact Us

IJSTR >> Volume 2- Issue 9, September 2013 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Effect Of Extrusion Condition And Defatted Soybean Inclusion On The Physico-Chemical, Invitro Digestibility And Sensory Acceptability Of African Breadfruit (Treculia Africana) Blends

[Full Text]



Samaila James, Titus Ugochukwu Nwabueze



Index Terms: African breadfruit, Corn, Extrusion cooking, Invitro digestibility, Physico-chemical, Sensory acceptability, Soybean



Abstract: Effects of extrusion condition and defatted soybean inclusion on the physico-chemical, invitro starch and protein digestibility and sensory acceptability of African breadfruit blends were studied. The experiment had two levels of treatments: blends I and II. Blend I was composed of African breadfruit-undefatted soybean-corn flours; while blend II had African breadfruit-defatted soybean-corn flours. The two flour blends were brought to 21% moisture content by water addition through material balance and separately extruded at 1400C barrel temperature, 140rpm screw speed in a Brabender laboratory single screw extruder fitted with 2mm die nozzle diameter. Extrusion cooking condition and defatted soybean inclusion did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the iron and zinc contents of the extrudates. The molybdenum content was significantly (p<0.05) reduced; while the manganese content was significantly (p<0.05) increased on extrusion. Extrusion cooking condition significantly (p<0.05) increased the protein digestibility by 3.12% and 22.77% in extruded blends I and II respectively; while there was a reduction in invitro starch digestibility from 68.23 to 70.43% and from 56.27 to 72.86% in extruded blends I and II respectively. Extrusion cooking condition and defatted soybean inclusion did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the physical properties (extrudate temperature, flow rate, plug flow, extrudate diameter, deformation strength and expansion ratio) of the extrudates. Extrusion cooking condition and defatted soybean inclusion did not significantly (p>0.005) differentiate the acceptability of the two extrudates. Their general acceptability was rated the same.



[1]. Aarathi A, Urooj A and Puttaraj S. (2003). In vitro starch digestibility and nutritionally. Important starch fractions in cereals and their mixtures. Starch/Starke, 55:94–99.

[2]. Ali, MAM., El Tinay AH, Mallasy, LO and Yagoub AEA (2010). Supplementation of pearl millet flour with soybean protein: effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility and essential amino acids composition. Int. J. Fd. Sci. And Tech., 45:740-744

[3]. Altan, A., McCarthy, K. L. and Maskan, M. (2009). Effects of extrusion cooking on functional properties and Invitro starch digestibility of barley based extrudates from fruit and vegetable by products. Journal Food Science, 74(2):77-86.

[4]. Ariahu, C. C., Ukpabi, U., and Mbayunwa, K. O. (1999). Production of african breadfruit (Treculia africana) and soybean (Glycine max) seed based food formulation: effects of germinatrion and fermentation on microbiological and physical properties,. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 54:207.

[5]. Artz, E.W., Rao, S.K., Robbert, M.S. (1992). Lipid oxidation in extruded products as affected by extrusion Xxxxd Xxxxd temperature and selected antioxidants. In: Food Extrusion Science and Technology (L. Kokini, C.HO and M.V. Karver, Eds. Pp. 449-460.

[6]. Chinma, C. E., James, S., Imam, H., Ocheme, O. B., Anuonye, J. C., Yakubu, C. M. (2011). Physicochemical and sensory properties, and In-vitro digestibility of biscuits made from blends of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences. 32(1): 55-62.

[7]. Harper, J.M. (1989). Food Extruders and Their Applications, in Extrusion Cooking, ed. C. Mercier, P. Linko, J.M. Harper, AACC, St Paul, pp 1–16.

[8]. Hooda, S. and Jood, S. (2005). Organoleptic and nutritional evaluation of wheat biscuits supplemented with untreated and treated fenugreek flour. Food. Chem., 90:427-435.

[9]. Iwe, M. O. (2001). Organoleptic assesment of extruded blends of soy and sweet potatoe flour by response surface analysis. Plants Foods for Human Nutrition, 60:1-14.

[10]. Iwe, M. O. and Ngoddy, P. O. (1998). Proximate composition and some functional properties of extrusion cooked soybean and sweet potatoe blends. Plants Foods for Human Nutrition, 53:121-132.

[11]. Jin, Z., Hsieh, F. and Huff, H. E. (1994). ‘Extrusion cooking of corn meal with soy fiber, salt, and sugar’, Cereal Chem, 71(3), 227–34.

[12]. Leszek Moscicki (2011). Extrusion-Cooking Techniques Applications, Theory and Sustainability. WILEY-VCH Verlag & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.

[13]. Mian N. Riaz (2000). Extruders in Food Applications. CRC press USA.

[14]. Nwabueze, T. U. (2007). Effects of process variables on trypsin inhibitor activity(TIA), phytic acid and tannin content of extruded african breadfruit-soy-corn mixtures: A response surface analysis. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 40(1):21-29.

[15]. Nwabueze, T. U. and Iwe, M. O. (2007). Energy consumption in single-screw extrusion processing of full fat African breadfruit (Treculia africana) blends. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 30(3):375-395.

[16]. Nwabueze, T. U. and Iwe, M. O. (2010). Residence time distribution (RTD) in a single screw extrusion of African breadfruit mixtures. Food Bioprocess Technology, 3:135-145.

[17]. Nwabueze, T. U., Iwe, M. O. and Akobundu, E. N.T. (2008). Physical characteristics and acceptability of extruded African breadfruit-based snacks. Journal of Food Quality, 31(2):142-155.

[18]. Osabor, V. N., Oga, D. A. and Egbung, G. E. (2009). Profile of the African breadfruit (Treculia africana). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(7):1005-1008.

[19]. Runsewe, A., Olowu, A. O., Olanrewaju, D. M., Akesode, F. A., (2001). Efficacy of the African breadfruit (Treculia africana) in the nutritional rehabilitation of children with protein energy malnutrition. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics, 28(4):128-34.

[20]. Steel RDG. and Torrie JH (1980). Principle and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. 2nd edn. McGraw Hill Co. New York, P. 623.