International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 7 - Issue 1, January 2017 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Barriers In The Adoption Of E-Commerce In Pakistan With The Focus On Gender

[Full Text]



Emy Svetlana Agren, Sirkku Männikkö Barbutiu



ICT, ICT4D, e- Commerce, B2B, Barriers to e- commerce, Digital divide, gender, Pakistan .



Current research is aiming to explore the possible technological and human-related factors preventing the growth of e-commerce in Pakistan. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been collected with survey strategy and a mixed method approach is used for analyzing the data and presenting the results. Findings suggest that several hindrances, such as trust deficit, non-exist digital divide between payment infrastructure, digital divide among male and females and lack of appropriate cyber security laws, exist preventing the growth of e-commerce in Pakistan. Based on the findings, appropriate recommendations for improving the use of e-commerce in this densely populated country are presented.



[1] Ahmed, T., T. An Empirical- based model for Examining e- Purchasing Intention in Electronic Commerce at Developing Countries. International Journal of Academic Research, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 683-688 (2011)

[2] Bukhari, F., Y. and Ramzan, M. Gender Discrimination: A myth or truth Women status in Pakistan. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, Vol.8, Issue 2, pp. 88-97 (2013)

[3] Chen, L. and Pu, P. Experiments on user experiences with recommender interfaces. Behavior & Information Technology, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 372-394 (2014)

[4] Chen, S- Y. and Macredie, R. Web- based Interaction: A review of three important factors. International Journal of Information Management, 30, pp. 379-387 (2010)

[5] Creswell, J., W. and Plano Clark, V., L. 2011. Designing and Conducting Mixed Method Research. 2nd ed. SAGE Publications Inc.

[6] Dawood, A. (2014). Tech in Asia. As Pakistan prepares 3G and 4G roll.out, country expects up to 45 million high- speed data subscribers by 2020. Retrieved March 18, 2015 from https://www.techinasia.com/3g-auction-pakistan-grow-broadband-subscribers-45-million/

[7] e- Commerce White paper. 2008. 10 barriers to e-Commerce and Their Solutions. Voloper Creations Inc.

[8] Hasan, L., Morris, A. and Probets, S. E- Commerce websites for developing countries- a usability evaluation framework. Online Information Review, Vol. 37-2, pp. 231-251 (2013)

[9] Ibikunle, O. (2013). E- Commerce in Developing Nations: Issues and Challenges. Consumer Attitude in the Nigerian Market. Degree Thesis

[10] Iqbal, S., Rahman, K. and Hunjra, A., I. Consumer Intention to Shop Online: B2C E- Commerce in Developing Countries. Middle- East Journal of Scientific Research 12 (4), pp. 424-432 (2012)

[11] Index Mundi (2014). Retrieved April 6, 2015 from http://www.indexmundi.com/pakistan/demographics_profile.html

[12] IORMA (2013). The Global Evolution of Digital Commerce and MENA e- Commerce. Retrieved February 6, 2015 from http://www.visamiddleeast.com/me/common/include/uploads/ecommerce_apr2013.pdf

[13] Khan, M., I., Saleem, M., Mahmood, N., Irfan, M. and Aman, Q. Online Marketing Confrontation in Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, Vol. 3, No. 9, pp. 886-892 (2012)

[14] Khan, W., A., Mian, N., A., Yousaf, S. and Nawaz, Z. E- Commerce in Pakistan: Growth Potentials & E- Payment Solutions. 11th International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology: IEEE Society, pp. 247-252 (2013)

[15] Kshetri, N. Barrier to e- commerce and competitive business models in developing countries: A case study. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 6, pp. 443- 452 (2007)

[16] Maier, S. and Nair- Reichert, U. Empowering Women through ICT- Based Business Initiatives: An Overview of Best Practices in E- Commerce/ E- Retailing Projects. ITID, Vol. 4, Issue 2, pp. 43-60 (2007)

[17] Makame, W., H., Kang, J. and Park, S. Factors influencing electronic adoption in developing countries: The case of Tanzania. South African Journal of Business Management, 45- 2, p. 83 (2014)

[18] Moomal, A. and Masrom, M. ICT Development and its Impact on e-Business and HRM Strategies in the Organizations of Pakistan. Journal of Advanced Management Science, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 344-349 (2015)

[19] Odedra- Straub, M. E- Commerce and Development: Whose development? EJISDC, 11- 2, pp. 1-5 (2003)

[20] PTA (Pakistan Telecommunication Authority). Annual Report 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2015 from http://www.pta.gov.pk/annual-reports/ptaannrep2013-14.pdf

[21] Qureshi, H., A., Fatima, R. and Sarwar, A. Barriers to Adoption of Online Shopping in Pakistan. Sci. Int. (Lahore), 26 (3), pp. 1277- 1282 (2014)

[22] Research and Markets. Pakistan B2C E- Commerce Market 2015. Retrieved February 5, 2015, from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/8qskpk/pakistan_b2c

[23] Saeed, S., Wahab, F., Cheema, S., A. and Ashraf, S. Role of Usability in E- Government and E- Commerce Portals: An Empirical Study of Pakistan. Life Science Journal 10 (1s), pp. 484-489 (2013)

[24] Sattar, S. Online Shopping adaption by individuals in Pakistan. Developing Country Studies, Vol 4, No. 3, pp. 99-103 (2014)

[25] Schware, R. 2005. The World Bank Group. e- Development: from excitement to effectiveness.

[26] Shah, I, A. and Baporikar, N. Gender Discrimination: Who is Responsible? Evidence from Pakistan. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Women’s Studies, 42, pp. 78-95 (2013)

[27] Sohaib, O. and Kang, K. Cultural aspects of Business- To- Consumer (B2C) E- Commerce: A Comparative Analysis of Pakistan and Australia. EJISDC 61, 2, pp. 1-18 (2014)

[28] Suhail Butt, F. and Aijaz, H. 2009. Master thesis within Business Administration. Barriers in the Development of Electronic Commerce: A Study of Pakistan Environment.

[29] UNESCO. Institute for statistics (2012). Adult and Youth Literacy, 1990- 2015. Analysis of data for selected countries. Retrieved March 20, 2015 from http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Documents/UIS-literacy-statistics-1990-2015-en.pdf

[30] Unwin, T. 2009. ICT4D: Information and Communication Technology for Development. Cambridge University Press, UK

[31] World Trade Organization (WTO). 2013. E- Commerce in Developing Countries: Opportunities and challenges for small and medium- sized enterprises.

[32] Youngblood, D. Pakistan. Country Review 2014. Country Watch, Inc.

[33] Yousaf, U., Altaf, M., Sarwar, N. and Shah, S. A. H. Hesitancy Towards Online Shopping, A Study of Pakistani Consumers. Management& Marketing, Vol. X, Issue 2, pp. 273-284 (2012)