International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 4 - Issue 2, February 2015 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Effect Of Leadership Behavior On The Performance Of Micro-Financial Institutions In Kakamega County.

[Full Text]



Kisiangani Benson Walela, Emily Mokeira Okwemba



Index Terms: Leadership behavior, Microfinance, performance,



Abstract: Leadership behavior is key factor to performance of any organization. It is a human factor that enables a leader to influence the subordinates towards a given goal. Despite the increased emphasis on strong leadership behavior in teams, there is a lack of integration concerning the relationship between leader behaviors and performance outcomes. Use of task-focused behaviors is related to perceived team effectiveness and productivity. The problem manifests itself in multiple ways in which senior managers are commonly in the ‘wrong position’ relative to their strengths and therefore the positions remain vacant. There is little middle level management talent which in turn leads to a high turnover at all levels. This study sought to find out how leadership behavior affects the performance of micro-finance institutions. The study adopted a correlational study design which helped to establish the associations between and among the study variables.



[1] Amos, T. L., Ristow, A. and Ristow, L. (2004). Human Resource Management (2ndEdition). Lansdowne: Juta and Co Ltd.

[2] Antony, G. A. & Robert, E. C. (1968). Behavior in organizations. A multidimensional view. United States of America.

[3] Armstrong, M. (2006). A handbook of human resources Management practice 10th Ed, London and Philadelphia.

[4] Arnold, J. A. Arad, S., Rhoades, J. A. &Drasgow, F. (2000). The empowerin leadership questionnaire; Assessing the cost and benefits of organization. Dubling Ireland.

[5] Auntry, I. (1995). Quality process. Love and Profit. Finding the balance. New York.

[6] Aviolio, B. (1996). Human Resources Management. Critical issues in Business today. Year book; pg 10-14.

[7] Barnard, C. I. (2002). The functions of executive. Cambridge, M.A; Harvard University press.

[8] Barlett, C. A. and Ghoshal, S. (2005). “Changing the role of top management beyond systems to people” Harvard Business Review, 73(3):132-142.

[9] Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performing beyond expectations, New York Press.

[10] Bass, B. M. andStogdills, B. (1990). A handbook of leadership theory, research and managerial applications. New York, Free press.

[11] Bass, B. M. (2003). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York. Free press.

[12] Bass, B. M. and Avolio, B. J. (2003). Transformational leadership development. Manual for MLQ. Palo Alto; consulting psychologist press.

[13] Bass, B. M. and Avolio, B. J. (2004). Improving Organizational effectiveness through Transformational leadership; Thousand Oaks; Sage publications Inc.

[14] Bateman, T. S. & Organ, D. W. (1983). Job satisfaction and the good soldier; The relationship between effect and behavior of human decision processes, 89, 925-946. New York.

[15] Bennis, W. and Nanus, B. (2008). Leaders. The strategy for taking charge. New York. Blakely.

[16] Blau, P. M. (2004). Exchange and power in social life. New York; Wiley.

[17] Booyser, Q. & Van W.., (2004), Leadership and exchange in formal organizations. Alexandria, VA: Human Resources Research Organization.

[18] Brief, A. P. &Motowidlo, S. J. (1986). Pre-social organizational Behaviors. Academy of Management review, Pg.11.

[19] Bryman, A. (1992). Charisma and leadership in organizations, London, sage

[20] Campbell, J., McCloy, R., Oppler, S. and Sager, C. (2003). Theory of performance. New York.

[21] Cha, S. E., & Edmondson, A. C. (2006). When values backfire. Leadership ,attribution and disenchantment in management. New York.

[22] Chen, Z. X., Tsui, A. S., &Farh, J. L. (2002). Loyalty to supervisors vs. Organization commitment. Relationship recognitions. A Journal of applied psychology, 87

[23] Cole, G. A. (1996). Management theory and Practice 5th Edn, New York.

[24] Collins, D. J. and Montogomery, C. A. (1995). “Competing on resources,” Harvard Business review, 73(4): 118-128.

[25] Cooper, R. K. and Sawaf, A. (1997). Executive EQ; Emotional intelligence in leadership and organizational behavior. New York: Putman.

[26] Cooper, D. R. and Schindler, P. S. (2003). Business research methods. New Delh: Mc- Graw Hill.

[27] Cooper. C. L., Liukkonne. P. & Cartwright, S. (2006), Stress prevention in the workplace, London.

[28] Corvellec, H. (1995). Stories of achievement: Narrative features of organizational performance. Sweden: Lund university press.

[29] Cummings, L. L. and Schwab, D. P. (2003). Performance in organizations. Determinants and appraisal of performance. Scott, Foresman and company.

[30] David, W. (2008). Performance measurement is only one way of managing performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management.

[31] Deci, E. I., Connell, J. P. & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Self-determination at work place. A journal of applied psychology, 43(5), 786-811.

[32] Dierick, m. and Cool, T., ( 2003). Rumelt, R. (2000). Stimulating performance-driven behavior to obtain better results. Journal of Productivity and Performance Management.

[33] Dirks. K. T. &Frrin, D. L. (2002). Trust in leadership; Meta-analytic findings and implications for research. London.

[34] Drucker, P. (2004). Management for results. Pan books. London.

[35] Eby, L. T., Freeman, D. M., Rush, M. C. & Lance, C. E. (2006). Motivational basis of Effective management. New York.

[36] Etzioni, A. (2001). The performance management system: applying and evaluating a pay-for- performance initiative. Journal of Healthcare Management. 52: 49–62.

[37] Fang, N. (2005). Handbook for qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

[38] Fiedler, F. E. and House, R. J. (2008). Ristow et al., (2005). Leadership theory and research. International Review of industrial and organizational psychology, 19 (88): 73-79.

[39] Foot, M. and Hook, C. (2007). .Introduction to Human resource management.London. Longman.

[40] Fraenkel, J. R. &Wallen, N. E. (1993). How to design and evaluate research in Education, New york, McGraw-Hill.

[41] Ganster, D. C. &Schanbroak, J. (1991). Work stress and employee health. Journal management 17, 235-271.

[42] Garber, J. J. and Bass, B. M. (1997). Private investment as financing source for microcredit. Dante Fascell North-South centre, University of Miami.

[43] Hater, J. J. and Bass, B. M. (2005). Superiors evaluation and subordinates perceptions of transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of applied psychology.

[44] Hess, P. and Jellie, S. (2002). management. Responsibility for performance, Mc-Graw hill

[45] Hunt, B. (2004). Leadership in Organizations, 7th Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education. Management. 27 (1): 4–8.

[46] Johnson, M. (2001). Managing in the next millennium. Oxford; Butterworh,London.

[47] Judge, Y. And Picclo, R. (2004). Transformational and Transactional leadership; A meta- analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of psychology, pg. 755-768.

[48] Jung, D. & Avolio, B. (2004). Opening the black box; An experimental investigation of The mediating effects of employee participation.Journal of organizational behavior,13,539-558.

[49] Kaplan, R. S. and Norton, D. P. (1996). The balance scorecard. The Harvard business school press.

[50] Kramer, R. M. (2003). Divergent realities and convergent disappointments in hierarchy relation: London.

[51] Lavelle, J. J., Rupp, D. E. &Brockner, J. (2007). Taking a multifocal approach to the study of justice, social and cultural implication towards performance. Prentice Hall.

[52] Lee, K. Allen, N. J. (2002). Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance. The role of effective management. Management review, 13, 471-482.

[53] Lee, M. &Koh, J. (2001). Is empowerment really a new concept? International journal of human resources. Likert, R. (2001). Human Resource Management, 3rd Edition. Johannesburg: International Thompson Publishing.

[54] Maslach. C, Schaefeli, W. B. &Leiter, M. P. (2000). Job burnout. Annual review of psychology, 52, 397-422

[55] McConnel, M. and Servaes, T. (2000). Perormance management systems. European Business Journal. 16 (2): 83–94.

[56] Mullins, L. (2005). Management and organizational behavior. London, Pitman publishing.

[57] Musimi, J. (2005). The behavioral science of leadership. An interdisciplinary Japanese program. University of Michigan Press.

[58] Neely, A. Gregory, M. and Platts, K. (2005). “Performance measurement system design”
[59] International journal of operational and production management. 15(4); 80-116.

[60] Northouse, P. G. (2001). Leadership: Theory and practice, 2nd Edn. Thousand oak, C.A Sage.

[61] Norton, D. P. (1999). The balanced scorecard: Participants workbook. Johannesburg; Institute for international research.

[62] Orodho, A. J. (2004). The techniques of writing research proposal and reports in education and social sciences. Nairobi, Reata printers.

[63] Paulus, P. B., Seta, C. E. and Baron, R. A. (2006). Effective human relation. A guide to be people at work (3rdEdn). Boston; Prentice Hall.

[64] Peace, H.N and Robinson, D. (2005). Formulation, implementation and control of competitive strategy, 9thEdn, McGraw Hill.

[65] Pelleter, R. R. & Lutz, R. (2001). Healthy people, healthy business. A critical review of stress management programs in the work places. An anthology (3rd) pg 483-389.

[66] Rubin, R. S., Munz, D. C. and Bommer, W. H. (2005). Leading from within: The effects of emotional recognition and personality on transformational leadership. Academy of management journal, 335-345.

[67] Republic of Kenya Publication. (2007). Western province. Education office enrolment report: Nairobi. Government printers.

[68] Rupp, D. E. &Cropanzano, R. (2002). Social exchange and organizational relations.Mc- Graw Hill.

[69] Sagino, P. O. (2002). Management dynamics towards efficiency, Effectiveness, competency and productivity, 1st Edn, Nairobi.

[70] Sa-Dhan, S. (2009) A Report on Academic Confluence – Building Human Resources for the Micro-finance Sector.

[71] Sakaran, U. (2004). Research methods for Business- a skill building approach. New York.

[72] Smith, G. (2002). Dynamics of performance measurement and organizational culture. International Journal ofOperations and Production Management.

[73] Vasudevan, A. (2003). ‘Some perspectives on IT up gradation in the financial sectors’, Journal of Indian Institute of Bankers. 741, Jan-2003:36-38.

[74] Wetherbe, J. E. and Mclean, E. (1999). ‘Information Technology for management: Making connections for strategic advantages’,2nd edition, New York,

[75] Swapoel, B. (2000). South African Human Resource Management: Theory and practice. University of Notre Dame press.

[76] Tara, A. (2005). Leadership and Information Processing: Linking Perceptions and Performance, Unwin Hyman, Boston, MA.

[77] Tichy, N. M. and Devanna, M. A. (2006). The transformational leader. New York.

[78] William, S. (2005). Lessons learned from performance management systems Implementations. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management. 58 (4): 367–390.

[79] Weinrich, H. & Koontz, H. (1993). Management. A global perspective, 10th Edn, McGraw- hill.

[80] Wendell, F. (1985). Understanding human behaviors in organizations. New York.

[81] Woolock, M. J. V. (1999). Learning from failures of microfinance. What an unsuccessful cases tells us how group based programs work.American Journal of Economic and social studies, 58(1) 17-42.

[82] Zohar. D. (2009).When things go wrong: The effects of daily work on effort exertion and negative mood. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, Pg 72, 265-283.