International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 2- Issue 4, April 2013 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Parboiling Of Paddy Rice, The Science And Perceptions Of It As Practiced In Northern Ghana

[Full Text]



Ayamdoo J. A, Demuyakor B, Dogbe W, Owusu R.



Index Terms: - Parboiling, Gelatinized, Paddy rice, Physical qualities, Northern regions



Abstract: - Parboiling is a set of operations needed for the production of a gelatinized product. Scientifically it is a thermal treatment process done on rice and other cereals. Water and heat are two essential elements to transform the natural cereal into "parboiled" cereal. In rice, it is done to produce gelatinized or parboiled rice. Parboiling, if examined carefully has other scientific benefits beyond easy milling and reducing broken grains. Unfortunately, the technology has received little attention in terms of research as far as food processing or preservation is concern. As part of an ongoing research to assess the extent to which parboiling affect the migration of vitamin B1, a preliminary survey was conducted between October, 2012 and December, 2012 in the three northern regions of Ghana to elucidate the scientific principles behind the practice and to what extend processors understand these principles. This work also aimed at high lighting the practice so as to encourage people to adapt indigenous technologies which may have more beneficial health effects. Eighty (80) processors in the three northern regions drawn by purposive sampling methods were interviewed using structured and semi structured questionnaires. The results showed that 100% of the people engaged in parboiling business are women with over 70% of them having no formal education and therefore are unaware of any effects of parboiling on nutritional elements. It became clear that parboiling increased the flavour and taste of the rice thus making it attractive to eat. However, the respondents only mentioned less broken grains, easy dehusking, ease of cooking, increase quantity, better prices, and parboiling being a norm as some of the reasons why they carry out rice parboiling. From the outcome of this survey it's recommended more studies be done on the subject to ascertain the nutritional impact of the practice. Also, the processors need to be trained on parboiling and nutrition to build their knowledge on the scientific advantages of the process to enable them improves their practices.



[1]. Kaddus Miah M.A et al.., (2002) Parboiling of rice. Part II: Effect of hot soaking time on the degree of starch gelatinization. Postharvest and Food Technology Group, Institute of BioScience and Technology, Cranfield University at Silsoe, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4DT, UK Int. Journal of Food Science and Technology 2002,

[2]. Bhattacharya K.R. and Subba Rao P.V. (1966a) Processing conditions and milling yield in parboiled rice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 14, 473475.

[3]. Bhattacharya K.R. and Subba Rao, P.V. (1966b) Effect of processing conditions on quality of parboiled rice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 14, 476479.

[4]. Eliasson A.C. (1986) Viscoelastic behaviour during the gelatinization of starch. Journal of Texture Studies, 17, 253265.

[5]. Gariboldi (1984) In FAO corporate document repository: Rice in human nutrition. Rice post-harvest processing, parboiling and home preparations.

[6]. Helbig E, Dias A. Tavares R, Schirmer M, and Elias M. (2008) The effect of parboiled rice on glycemia in Wistar rats. Archivos Latinoamericanos De Nutricion, 58(2), 149-155.

[7]. Hermansson A.M. and Svegmark K. (1996) Developments in the understanding of starch functionality. Trends Food Science and Technology, 7, 345353.

[8]. Ibukun E.O (2008) Effect of prolonged parboiling duration on proximate composition of rice. Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, P. M. B. 704, Akure, Nigeria. Scientific Research and Essay Vol.3 (7), pp. 323-325.

[9]. Joachim S. (2011) Parboiling in Thailand and the World. Kasetsart University

[10]. Juliano B.O, Perez C.M, Barber S. et al. (1981) International cooperative comparison of instrument methods for cooked rice texture. Journal of Texture Studies, 12, 1217.

[11]. Kyritsi A., Tzia C and Karathanos, V. (2011). Vitamin fortified rice grain using spraying and soaking methods. Lwt-Food Science And Technology, 44(1), 312-320.

[12]. Marshall W.E, Wadsworth J.I, Verma L.R. and Velupillai L. (1993) Determining the degree of gelatinisation in parboiled rice: comparison of a subjective and objective method. Cereal Chemistry, 70, 226230.

[13]. Otegbayo B.O, Osamuel F and Fashakin J.B (2001) Effect of parboiling on physico-chemical qualities of two local rice varieties in Nigeria. J. Food Technol. Afr. 6(4): 130-132.

[14]. Pillaiyar, P. (1981) Household parboiling of parboiled rice. Kishan World, 8, 2021