International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 2- Issue 9, September 2013 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Quality Evaluation Of Extruded Full Fat Blend Of African Breadfruit-Soybean-Corn Snack

[Full Text]



Samaila James, Titus Ugochukwu Nwabueze



Index Terms: African breadfruit, Corn, Extrusion cooking, Snack, Soybean, Quality evaluation



Abstract: Quality evaluation of extrudates/snacks made from full fat blend of African breadfruit-soybean-corn was studied. The raw flour blend was extruded in a single screw extruder at 21% moisture content, 140oC barrel temperature, 140rpm screw speed fitted with 2mm die nozzle diameter. Food extrusion significantly (p<0.05) reduced the moisture and crude protein from 21.00 to 9.70% and from 30.80 to 24.50% respectively. Extrusion cooking did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the fat, crude fibre and energy values of the extrudates. While ash and carbohydrate contents were significantly (p<0.05) increased from 2.85 to 5.15% and from 48.00 to 54.10% respectively upon extrusion. Extrusion cooking did not significantly (p>0.05) affect vitamins B1, C and E of the extrudates; however, vitamin A was significantly (p<0.05) reduced. Extrusion cooking had no significant (p>0.05) effect on histidine, lysine, threonine and phenylalanine contents of the extrudates; while valine, metheonine, leucine, tryptophan, arginine and isoleucine contents of the extrudate was negatively affected. Food extrusion significantly (p>0.05) reduced the antinutrient contents of the extrudates with trypsin inhibitor having the highest reduction (69.77%) and tannin having the lowest reduction (34.78%).



[1]. Anounye , J. C., Jigam, A. A. and Ndaako, G. M. (2012). Effects of extrusion cooking on the nutrients and anitnutrients composition of pigeon pea and unripe plantain blends. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2(5):58-162.

[2]. Beaufrand, M.J., de la Gu_eriviere, J.F., Monnier, C., and Poullain, B. (1978). Influence du procede decuisson extrusion sur la disponibilite des proteines. Ann. Nut. Aliment., 32, 353–364.

[3]. Beetner, G., Tsao, T., Frey, A. and Harper, J.M. (1974) Degradation of thiamine and riboflavin during extrusion processing, J. Food Sci., 39, 207–208.

[4]. Bjorck I, Asp N-G, Birkhed, D. and Lundquist, I. (1984). ‘Effects of processing on availability of starch for digestion in vitro and in vivo; I. esxtrusion cooking of wheat flours and starch’, J. Cereal Sci., 2(2), 91–103.

[5]. Coe, F. L., Evan, A., and Worcester, E. (2005). "Kidney stone disease". J Clin Invest. 115 (10): 2598–608.

[6]. Guzman, L. B., Lee, T. C. and Chichester, C. O. (1992). ‘Lipid binding during extrusion cooking’Food Extrusion Science and Technology, New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc.

[7]. Iwe, M. O. (2001). Organoleptic assesment of extruded blends of soy and sweet potatoe flour by response surface analysis. Plants Foods for Human Nutrition, 60:1-14.

[8]. Iwe, M. O. and Ngoddy, P. O. (1998). Proximate composition and some functional properties of extrusion cooked soybean and sweet potatoe blends. Plants Foods for Human Nutrition, 53:121-132.

[9]. Killeit, U. (1994). Vitamin Retention in Extrusion Cooking, Food Chem. 49, 149–155.

[10]. Leszek Moscicki (2011). Extrusion-Cooking Techniques Applications, Theory and Sustainability. WILEY-VCH Verlag & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.

[11]. Makkar, H.P.S., Becker, K. Effects of pH, temperature and time on inactivation of tannin and possible implication in detanification studies. J Agr and Food Chem. 1996; 44: 1291-1295.

[12]. Mustakas, G.C., Griffin, E. L., Alien, L. E. and Smith, O.B. (1964). Production and Nutritional Evaluation of Extrusion Cooked Full Fat Soybean Flour, J Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 41, 607–615.

[13]. Nelson, A. I., Wijeratne, W. B., Yeh, S. W., Wei, T. M. and Wei, L. S. (1987). ‘Dry extrusion as an aid to mechanical expelling of oil from soybeans’, J Am Oil Chem Soc, 64(9), 1341–7.

[14]. Nwabueze, T. U. (2007). Effects of process variables on trypsin inhibitor activity(TIA), phytic acid and tannin content of extruded african breadfruit-soy-corn mixtures: A response surface analysis. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 40(1):21-29.

[15]. Nwabueze, T. U. and Iwe, M. O. (2010). Residence time distribution (RTD) in a single screw extrusion of African breadfruit mixtures. Food Bioprocess Technology, 3:135-145.

[16]. Nwabueze, T. U., Iwe, M. O. and Akobundu, E. N.T. (2008). Physical characteristics and acceptability of extruded African breadfruit-based snacks. Journal of Food Quality, 31(2):142-155.

[17]. Ocheme, O. B., Ariahu, C.C., and Igyor, M. O. (2011). Assesment of traditionally produced Dakuwa (A cereal/legume based Nigerian snack) in Niger state, Nigeria. Nigerian Food Journal, 29(1):63-69.

[18]. Phillips, R.D. (1989). Effect of extrusion cooking on the nutritional quality of plant proteins, in Protein Quality and the Effect of Processing, ed. R. D. Phillips, J.W. Finley, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 219–246.

[19]. Politz, M. L., Timpa, J. D., and Wasserman, B. P. (1994b). ‘Quantitative measurement of extrusion-induced starch fragmentation products in maize flour using nonaqueous automatic gel-permeation chromatography’, Cereal Chem, 71(6), 532–6.

[20]. Ranhotra. G. S., and Vetter, J. L. (1991). Foods considered for nutrient addition: Snacks and confectionaries. Pp 208–213.

[21]. Bauernfeind JC, Lachance PA, editors. Nutrient addition to food. CT: Food and Nutrition Press. P 319-15.

[22]. Runsewe, A., Olowu, A. O., Olanrewaju, D. M., Akesode, F. A., (2001). Efficacy of the African breadfruit (Treculia africana) in the nutritional rehabilitation of children with protein energy malnutrition. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics, 28(4):128-34.

[23]. Tettweller, P. (1991). Snack food worldwide. Food Technol., 4558-61.

[24]. Uzeochina, O.B. Evaluation of the effect of processing techniques on the nutrient and antinutrients contents of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) Seed flours. J. Food Sci. 2007; 28:76-77.

[25]. Wang, S., Casulli, J. and Bouvier, J. M. (1993a). ‘Effect of dough ingredients on apparent viscosity and properties of extrudates in twin-screw extrusion cooking’, Intl J Food Sci Technol, 28(5), 465–79.