International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Home About Us Scope Editorial Board Blog/Latest News Contact Us
10th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Scopus coverage:
Nov 2018 to May 2020


IJSTR >> Volume 4 - Issue 1, January 2015 Edition

International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research  
International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research

Website: http://www.ijstr.org

ISSN 2277-8616

Factor Analysis And Physico-Chemical Characteristics Of Calabar River, Southern Nigeria

[Full Text]



Andem, Andem Bassey, Okorafor, Kalu Ama, Ekanem, Sunday Ben



Keywords: Factor analysis, Physico-characteristics, Calabar River, Nigeria



Abstract: Factor analysis were applied to investigate the most distributed and valuable factor as regards water quality parameters of Calabar River. Four sampling station were chosen along course of the River. Samples were collected monthly from January to December, 2013 usually between 7:00am to 10:00am. The physico-chemical parameters investigated in each case were surface water temperature, pH, dissolve oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS) and heavy metals, all from surface water. The result of this study shows that Conductivity, TDS and TSS recorded for high positive loading of 0.641, 0.873 and 0.836 respectively for the first component while in the second component high positive loading of 0.751 and 0.639 were recorded for DO and BOD and for third component copper and cadmium recorded for high positive loading of 0.657 and 0.522 respectively during the dry season. During the wet season, high positive loading of 0.912, 0.864, 0.806, 0.786, 0.755, 0.666, 0.637 and 0.628 were recorded for DO, TDS, chromium, TSS, conductivity, surface water temperature , BOD and copper in the first component. pH and Iron had high positive loading of 0.737 and 0.697 respectively for second component and Lead recorded high positive loading of 0.811 for third component. The study reveal that chemical factors were more distributed and valuable than the physical factors, this means that contribution of Industrial and anthropogenic activities discharge into the River were clearly indicated by factor analysis. In other to restore our aquatic ecosystem, there is need to re-enforce environmental laws and guideline standard for effective water quality management.



[1] Shrestha, S. and Kazama, F. (2007). Assessment of Surface Water Quality using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of the Fuji River Basin, Japan. Environmental Modelling and Software, 22(4): 464-475.

[2] Qadir, A.R., Malik, N and Husain, S. N. (2008). Spatio-Temporal Variations in Water Quality of Nullah Aik-Tributary of the River Chenab, Pakistan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 140(1): 43-59.

[3] Singh, K.P., Malik, A., Mohan, D and Sinha, S. (2004). Multivariate Statistical Techniques for the Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water Quality of Gomti River (India) - a Case Study. Water Research, 38(18): 3980-3992.

[4] Simeonov, V., Simeonova, P and Tsitouridou, R. (2004). Chemometric quality assessment of surface waters: two case studies. Chemical and Engineering Ecology, 11 (6): 449-469.

[5] Singh, K.P., Malik, A., Mohan, D., Sinha, D and Vinod, K. S. (2005). Chemometric Data Analysis of Pollutants in wastewater - a Case Study. Analytica Chimica Acta, 532(1): 15-25.

[6] Cross River National Park (2010). Important Bird Areas Factsheet. Oban Division. Bird Life International, pp. 9.

[7] Eze, E. B and Effiong, J. (2010). Morphometric Parameters of the Calabar River Basin: Implication for Hydrologic Processes. Journal of Geography and Geology, 2 (1): 1916-1920.

[8] APHA/AWWA and WEF. (1995). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. 20th Edition. Washington DC, pp. 1132-1145.

[9] Farombi, E. O., Adelowo, O. A. and Ajimoo, Y. R. (2007). Biomaker of oxidative stress and heavy metals as indicators of pollution in African catfish (C. gariepinus) from Ogun River, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Resources and Public Health. 4: 158-165.

[10] Lewis, W. M. (2000). Basis for the Protection and Management of Tropical Lakes. Lakes Reserve Resource Management. 5, 35-48.

[11] Oduwole, G. A. (1997). Indices of Pollution in Ogunpa and Ona Rivers, Ibadan: Physico-chemical, Trace Metal and Plankton Studies. Ph.D Thesis, University of Ibadan, pp. 293.